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ganization and is building facilities in ocean science and technology through the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, and the Pacific Biomedical Research Center.

S. 2439, if enacted into law, would greatly enhance Hawaii's role in our national oceanic field. It would give financial support to the University of Hawaii in improving and expanding facilities, and make possible a larger staff of scientists and support personnel.

Beyond its immediate and direct impact upon the academic community, S. 2439 would stimulate the industrial and business community to greater efforts in developing the commercial potentials of the oceanic field.

In 1964, the Hawaiian business community, acting through the Hawaiian Electric Co., engaged a nationally known research firm to appraise Hawaii's potential in oceanics, with particular reference to its promise for future economic growth in the islands. According to the survey, oceanics activity in Hawaii can grow in dollar volume from $142 million in 1964 to as high as $25 million by 1970. The projected levels for Hawaiian oceanics activity were based on the then existing, quiescent levels of national planning and support. The report added the significant note that

When and if oceanics breaks out of this current level, and if Hawaii meanwhile has developed a strong foundation within economically viable bounds, the field could become a major "industry" for the islands, in the $100 million class. Even if oceanics does not break out, its economically sound development within the State makes sense and will help to enrich the community intellectually, socially, and economically.

The survey concluded that the most promising activities for Hawaii are oceanographic research and development, fishery research, man-inthe sea and life support programs, Mohole project, Navy tactical and calibration ranges, underwater test facilities, and Hawaiian-based ocean surveys.

These are areas of activities which come within the stated purposes of S. 2439. The National Science Foundation would be directed under S. 2439 to carry out marine science programs through contracts with, and grants to suitable public or private agencies, public or private institutions of higher learning, museums, foundations, industries, laboratories, corporations, organizations, or groups of individuals concerned with activities in the marine sciences.

Financing for the program would be derived from using 10 percent of the annual revenues from rents, royalties, and bonuses from offshore oil properties under Government lease. This would be a logical source of financing for the sea grant college program since the revenues come from the ocean.

The author and sponsor of S. 2439 (Senator Pell) has stated that the proposed sea grant colleges “should be fostered and developed in those areas that have made a beginning and have the capabilities and resources for such an undertaking. Obviously, geography too is an important consideration.”

Hawaii fits both descriptions. As pointed out earlier, the University of Hawaii already is embarked on a strong program of oceanographic activities, having attracted scientists of wide renown to its campus and having developed facilities for extensive research and development.


As to geography, Hawaii has the distinction of being the only island State of the Union--an island community completely surrounded by the ocean and enjoying ideal natural advantages for oceanic work. These advantages include Hawaii's central location in the Pacific, close to nearly any sea conditions that might be demanded in almost any investigation; its equable climate; and its underwater visibility.

The sea grant college concept is being proposed at a time when fresh interest is being generated nationally in the oceans. For too long, this Nation has neglected the ocean that promises so many benefits if only its potentials were more clearly understood and appreciated. S. 2439 offers opportunities for this Nation to put to practical use the knowledge we have gained from research of the ocean. Because of what the proposed legislation could mean to my State and to the national interest, I urge this subcommittee to act speedily and favorably on S. 2439.

Senator PELL. Thank you, Senator Fong. The next witness will be Congressman Rogers who I believe is here. He is an authority in this field in the other body and is very good indeed to have taken the time to come here. I know his interest and the work he is doing in getting through the Magnuson bill on this side.

Mr. Rogers.



Mr. ROGERS. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman and Senator Kennedy. It is a pleasure to be here to appear before your committee and I am pleased to testify in support of S. 2439, and I do want to commend this subcommittee for bringing this legislation to the floor and the distinguished chairman, Senator Pell, for his interest in introducing the bill along with Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus, distinguished dean of the College of Minnesota, that Senator Kennedy mentioned, who also deserves a great deal of credit.

I think it is interesting that the idea for a sea grant college originated not from a coastal State but really from the heart of our country and, of course, all of us I think in this country, once we look at the problem, see the need for this legislation.

If the Chair will permit, I will just file my statement and just make a few comments at this time rather than read the entire statement. Of course, the reason for the sea grant college program is based on the successful concept of land grant colleges, which have contributed so much to the Nation's progress. Sea grant colleges, nurtured by a program set forth through the National Science Foundation, are vitally needed to enable the United States to enter the "wet space age.

I think there is no question about the fact that such a race is on, and unfortunately our principal competitor, Russia, is the same competitor that we have in space and is making great progress in conquering the wet space.

I think just a quick look at some of the things they are doing, and we realize that we can fall behind very quickly if we are not cognizant of this problem and willing to do something about it.

The primary objective of a national sea grant college program concerns the development of marine manpower. Today the Soviet

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Union has between 8,000 and 9,000 persons engaged full time in the marine sciences. The Soviets have over 1,500 qualified oceanographers. The United States has less than 1,000 oceanographers, and total marine technology manpower at work full time in this country today numbers less than 3,000 persons.

The Soviet Union is placing high national priority on ocean technology training and application of marine research. The United States by contrast has just begun recognizing the importance of this new field.

The seas represent greater and more immediate economic returns than have yet been found in outer space. The Interior Department, for instance, estimates that this Nation's fish catch could be expanded to five or six times its present level as Senator Kennedy brought out, good news actually for a nation which has slipped, as has been brought before the attention of the committee, to fifth place.

The Soviets, who rank fourth, are increasing their fish catch by 500,000 tons per year and they have made fishing a science, have adopted progressive methods such as fish farming, transplanting millions of salmon eggs and fingerlings from the Far East to the Bering Sea.

I was in the Soviet Union in January and this program was discussed with me. Now the Soviets are also transplanting the king crabs which is a very lucrative field, as you know, in the seafood business.

Each year Americans spend over $500 million on imported fish products. Over 62 percent of this Nation's fish consumption is from foreign producers. In fact, I think we can say every other fish in the American frying pan is imported.

By developing scientific methods in marine biology and ocean engineering through sea grant colleges, this Nation could reap enormous economic benefits from sales of fish at home as well as to hungry and growing populations abroad.

Further economic returns are to be had for that nation which has the technology to surface precious minerals lying on the ocean floor. Offshore oil drilling by U.S. producers in 1964 brought in 174 million barrels valued at over a half billion dollars. By 1970 it is estimated it should be bringing in about $1.2 billion, double what it is today.

Manganese ore has been discovered off the U.S. coast, actually in an area just east of the Georgia-Florida State line. This layer has been estimated to be 3 to 4 feet thick and up to 1,900 square miles. Of course, this is vital to the manufacture of steel and related alloys as well as dry cell batteries and is of vital importance to the Soviets as well as the United States which consumes several times as much manganese as it produces.

A sea grant college could be instrumental in developing methods of harvesting this mineral, and a host of other benefits could be realized.

a My own State of Florida has begun to move in the direction of schooling young minds in the value of the seas. In our State there are four State universities which offer courses in oceanographic and related marine sciences. One private institution, the University of Miami, maintains the Institute of Marine Science, one of the finest in the world. Florida Atlantic University, the newest of our State institutions, is now offering programs in ocean engineering and other applied uses of the seas.

Of course, other progressive States boast of such fine institutions as the University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, the University of Minnesota's Institute of Technology, of course, with which Dean Athelstan Spilhaus is associated.

We must do more to raise the level and numbers of oceanographic students and educators in every State if this Nation is to win the wet space race. And the ranks of America's qualified oceanographers must grow more rapidly than the present 10 percent per year.

Now, it is interesting to note that Russia has already reached the level of producing 15 percent of oceanographers every year which already surpasses us in the number of qualified people they are turning out and they are increasing this rate. So all in all I think it is evident, if one will look at what is being done all over the world in the development of the seas, that we must begin to have more vision in this Nation as to what can and should be done to develop the 70 percent of the earth's surface represented by the seas.

Therefore, I would urge that S. 2439 be approved by this distinguished subcommittee, its

parent committee, and both Houses of Congress as well, and I commend the chairman and the subcommittee for devoting the time and effort necessary to bring this legislation to the attention of the Congress.

I thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Senator PELL. Thank you very much, Congressman Rogers, and I understand that you like this idea equally and are helping shepherd the same concept through in the House.

Mr. Rogers. We hope to do this.

Senator PELL. That would be wonderful. I realize it is still premature but do you have any views as to where the administration of this program should rest? I know we on our side have no fixed views. We look forward to listening to the witnesses and making up our minds in the executive committee session.

Mr. ROGERS. I have no strong views about who should administer it as yet, Senator. I would agree with you. I don't see anything wrong with the way the bill is drawn to let the National Science Foundation begin the program. As you know, we have other legislation that is now moving along rapidly to have a commission study the entire program of efforts of the United States and its development of the seas. If the legislation is passed and approved, as we hope it will be, this would require a study of 18 months.

Now, at the end of that time I would hope that they might make suggestions as to organization of how the Government should carry on its entire program of oceanography, and this could then be considered. In the meantime I think the National Science Foundation would be an appropriate body.

Senator PELL. The legislation that you are considering, to my mind, is excellent because it calls for a self-liquidating council which does not create one more Government organization, and that is a wonderful idea.

Mr. Rogers. That is right.

Senator PELL. It is an excellent thought. One of the ideas going through my mind is that the Smithsonian Institution, which has å certain tradition of nurturing and spinning off Government groups, organizations, actually, might be suitable to handle it on a temporary basis and then see where it would go on a more permanent basis. The argument being made that in the National Science Foundation there might be a greater emphasis on pure research and also much more on individual grant assistance, and some of the people in the field think there should be more program assistance, institutional assistance, and also more practical use of the knowledge. This is open for discussion.

Mr. ROGERS. Well, I think that has a great merit. I think the Smithsonian could well do this job. And although I think we should have some recommendations in about 18 months, that is why I said I thought the National Science Foundation could do this for that period of time. However, I can see nothing that would be objectionable. It might be worthy of consideration in letting the Smithsonian do this.

Senator Pell. To consider it basically on a very temporary basis. Mr. ROGERS. Yes. Senator PELL. From the testimony of the Department of Interior witnesses, I can see a certain avariciousness on the part of the Government agencies in handling a program that looks to have the potential for growth that this has. I think we must make a very sound decision in the beginning.

Mr. Rogers. Yes. That is why I think it is very important for us to enact legislation this year to get this study going so we can kind of get everybody together rather than going off on tangents which we have done so often, I am afraid.

Senator PELL. Right. I can't tell you how glad I am, Congressman Rogers, that you take such an interest in the field and work with it as well. It was very nice of you to come over here this morning.

Mr. Rogers. Thank you very much. We commend your leadership in this area.

(The prepared statement of Mr. Rogers follows:)



Mr. ROGERS. Mr. Chairman and distinguished members of the subcommittee, I am pleased to have this opportunity to appear here this morning to testify to the pressing need for sea grant colleges. The entire subcommittee, and particularly its distinguished chairman, Senator Pell, who represents one of the Xation's foremost oceanographic States, Rhode Island, are to be commended for initiating movement within the Congress toward establishing a program of sea grant colleges.

The question "What is a sea grant college?” can be raised. The answer can be given that sea grant colleges will be to ocean technology what the land grant colleges of 100 years ago have been to not only America's agriculture, but her entire system of higher education.

Similar to the successful concept of land grant colleges which has contributed so much to this Nation's progress, sea grant colleges, nurtured by the program set forth through the National Science Foundation, are vitally needed to enable the United States to enter the “wet space age.”

We are in a race to conquer the earth's “wet space." There is no question about it. Our principal competitor is Russia, just as Russia is our principal competitor in the race to conquer outer space.

And right now Russia is in many respects winning the wet space race. It is a matter of national survival that the United States be the first to completely master the oceans. Nearly three-fourths of the earth's surface is water. This fact alone makes U.S. mastery of the seas imperative. Considering the mass of the earth's inner space which the oceans occupy, America's need to penetrate and occupy the greatest depths becomes even more critical.

The primary objective of a national sea grant college program concerns the development of marine manpower. Today the Soviet Union has between 8,000

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