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Summaries of Progress would be sufficient alone, without any paragraphs recording individual discoveries. It would, of course, be impossible to satisfy such discrepant opinions, and in this dilemma the only resource left to the editor has been to follow a mean which he hopes will be regarded by most as a tolerably happy one. It must be remembered that far more than ten times the space contained in the present volume would be necessary to give even an approximately complete abstract of the
progress of science in each of the departments embraced within the scope of this work : much more than that amount will in fact be employed in the annual reports that are hereafter to be made and published on the progress of the several departments of science for the past year. These reports, for 1875, however-unlike the present volumewill not appear till at least one, and, in some cases, two or three or even four years have elapsed. These too are, to a certain extent, addressed rather to experts and special students in the various branches of science than to the general reader, for whom the “ Annual Record” is more especially designed. In them the several branches embraced herein are respectively reported upon, in volumes varying from little less than five hundred pages to nearly two thousand each year. Each special department of science has now its own organ for the record of discoveries within its domain. All these are extremely useful to the investigator, and enable him to economize precious time, that would otherwise be spent in frequent reference to numerons volumes, some of which are almost or quite inaccessible to all save a favored few. Several, also, are very elaborate, and the special subdivisions within a single branch are reported upon by experts in the respective subdivisions. Excellent examples of such reports are found in the Jahresberichte and Jahrbücher, published in Germany, on the mathematical, physical, and chemical sciences. Some branches have even two or more annual works devoted to the record of progress in their several spheres ; such are especially Zoology, on which one report is published in Germany and another in England; Botany,
which has one in Holland and another in Germany; while for Anatomy there are two in Germany alone. To reports like these (for the most part enumerated in the volume for 1874) must the student refer who desires to obtain information respecting the more technical or special facts or generalizations that have been announced. The present volume can administer to their needs only to a limited extent. But the editor hopes that by the relations which he has established with a nunber of the inost eminent cultivators of the different departments of science in this country, and through their co-operation, he has been enabled to present as complete and reliable a résumé of discovery as can reasonably be expected within the limited space to which an annual like the present must be restricted.
As now presented, the Record has two distinct parts: (1) the historical summaries of progress during the past year, and (2) the paragraphs communicating in brief the results of investigations by special scientists, or respecting certain subjects. The advantages of the paragraph method, so generally in vogue in analogous publications in the English and other languages, are combined with the more consecutive and eliminating characteristics of the historical; the latter is a much more prominent feature in the present volume than in any of its predecessors, and special attention will be devoted to it in the future.
A list of some of the more prominent publications on scientific subjects which have appeared during the past year has been prepared for this volume. In the selections for this list we have been chiefly guided by the commendatory notices which have appeared in the more prominent scientific journals of the day, and references to the pages of the journals wherein the works catalogued are reviewed are given. As the journals in question are generally easily accessible, the reader is thus furnished with a trustworthy guide in his selection of books.
SPENCER F. BAIRD.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, WASHIxgton, March 28, 1876.
A. MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY.
(a.) MATHEMATICS AND THEORETICAL MECHANICS.
The Early Cse of the Decimal Point, 1; Tables of Elliptic Integrals, 1;
the Reduction of Elliptic Integrals, 2; New Formula for Determining the
Altitude from Barometric Observations, 2; the Trisection of an Angle, 2;
Properties of Prime Numbers, 4; Applications of Peaucellier Cells, 4;
Hamilton's Equation of Motion, 4; on the Solution of Numerical Equa-
tious, 6; Divisibility by Seven, 31; the Computation of the Areas of Ir-
regular Figures, 33 ; Properties of the Tetrædron, 35.
Interstellar Space : The Density of the Luminiferous Ether, 6.--Stars:
A Fine Double Star, 6; Herschel's Catalogue of Double Stars, 7; Orbit of
a Double Star, 8; the Orbit of the Double Star “Mu Bootis," 8; Spectra
of the Faint Stars, 9; on the Scintillation of the Stars, 9; Photographs of
Stellar Spectra, 11; Orbit of the Double Star 42, Comæ Berenices, 36;
Dethod of Constructing Charts of Stars, 37; on the Rectilinear Relative
Motion of the Components of the Star 61 Cygni, 38; the Triple Star Zeta
Cancri, 38; on the Observation of Variable Stars, 59.--The Solar System:
On the Chemistry of the Solar System, 40.--The Sun: Agreement of
Secchi's Views with Professor Langley's, 11; White Lines in the Solar
Spectrum, 11; the Structure of Solar Spots, 10; Zöllner's Theory of the
Solar Spots, 12; Ancient Observations of Solar Spots, 12; the Solar At-
mosphere, 13; the Dimensions of the Sun, 13; on Solar Radiation, 14;
Studies on Solar Radiation, 15; Solar Radiation in Egypt, 42; Measuring
the Chemical Action of Sunlight, 16; the Temperature of the Sun, 16, 17,
18; Variability of Solar Temperatures, 17; a Famous Solar Eclipse, 40;
Studies upon the Diameter of the Sun, 41; Thermographs of the Isothermal
Lines of the Solar Disk, 42.- The Planets: In general: A New Method
of Computing Planetary Perturbations, 43; Mercury: Reflecting Power
of the Planet Mercury, 18; Verius: the Atmosphere of Venus, 19; the
Visibility of the Planet Venus, 19; Results of the American and other ob-
servations of the Transit of Venus, 52; Jupiter: the Mass of Jupiter, 20;
Earth: the Tidal Retardation of the Earth's Motion, 20; the Variability
of Terrestrial Latitudes, 31; Simple Method of Determining Latitude, 31;
Determination of Latitude and Time, 32; Uranus: the Satellites of
Uranus, 20.-Meteoroids: Origin of Aerolites, 21; Galle's Path of the
Meteor of June 17, 1873, 44; Two Groups of November Meteorites, 45;
on the Structure of Comets and Meteors, 47; Meteorites in India, 61.-
Comets: the Great Comet of 1684, 21; the Phenomena of Comets, 22;
the Constitution of Comets, 23; the Formation of the Tails of Comets, 23;
Wimuecke's Comet, 24; on the Repulsive Forces of Comets, 25; Encke's
Comet, 45; on the Structure of Comets and Meteors, 47; on Cometary
Orbits, 47; the Distribution of Cometary Orbits, 48; Bruhns on Pogson's
and Biela's Comets, 49.-Auroras: Peculiar Auroral Phenomena, 26; the
Spectrum of the Aurora Borealis, 26; the Geographical Distribution of
Auroras, 26; Ground Currents and the Aurora, 27; on the Electric Dis-
charges in the Aurora Borealis, 50.-Observatories and Instruments, and
their Uses, Time, etc. : The Celestial Indicator, 28; on the Errors of
Micrometric Measurements, 29; Astronomical Work with the Great Mel-
bourne Telescope, 29; the German Nautical Observatory, 30; the Fixed
Horizontal Telescope of Laussedat, 30; Astronomical Work at Cordoba, 34;
Lord Rosse's Three-foot Telescope, 50; Compensation of Clocks for the In-
fuence of Barometric Changes, 51; Time Arrangement at Pittsburgh, 3,
60; Ancient Egyptian Astronomical Observations, 61.
B. TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS AND METEOROLOGY.... (xxxiii, xxxv) 63
(a.) TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS (including Dynamical Geology).
The Land in general: On the Evaporation of Water from Hard and
Broken Soils, 63; on the Conductivity of Various kinds of Soil for Heat,
63; the Penetration of Cold into the Earth, 86; the figure of the Earth,
67; Underground Temperatures, 68 ; Ice-cave near Dobschau, 68; Influence
of Forests on Climate, 74; Dryness of the Soil in India, 94.-Earthquakes:
Earthquakes and Magnetic Disturbances, 64; the Earthquake of Belluno,
65; the Earthquake of the 22d of October, 1873, 66; Earthquake in the
Vicinity of New York, December 10, 1874, 93.--Volcanoes: Recent Vol-
canic Phenomena in Iceland, 67; Volcanoes in Iceland and Ash-showers in
Norway, 93; a New Seismometer, 96.—Glaciers; Glaciers of the Hima-
layas, 113.-Terrestrial Magnetism: Earthquakes and Magnetic Dis-
turbances, 64; Magnetic Disturbances and Auroras in the Arctic Regions,
95; the Magnetic Declination at St. Petersburg, 96; Earth-currents on
Telegraphic Lines, 159, 163; Measurements of Terrestrial Magnetism, 164;
New Method of Investigating Terrestrial Magnetism, 165.-The Interior
Waters: Physical and Faunal Resemblances between the Lakes of Galilee
and of Ltah, 64; the Deposition of Fine Sediments, 69; so-called Tides
in Great Lakes, 69; Changes in the Level of the Waters of Lake Geneva,
99; the Electrical Condition of Spring Water, 101; on the Secular Diminu-
tion in Europe of Springs, Rivers, and Streams with the Simultaneous