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pears to have noted down at each successive hour the name of the particular star which was then actually upon the meridian. We do not know how he determined his meridian, what instrument he used, or by what contrivance he limited his observations, but he seems to have noted the passage of stars over seven different vertical lines. If the star were crossing the first line, beginning from the east, it was noted down as being "on the left shoulder;" if it were on the fourth line, which represented the meridian, it was put down as “in the middle;" if ou the fifth line, it was observed as

" on the right," and so on. The epoch at which these observations were made is calculated to have been within one century of the year B.C. 1500. From this calendar Renouf restores approximately the Egyptian names of a number of stars well known to us at the present time. Thus Alpha Orionis of modern astronomy corresponds with the Egyptian constellation known as the “Goose's Head;" the Pleiades were known to the Egyptians as “Chu;" Coma Berenices was called by them “The many stars," and so on. -- Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archæology, III., 400.




In the course of an extended investigation by Schleh into the relation between water and plants, he shows that in respect to soils that are either matted down hard or well broken up, the former elevates by capillarity the water quicker and higher than the latter. If, then, layers of disintegrated soil are placed above masses of solid earth, the elevation of the water to the upper surface from the latter stratum is checked as soon as it comes to the loose soil. As the capillary power to elevate is diminished, so also is evaporation checked by the broken character of the soil ; so that, as a general result of his investigation, a soil pressed hard together loses by far more water under the daily influence of the sun and the winds than a soil similarly circumstanced, but in which the upper surface is well broken up. The experiments of Schleh therefore give exact results, entirely confirmatory of the general practice of agriculturists.—19 C, VIII., 136.


A. von Littrow, as the result of investigation into the conductivity for heat of various kinds of earth, concludes that the principal influence upon the conductivity of dry soils is exerted by their mechanical constitution, the conductivity being determined by the quality, as recognized by the microscope, of those portions of the soil that can be washed away. As the fineness of the grains of the soil increases the conductivity diminishes. Organic substances diminish the conductivity, and the influence of chemical constitution disappears in comparison with the mechanical features. Wet soils conduct the heat better than dry ones; in the pores of such soil water, which is a good conductor, has replaced the air, which is a poor conductor. With some exceptions, damp soils conduct heat even better than water does. Consequently in general the materials composing the soils must, of themselves, conduct heat better than water.

The curves expressing the conductivity of dry soils lie be-
tween the corresponding curves for water and the air, while
the curves for wet soils lie, in general, on the other side of
the curves for water; so that the conductivity of water is in-
termediate between that of wet and dry soils.--19 C, VIII.,

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EARTHQUAKES AND MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES. Professor Lamont, director of the observatory at Munich, says that many cases are known where magnetic disturbances coincide with earthquakes, and states that on April 18 he by chance saw the needle of the declination instrument receive a sudden jerk, the oscillations continuing for some time. After some days he received news that violent oscillations of the needle had been observed in Parma, and subsequent computations showed that the movement had begun at the same moment in Parma and in Munich ; while, later still, reports were received of a violent earthquake occurring simultaneously in Greece.-12 A, X., 224.


There is some resemblance between the physical condi-
tions of the lakes of Galilee and of Utah. Both are in
mountainous regions, and are fed by mountainous streams;
both are connected by a river with a larger body of salt or
brackish water. They are but few degrees apart in north
latitude. About the year 1864 Dr. Tristram investigated
the zoology of Palestine, and determined for the first time
the true relationships of the animals enumerated by Moses.
Ile discovered that the species alluded to as the “unicorn”
is the wild buffalo of the East. Ile brought home a fine
series of fishes of the Lake of Galilee, which have been de-
termined by Dr. Gunther, of the British Museum. Seven-
teen species are included in the list, which enter seven fam-
ilies. There is an ecl, a considerable number of chubs and
minnows, a cat-fish, and four species of perch. No doubt
the last named constitute the more highly valued edible
fishes, and may be regarded as the especial object of pur-
suit of Andrew and Simon Peter, and of James and John.
Perhaps it was one of these that our Lord had obtained

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when the apostles said, “A fire of coals burning, and fish laid thereon.” In conformity with such ideas, Dr. Gunther named the species Hemichromis sacra and Chromis andrea and Chromis simonis. The fourth is one with which the Jews must have been familiar before leaving Egypt, for it is the common perch of that country- Chromis nilotica. The fish from whose mouth Peter took a piece of money is said by mediæval writers to be the haddock, and the black spots behind the axillæ are asserted to be the marks of the toil-stained finger and thumb of Peter, miraculously preserved. As the haddock is a marine fish of the North Atlantic, and does not occur in fresh water, we are not surprised at not finding it in Dr. Gunther's list.

The fishes of Lake Utah have been collected by the naturalists of Lieutenant Wheeler's United States Survey, and number thirteen species. The number will, no doubt, be increased on fuller investigation. They are not nearly so varied in type as those of the Lake of Galilee, representing only four families. Three of these do not exist in the Palestine waters; but the fourth, the chub and minnow family (Cyprinida), is most largely represented in both. The others are of the sucker, whitefish, and salmon families, there being no perch, cat-fish, nor eels. There is but a single species of trout and whitefish each; but these go far toward supplying the economic deficiencies. The whitefish (Coregonus williamsonii) is a delightful table fish, and the most southern species of its family ; while the trout (Salmo virginalis) is equally agreeable as food, and reaches a larger size. It has black spots on a silver ground, and a broad red band along the side, with red belly, red bars on the chin, red muzzle, etc. In the streams of the adjacent mountains a stouter species is found, the Salmo pleuriticus, which is similar in general color, but different in form, while the same crimson lateral band is seen in a sucker (Catostomus discobolus) which inhabits the tributaries of the Colorado River.

THE EARTHQUAKE OF BELLUNO. The Royal Institute of Science in Venice, immediately after the news of the fearful earthquake that occurred on the 29th of June, 1873, in the province of Belluno, appointed a commission to make a thorough study of this subject. From the report of this commission, consisting of Professors Pirona and Taramelli, it appears that the valley of Belluno is occupied by a tertiary formation, and that the earthquake shock was first felt at five minutes before five in the morning, lasting about fifteen seconds, and producing fearful destruction over the entire region. Two thirds of the city of Belluno was converted into a heap of dust. The movement of the earth-shock was from south to north, or, perhaps more correctly, from south-southeast to north-northwest. Many peculiar phenomena, such as the twisting of buildings, doors, walls, etc., took place, which have been fully explained by Mallet. Chasms were formed 200 feet long and one or two broad, but which subsequently closed. Lakes and brooks were altered, and springs dried up, while others were opened. In some springs there was noticed for twenty or thirty minutes a sulphurous taste, which, however, disappeared. No investigation appears to have been made into the location of the earthquake centre within the earth's surface.-7 C, X., 289.

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THE EARTHQUAKE OF THE 22D OF OCTOBER, 1873. Dr. Lasaulx has made a thorough study of the earthquake that occurred in Herzzogenrath on the 22d of October, 1873, and has found himself obliged to base his studies principally upon observations of the time at which the earthquake was felt. By means of a large number of such observations, he is able to draw curved lines connecting the points at which the shock was simultaneously felt, and thus incloses a central region directly over that spot within the earth whence the shock emanated. The velocity with which the wave was propagated along the surface of the earth was abont ten miles per second. The depth of the centre was found, according to the method of Seebach, to be about six miles ; while an independent computation by Professor Kortung gave a depth of three miles. It is evident, therefore, that the centre was in the solid part of the earth's crust, and the conclusion seems to be justified that the cause of the shock was the formation, or possibly the extension, of one of those cracks or faults that occur so frequently in that neighborhood, as revealed by the mining operations. A seismochronograph is described by Dr. Lasaulx, adapted to the de

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