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application for help are in preparation. ahead unless the Nation is in imminent peril. years are showing the effect of military The Office staff will work closely with State Under a partial mobilization, such as we mobilization. One State Commissioner of and local school authorities, both in the will doubtless face for the next several years, Education reports that approximately 2,000 administration of this program and in our educational system will be unable to teachers in his State are subject to call to studying and evaluating its effectiveness make its essential contribution to national the armed forces either as reservists or as and its long-term implications for Ameri- defense unless schools obtain additional draftees. Many staff members are in key can education. The policies and practices classroom space and facilities.
positions in the defense program, such as established under these laws will, I hope,
vocational and industrial arts teachers, and Civil Defense serve as an example of the kind of coop
no replacements are available. erative effort educators throughout the In the matter of civil defense the schools At the moment we lack complete statisNation are capable of in solving significant will be called upon for special services. On tical data on the number of teachers educational problems, and, in this particular September 18, President Truman laid be
September 18, President Truman laid be. throughout the country who are liable for instance, in insuring American children the fore Congress a “blueprint" for a vast civil military duty in the months ahead. But of educational opportunity to which they are defense program. As many of you know, this we are already sure: The elementary entitled.
this program drafted by the National Se- schools throughout the Nation can ill afford
curity Resources Board to alert the Nation to lose a single teacher. Of the 300,000 Survey of School Construction Needs
to the possibilities of atomic attack provides teachers who left the profession during One of these bills, Senate bill 2317 (Pub- an extensive mutual aid system involving World War II, few have returned, and in lic Law 815), provides for a Nation-wide thousands of workers, both paid and vol. the early postwar years only a trickle of State-by-State survey of school construc- unteer, at the national, State, and local teachers came from the colleges and uni. tion needs for which the Congress appro. levels.
versities. Hence in comparative terms, the priated $3,000,000 for grants-in-aid to Though a temporary Civil Defense Ad- teacher situation is far worse now than it State educational agencies to finance one- ministration will probably serve until Con- was 10 years ago. half of the cost of conducting these surveys gress acts on the Federal civil defense bill, No improvement in this situation is in within the States.
it is intended that States and local commu- sight even if men are not removed from Since it will be necessary to collect and nities will move ahead with their civil de. teaching for military service. Since the evaluate certain data on a pattern sufficiently fense planning now instead of waiting for enrollments in elementary schools in 1957 uniform to permit a Nation-wide report to national legislation and the dissemination will be 40 percent higher than in 1947, the Congress, the Office of Education will of detailed information. Education clearly teacher recruitment should increase proprovide consultative services and assist has a responsibility in both the initial plan- portionately. That this will happen seems States in every possible way in the coordi. ning and the execution of civil defense doubtful. There is a shortage of educanation of their planning and work.
operations. Close working relationships tional administrators and supervisors as The school facilities surveys will include are being maintained with other govern
well. It is difficult to see how elementary an inventory of existing facilities, the need mental agencies and with appropriate out- teaching staffs can be maintained if they for additional facilities in relation to school side organizations on numerous phases of are significantly reduced by military population and district organization, the civil defense, and information will be sent mobilization. development of over-all State plans for to you as rapidly as it becomes aavilable. The heaviest impact on teacher staffs and, school construction programs, and a study In this connection, the Chairman of the to some extent, on student bodies has come of the adequacy of State and local funds National Security Resources Board has in- from the recall of reservists and national available for school construction.
dicated that he contemplates, ultimately, the guardsmen. Considerations for delay in But enactment of House bill 7940 and training of some 20,000,000 persons in first calling a reservist to active duty are based Senate bill 2317 in no way alters the fact aid procedures. To supplement this, many upon his current employment in a critical that, as a Nation, we are facing a severe individuals will be needed in home care of occupation necessary to a highly essential shortage of classroom space which will the sick and injured. The American Red activity. Delays in call to active duty are grow worse each year unless drastic steps Cross has been delegated the responsibility made on an individual basis only, and the are taken soon to overcome this serious for this great undertaking. It is one in Defense Department has made it clear that deficiency in our school system. Make- which the schools can play a significant role. under no circumstances will blanket delays shift classrooms, overcrowded plants, in- The Office of Education is cooperating for any given profession such as teaching adequate facilities—these existing condi. closely with the Red Cross in the develop be granted. tions greatly impair the quality of educa. ment of this training program insofar as The Defense Department is guided in its tion, and it is the quality of the education the schools may be involved.
actions on requests for deferment by the our children receive today which will
list of essential activities of the Department largely determine the quality of our citizens Impact on Teaching Staffs
of Commerce and by the list of critical occutomorrow. America cannot afford to handi- The question which most troubles school pations of the Department of Labor. It cap the education of her children by failing administrators these days is, “What will be must be emphasized that these lists are used to provide adequate schools. The depres- the effects of manpower mobilization on as guides only and that each deferment is sion kept us from doing this in the thirties. education?” Communications from all sec- granted or withheld on an individual basis World War II stopped school building in tions of the country indicate that teaching only. the forties. We cannot afford not to build staffs at all levels of education and student The Commerce Department's list of essenschools now and in the years immediately bodies in the later high school and college tial activities embraces educational services which include: “Establishments furnishing probably include relatively few male nities, the States, and the Federal Govern. formal academic or technical courses, cor- teachers.
ment. As far as education is concerned respondence schools, commercial and trade
However, if you as a school administrator it is imperative that the administration of schools, and libraries.” The Department wish to take further steps to clarify the educational programs for the national de of Commerce lists as a critical occupation status of your teachers under the present fense involve the cooperation of local, State, teachers of critical occupations only. Selective Service regulations, the place to go
and national officials. In Washington we These occupations tentatively include is to the local draft board. Let the members shall do everything possible to keep you agronomists, architects, bacteriologistsof the draft board know all the facts about informed about developments as quickly as biologists, botanists, chemists, dentists, en. your most pressing staff requirements and they occur. You can be of critical assist. gineers, geologists, mathematicians, metal- your most critical long-range needs. A ance by organizing your local resources in lurgists, physicists, and veterinarians, number of the inquiries about teacher defer
the national interest, by making your rement which have been received in the Office sources and facilities available in the naThe total impact of Selective Service on of Education and in Selective Service head. tional effort, and in keeping the Office of teaching staffs is probably relatively small quarters deal with questions which can be
Education informed concerning your planbecause those who are affected are nonveter- answered only at the local level.
ning and your need for help. Jointly the ans age 19 through 25, inclusive, only. I have attempted to detail a few of the educators of the country will provide the Since many males of ages 24 and 25 are matters related to the defense effort to which intelligence, the training, and the skills veterans of World War II persons selected educators will want to give attention during needed in time of national need and indisto date have been primarily from ages 19 the critical period ahead. Mobilization for pensable to the continuation of our free through 23, inclusive, which age groups national defense involves the local commu. society.
URING the 2 months which have fol. quent development of serious inadequacies
lowed the beginning of the conflict in in school facilities and teachers. We still Korea, the National Citizens Commission face the reality of an increase of 10 million for the Public Schools has been asked many school children during the next decade. times what the role of citizens working for There are thus two compelling reasons better schools should be in time of war or for pressing the work for better education.
In hundreds of communities in One is that this work is yet far from finished. every State of the Union citizens are won- The second is that this work tests and measdering whether they should press their ef- ures the integrity of our own democratic forts for better schools now.
purpose. To us it is encouraging that throughout In reappraising the importance of this the confused years which followed World work in the light of current history, we be. War II Americans worked harder than ever lieve it has gained rather than lost importo improve a public school system which al- tance. The conflict in Korea is obviously ready stands as one of the greatest social a part of a much wider one which has been triumphs in history. Here and now in this smoldering for many years and which cancountry we have come closer than mankind not be expected to die down in the immediever has before to the goal of equal educa- ate future. While the early settlers in tional opportunity for all. But all thought- America could throw down their peacetime ful citizens recognize that we still are a tools when threatened by attack, and take long way from perfection and that much them up again when the danger had passed, remains to be done. The task has been in- we are faced with the more complex necestensified by the rapid and continued growth sity of simultaneously continuing our conof our school population with the conse- structive peacetime work and defending
ourselves during many long years of ten. sion. If, by threatening us, our enemies were able to make us abandon the efforts necessary to maintain and improve our free society, they would by threats alone have won a major victory.
Of course, it will be necessary to adapt our plans for our schools to the immediate requirements of our expanding program for defense. But those who are in the fight for better schools should be alert to secure for our schools top priority in the new line-up of civilian activities that lie ahead.
Recently General Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, said: “An educated people is easy to lead but hard to drive; easy to govern but impossible to enslave.” It is our public schools which must bear the main responsibility for maintaining an educated people here. It would be ironic indeed if we neglected them when we need them most.
☆ ☆ ☆ Education Organizes for
URING THE MONTH of September we will need all the courage and all the chart the course of this Nation in the present
further steps were taken at the national resources, all the initiative and all the skill world situation and to chart a course which level that relate to the organization of edu- that we and all the other freedom-loving necessarily will have much to do in decid- . cation for service during the present defense nations of the world can muster.
ing whether the peoples of the world are emergency and educational planning for the “We cannot begin to anticipate the prob- headed for a safe harbor or for shipwreck.” future.
lems with which we will be faced. We are Captain G. C. Towner, Training Division Meeting in Washington September 9-11, in a world different from any other kind of of the Bureau of Personnel, U. S. Navy, representatives of 75 educational organiza- world that any other civilization has had to said, “Since the Navy is a firm believer in tions gave their approval to the organiza- face. Perhaps a historian would say it is the value of a broad educational background tion of a permanent National Conference for only a matter of degree, but I think it as a prerequisite to military specialized the Mobilization of Education, as a means of different.
training, I strongly recommend that you tying American education into the defense “Now, since we cannot anticipate all the encourage your students to continue with program of the Nation. The conferees voted problems ahead of us, the keynote of what their civilian studies without interruption. to set up the Conference as a permanent I would like to leave with you, is that I feel Special emphasis on mathematics, physics, clearing house for information on defense the role of education is to create a resource- electronics, and above all, citizenship, developments and manpower policies and ful people. I want to emphasize that word should be given." to work with the Office of Education in an ‘resourceful.' That means that we must Earl D. Johnson, Assistant Secretary, Deadvisory capacity. A resolution adopted have a well-disciplined, well-educated, alert, partment of the Army, stated, “The period by the Conference commended the National healthy group of young people who can meet our Nation is now in is not a total mobiliza. Security Resources Board and the President any kind of situation which may arise. tion-only a twilight mobilization. Therein establishing the Office of Education as “We could take steps to have all kinds fore, it is possible for us to do things in an advisory and consultative agency on of specialized training during this period. education that we could not do under total those aspects of security planning that re- But how do we know what we want to train mobilization.” He said that the Army late to education.
for? We had better put our main hope on wanted “to make maximum use of the eduRepresentatives of many Federal Govern- good basic education. It may mean that cational facilities of today. The more we ment departments and agencies addressed we will have to cut out some of the frills. can parcel out to the civilian population the Conference on problems of special in. Perhaps you would rather we would cut the easier the job will be.” dustrial and military training programs out some of the reporting procedures. But Federal Security Administrator Oscar R. which may be needed. Spokesmen for the if this group and other groups like it will Ewing, in addressing the Conference, spoke various educational associations urged top carry the word back to the people that this of the need for schools to train new workers, level educational representation on contem- is what we need, and not specialized at- new advisory personnel, and teachers for plated training programs, representation by tempts to meet every minor situation which the several training programs. education in civilian defense and other local can be anticipated, you will have made your tioned also "up-grading training for perresponsibilities, and a strong training of greatest contribution, in my view, to the sonnel already emphasized," and "refresher teaching staffs. defense effort.”
and transfer training for persons who have Robert L. Clark, Director, Manpower Charles A. Thomson, Director, UNESCO previously acquired some needed ability.” Office, National Security Resources Board, Relations Staff, Department of State, called Rall I. Grigsby, Deputy Commissioner of again stressed that “... in the field of edu- attention to the words of a UNESCO reso- Education, discussed the “necessity of putcation, the National Security Resources lution passed on July 28, as follows: ting the Conference discussion in some sort Board and the President are looking to the “In addition to devoting the professional of framework as to the character and posFederal Security Agency and its Office of educational resources of the Nation to the sibly the probable duration of the emerEducation as the focal point within the Fed. furtherance of military security, the schools gency ...” He said, “I presume ... that eral Government where we will attempt to and colleges have also a responsibility to if we become strong enough to deter the bring together all the information we can national security arising from the long- aggressors in their aggression in other quargather to provide assistance to the schools range need for well-informed, educated, and ters, we will have to maintain a posture of and colleges and universities of this country high trained citizenship.
strength for many years. I suppose also in making their contribution to the total “... that the schools and colleges, the that that implies something in the nature national effort."
teachers and educators of the United States, of what some might be inclined to term a Mr. Clark said further: "To meet the have the responsibility for preparing our garrison state, in the sense, at least, that we challenge that this situation presents to us, people, men and women, boys and girls, to will have a large standing military estab
the Nation's Defense-11 ☆ ☆ ☆
lishment, that we will be devoting a very situation in which we will have difficulty cil of Chief State School Officers; Secre-
personnel services, University of Wisconsin,
and will continue to be, basically of a physi. uf 1948,” reported the following inforthat freedom and democracy mean to people cal character. If we are to establish salary mation: in terms of standards of living, in terms of scales that will attract and hold teachers The President of the United States apthe Four Freedoms, shall we say, in terms
in the schools in the situation ahead, we proved, Sept. 9, 1950, an Act of Congress of satisfactory conditions of living. have to be prepared to pay more adequately relating to the induction of medical, dental,
“It is a contest not only of ideas, but of for the services of qualified teachers. and allied specialists. This Act (Public actual accomplishment under a free system "If we are to house the young people who Law 779, 81st Cong. 2d sess.) is an amend. of society as opposed to a totalitarian, au- are coming to the schools in ever increasing ment to section 4 of the Selective Service thoritarian system.
numbers, we have to be able to construct Act of 1948. “I think those assumptions, both as to school facilities in spite of shortages. In That portion of the Act that will be of the duration and as to the character of the spite of allocations of critical materials,
spite of allocations of critical materials, special interest to the colleges and unicritical situation in which we find ourselves, school construction, it would seem, ought versities is section (i) (3) which reads as may be reflected somewhat in the considera- to have at least a Number Two priority. follows: tion of education's place, or role, in this “If we are to provide, as General Hershey “It is the sense of the Congress that the situation."
pointed out yesterday, at least for the time President shall provide for the annual deContinuing, Dr. Grigsby, said, “First, as being, some method by which young people ferment from training and service under respects the long-range nature, or the prob- will be deferred, or their induction post- this title of numbers of optometry students able long duration of the situation in which poned, if they have superior qualifications and premedical, preosteopathic, preveteri. we find ourselves, General Hershey pointed for advanced study in colleges and univer: nary, preoptometry and predental students out yesterday that youngsters who are now sities, then certainly it would seem to follow at least equal to the numbers of male opin the age group 8 and 10 years of age may that we ought to do something to make tometry, premedical, preosteopathic, prebe in a military age group within that period higher educational opportunity more freely veterinary, preoptometry and predental of time. What they receive in the schools available to young people regardless of the students in attendance at colleges and uniby way of education and training has a economic circumstances of the parents or of
versities in the United States at the present rather direct bearing upon their effective- the homes from which they come.
me. And levels, as determined by the Director.” ness as members of the military establish- that seems to imply something in the way We shall inform you
any action taken ment or as producers in our economy 10 of student aid.
by the Director of Selective Service in de
“Now as you know, legislative proposals fining such terms as “premedical” and “In other words, as was emphasized in of this character have been before the “predental students” and any other implethe first meeting of this conference, we have Congress and no doubt will be before the mentation of the preceding section that may to keep an eye on the necessity of under- 82d Congress. I simply point out that in
be effected. girding, shoring up, or strengthening, if terms of the long pull, we are under the Another Defense Information Bulletin you please, the going educational estab- necessity of strengthening, or shoring up, dated September 19 was titled, “President's lishment. It cannot be permitted to de
education in this emergency situation.” Executive Order Issued Under Defense Proteriorate, and if we find ourselves in a The Mobilization Conference named duction Act.” Content was as follows: situation in which teachers are leaving the Willard E. Givens, Executive Secretary of The President on Sept. 9, 1950, issued an classroom for higher-paid jobs in industry, the National Education Association, as Executive order under the Defense Producin which the military are getting from our chairman of its executive committee. Other tion Act of 1950. Part VI dealing with schools teachers in great numbers in the officers named were Vice-Chairman: Edgar labor supply, stated: “The Secretary of armed forces, we may find ourselves in a Fuller, executive secretary, National Coun- Labor shall utilize the functions vested in
him so as to meet most effectively the labor Service Act of 1948 and Selective Service adequate guidance for the present situation. needs of defense industry and essential ci- Operations Bulletin No. 1 of August 8, 1950 According to all the signs we can see, we vilian employment.” as they apply to students.
are now in for a long pull-perhaps for a Section 601 (c) of the Executive Order This bulletin furnished the following generation. This will mean the vigorous assigned to the Secretary of Labor respon. information:
furtherance of all essentials in our national sibility to “formulate plans, programs, and
Under the Selective Service Act of 1948, life. policies for meeting defense and essential Section 6 (i) 2, a student may have his in- Among these essentials is education. The civilian labor requirements.”
duction postponed until the end of the aca- military strength of the Nation, over the The President on Sept. 9 also approved demic year or until he ceases satisfactorily long pull, is directly dependent upon adea memorandum from the Director of the to pursue his course of instruction, which- quate health and educational services to Bureau of the Budget which included a ever is the earlier. This means that a youth. reference to certain responsibilities of the registrant who has been classified and is not Equally important, we must as a free Department of Labor and the Federal Se. deferred is entitled to have his induction democracy be strong militarily without becurity Agency in training defense workers. postponed until the end of the academic year coming a garrison state. If this is to be This reference further defines section 601 if he is ordered to report for induction while done, it will be necessary to strengthen our (c) of the Executive Order delegating func- satisfactorily pursuing his full-time course educational system and other basic intions under the Defense Production Act. of instruction. A postponement does not stitutions.
The memorandum indicated that the De- change the registrant's classification and, The Nation, then, will be vitally conpartment of Labor would identify training unless there should arise reason to have the cerned with the education of American boys needs for defense activities, and that the case reopened, the order to report for in- and girls. We cannot postpone education Federal Security Agency, through the Office duction is a continuing obligation on the for a generation, and then hope to "take of Education, would “develop plans and registrant with which he is expected to up slack.” The oncoming generation comes programs for the education and training, in comply at the termination of the postpone- on; its education cannot wait. That edu. groups or classes under organized edu- ment period.
cation must be adequate. cational auspices, of personnel needed for Operations Bulletin No. 1 is intended to work in occupations essential to the national serve as a guide to local boards in deterdefense.”
mining which college students properly Initiation of plans for specific training should be considered for deferment—in disprograms under the authorization of this tinction from postponement-in an effort
Special Announcement order will depend upon certification by the to carry out the desire of the Congress to
THIS ISSUE of School Life presents Department of Labor that manpower short- provide the fullest possible utilization of
considerable defense information ages exist or are imminent in occupations the Nation's technological, scientific, and essential to defense production needs. other critical manpower resources as ex
which requires the omission of the Plans are being made for the development pressed in the Selective Service Act, sec
regular features, Selected Theses in of programs, to be conducted by schools, tions 1 (e) and 6 (i) 2. A student may be
Education, and New Books and Pamcolleges, and universities under the sponconsidered for deferment if he has com
phlets, as well as Aids to Educationsorship of the Office of Education, for meet- pleted at least one academic year of a full
By Sight and Sound. It is hoped that ing such shortages.
these features will appear again in the time course of instruction in an institution This bulletin also stated that as additional of higher education; if he was in the upper
December issue of SCHOOL LIFE. information concerning control of materials half of his class during the last academic
See page 20 for a listing of Defense and supplies is released, it will be available year he was enrolled; and if he had arranged
Mobilization Assignments in the Office from the Field Offices of the Department prior to August 1, 1950, to enroll in a full- of Education, and pages 24 to 26 for of Commerce.
time course of instruction for the academic Defense Information Bulletins and As the month of September ended, the year ending in the spring of 1951. This
emergency education developments. American Council on Education was com- means that a registrant may be classed in
See "Amendment to Selective Service pleting plans for its October Conference on class II-A until the close of the academic
Act of 1948" reported in the Defense Higher Education in the Nation's Service year or for such other period as the board
Information Bulletin of September 11 which was expected to be attended by might determine, not to exceed 1 year. At
(page 25) and “President's Executive approximately 1,000 representatives of in- the end of this deferment, the registrant Order Issued Under Defense Producstitutions of higher education and related must again present to his local board a re
tion Act” reported in the Defense Ingrants. This meeting will be reported in quest for deferment if he desires it and
formation Bulletin of September 19 a forthcoming issue of the Office of Edu- submit such information as the local board
(page 25). cation's semimonthly periodical, HICHER requires in support of his request. EDUCATION.
Commissioner of Education Earl James
See also “Draft Regulations Affecting A Defense Information Bulletin dated McGrath made the following statement re
College Students” presented in an. October 3 and titled, “Draft Regulations garding education's role in the present
other Defense Information Bulletin
dated October 3 (page 26). Affecting College Students," was issued to
emergency: clarify questions which have arisen con- We cannot assume that the lessons learned cerning the interpretation of the Selective in World War II will in themselves provide