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or be replaced by others entirely new; while the Mechanical and Chemical Arts, and the applications of the sciences to affairs of public utility, will be treated of in the Second Edition, much more practically than they were in the First Edition.

45. PROPOSED EXTENT OF THE WORK.-The series of scientific and historical TREATISES on the important SUBJECTS comprehended in the philosophical scheme of this work (page 13), which form indispensable links of the great chain of human knowledge-the Series necessary to complete the circumference of an Encyclopædia-cannot be compressed into fewer than EIGHTY CABINET VOLUMES. That is the minimum extent. But since the methodical plan of the work, as developed in this Prospectus, will permit at all times of the incorporation of such additional Treatises, as may be requisite to keep its scientific principles and historical facts in accordance with the progress of the age,-a permission of which the conductors will freely avail themselves,-it is impossible to state what may be the maximum number of its volumes. An Encyclopædia intended to reflect always the existing state of human knowledge, " to act," (in the language of Mr. COLERIDGE,) "at once as a reservoir and a fountain,-to receive perpetual accessions of knowledge from the genius of the age, and to yield the knowledge again in willing abundance," --such a work can never be effectually "completed." That word applies with as little propriety to such an Encyclopædia, as it does to the Times Newspaper or the Philosophical Transactions; for, like those celebrated journals, this Encyclopædia will be at all times ready to incorporate an account of every important Event and new Principle that Time and Discovery may furnish, and for which its philosophical system provides an adequate Repository.

46. IMPROVED PLAN OF PUBLICATION.-A great alteration, and, it is hoped, an important improvement, will be made in the METHOD OF PUBLISHING the Second Edition, as contrasted with the method adopted for the first edition of this Encyclopædia. The PARTS of the CABINET EDITION will not, like the Parts of the Quarto Edition, contain letter-press and engravings belonging to different subjects or different Divisions of the Encyclopædia, forming a heterogeneous and unreadable mixture of fragments of many Treatises; but each PART will relate only to one subject; and whenever it is possible, each VOLUME of the CABINET EDITION will embrace ALL that relates to one subject. That, however, will necessarily depend upon the nature of the Subjects and the consequent extent of the Treatises. Very frequently several will be comprised in one Volume, and occasionally an important subject, the principles of a leading Science, or the History of a great nation, will occupy two volumes. But care will be taken to ensure a due proportion in size among the several Treatises, to avoid unnecessary prolixity, to combine comprehensiveness in matter with convenience in form, and to avoid the incongruous binding together of Treatises on irrelative Subjects-such, for example, as occurred in Vol. 5 of the First Edition, where the Treatises on the FINE ARTS were combined with two profound MATHEMATICAL TREATISES belonging to the Department of ASTRONOMY.

47. ADVANTAGES TO THE SUBSCRIBERS.-Those who subscribed to the original edition, and who remember how it was contrived to convert the most Methodical of Encyclopædias into the most Iмmethodical of Publications, will readily recognise the importance of an alteration, which INSURES TO THE SUBSCRIBER TO THE SECOND EDITION the possession of a complete readable portion of the work in recompense for every Subscription he is required to make.

48. ORDER OF PUBLICATION.-It seems not unnecessary to call the attention of intending Subscribers to the difference that exists between the order in which the SUBJECTS Occur in the general system of this Encyclopædia and the order in which it may be advisable to publish the TREATISES on those subjects. In consequence of the different amount of corrections that will be required by the various Treatises that compose the Encyclopædia, and the circumstance that many Treatises on subjects that demand extensive investigation must be written entirely anew,-it would be impossible, without submitting to great delay and irregularity, to publish the revised Articles and new Treatises in Weekly Parts, in the exact order in which the subjects occur in Mr. Coleridge's methodical plan. Neither is it desirable

to adhere to that order pertinaciously, because it would not be agreeable to the great body of the SUBSCRIBERS to so comprehensive a work as this ENCYCLOPÆDIA, to receive, for months together, a series of WEEKLY PARTS relating solely to Mathematics, or to Geography, or to History, or indeed to any Department, in its order-all other subjects being, for the time, systematically excluded. A proceeding of that sort could hardly fail to excite dislike or indifference to the work in the FAMILIES of many of the SUBSCRIBERS. The Proprietors consider, therefore, that they will consult the general convenience, both of the Authors and the Subscribers, by publishing the Treatises in an indeterminate order,-giving History, Science, and Art alternately, but carefully indicating on the title-page of each Volume its exact place in the entire System, in accordance with the Plan given in page 13. In order, however, to prevent mistakes, every PART and VOLUME of the work, as published, will be marked with a running Number, simply to indicate the order of Publication, and irrespective of the ultimate Philosophical Arrangement of the articles. The Parts that constitute a Volume will be published as near together as circumstances permit, and, from time to time, General Title Pages and Tables of Contents will be supplied, to complete the Volumes of the several Divisions.

49. REGULARITY OF PUBLICATION.-The vast amount of original writing of the highest class, in every department of literature and science, which is comprehended in the First Edition of this Encyclopædia, and the proved excellence of its methodical plan, will so greatly facilitate the preparation of the CABINET EDITION, that the Conductors trust to be enabled to issue the WEEKLY PARTS in uninterrupted succession,-correcting in the work, as they go on, what requires correction; retrenching what is superfluous; and supplying what is deficient; so as to bring the whole more strictly into accordance with Mr. COLERIDGE's great idea of the essentials of an Encyclopædia, and producing, if possible, a SYSTEM OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE," more philosophical in its plan, more ably executed in its details, more convenient in size, and more economical in price, than any work of the kind that has ever hitherto been produced.


50. We conclude this Prospectus with a short extract from the Preface to the First Edition of the Encyclopædia:

"The foregoing enumeration of the principal parts of the Encyclopædia em. bodies all the observations which the Editor considers it necessary to make in recommending the work to the patronage of the public. The exertions made by the Proprietors to procure the just fulfilment of the high expectations formed of the work, and of the promises they had made, as well as the perseverance with which they have conducted this important publication to its completion, amidst the many obstacles which must necessarily arise in so extensive an undertaking, entitle them to high consideration from that portion of the Public which is interested in works of a sterling and substantial character. From the present position of Literature, and the system now in fashion of publishing small and superficial works which may be cheaply produced, and are really of no intrinsic value, it is probable that a long period must elapse before any similar undertaking will be entered upon, from the enormous outlay of capital it requires, and the uncertainty of remuneration which it offers. It is hoped, therefore, that this GREAT NATIONAL WORK, for such it really is, may meet with that patronage which the Proprietors feel confident it fairly and fully deserves. They feel assured that, whether it be viewed as a whole or in its separate divisions, it embodies a mass of information at once extensive, accurate, and scientifically arranged, which must place it in a pre-eminent and triumphant position. Whatever its measure of success may be in a pecuniary point of view, they may justly feel a high gratification in having been instrumental, under Providence, in bringing to a successful termination a work which, whether its LITERARY MERIT OR THE SOUNDNESS OF ITS MORAL AND RELIGIOUS VIEWS be regarded, must ever be considered as an INESTIMABLE BENEFIT TO THEIR COUNTRY AND A PERMANENT ORNAMENT TO ITS LITERATURE."

London, October, 1849.

The INTRODUCTION.-On the Laws and regulative Principles of EDUCATION; or in the Language of the Schools, the Elements of METHODOLOGY.

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Alexander's favour to the Jews.

His behaviour to the Samaritans.

Influence of the

preceding events


derived from them the greatest encouragement to carry on the war against Darius, not doubting but that he was the person described in the prophetic books.

At his departure these circumstances so effectually recommended the Jews to the favour of Alexander, that when they petitioned him to allow them to live under their own laws, and in the free exercise of their religion, and further to be exempted from tribute every seventh year, because their law forbade them to cultivate the soil in the year of the sabbath, he immediately complied with their request. The Jews further implored his protection for their brethren whom he would find settled in Babylon; and many of them, won by his kindness, enlisted as soldiers in his service, and accompanied him on his expedition.

The Samaritans envying the Jews the favour they had so unexpectedly gained, and jealous of the distinction conferred upon them, thought by a similar line of conduct to gain as much influence with the king. They met him as he returned from Jerusalem in a solemn religious procession, and professing their kindred with the Hebrews, sought from him a grant of the same privileges which he had given to their brethren. Alexander excused himself from paying attention to their request till after his return from Egypt; but, during his absence, a rebellion taking place in the city, in which Andromachus, the governor, perished, at his return he caused all those who were concerned in the disturbance to be put to death, and driving out the Samaritans, planted their city with Macedonians: those who survived retired to Shechem, under Mount Gerizim, which from that time became the metropolis of the Samaritan sect, and continues so to this day. The eight thousand Samaritans who had joined Alexander at Tyre, and had been with him ever since, he settled in Thebais, the remotest province of Egypt, lest their presence in Samaria should revive the mutinous spirit of their countrymen. This treatment contrasts strikingly with that which the Jews subsequently received, for when Alexandria was built, he settled therein many of that nation, giving them great privileges, and allowing them not only the use of their own laws and religion, but also the enjoyment of equal franchises and liberties with his own people, the Macedonians.

It does not fall within our province to pursue the narration of Alexander's conquests, or to trace him in his rapid progress to the Alexander's highest pinnacle of martial glory; one part, however, of his character is so closely connected with the occurrences related to have taken place on his arrival at Jerusalem, that we cannot forbear stopping to direct the reader's attention to it. It has often created surprise that a man of Alexander's strength of mind, should have been guilty of such folly and weakness as to feign himself to be the son of Jupiter Ammon, and to undertake a most laborious expedition to his Temple, which was situated in the midst of the deserts of Lybia, and twelve days journey from Memphis, for no other purpose than that of procuring himself the title of son of Jupiter.

The water to be distilled is poured into the Still at the opening
marked t. The water of the Condenser is continuously renewed by the
supply-pipe T T', and when heated by the steam, it is suffered to run
off by the escape-pipe o.

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It is frequently necessary, in the laboratory, to distil volatile liquors,
in which case the condensing power must be very effective, that loss
be not occasioned by the escape of uncondensed vapour. For such
operations, the apparatus represented by fig. 201 is employed. The

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liquor to be distilled is placed in a glass Retort, the neck of which is
connected, by means of an adapter, to a straight Condenser, consisting

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