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In our present world, the forces of naked aggression can be met successfully only by free people who know the meaning of freedom and who know how, together, to defend their heritage of freedom.

Within a democratic Nation, the quality of national life is made up of the character of each person as he works with his fellows.

This Nation's internal strength and its world influence for peace rest upon the men and women, the boys and girls who know well the nature of democracy and who strive daily to live in harmony with the essential principles of democracy.

American Education Week serves the Nation's defense by emphasizing the provision of successful experiences of democratic living in the schools. It is through these experiences of democratic living that we perpetuate the secret of successful government of, by and for the people.

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Volume 33 Number 2

Education and the National Defense

by Earl James McGrath, U. S. Commissioner of Education

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WO DOMINANT systems of thought, all areas is our continuing objective. Only we maintain a sound system of education at two ways of life today engage the atten- thus can we meet the demands of the long

home and a program

of information abroad tion of the peoples of all nations. These pull which lie before us: a period in which about our national purposes and our way philosophies originate in two basically dif- the preparedness of the Nation for possible of life, it is conceivable that we could win ferent conceptions of the nature and destiny conflict must be at hitherto undreamed of the military conflict and lose the cause of of man and in two completely different sets peacetime levels, while at the same time the freedom. Men and women, both here and of human values. The proponents of one basic essentials of life and growth must be abroad, who had not been educated to live of these systems, Communism, are deter- provided for all our people, including all as free people in a free world could emmined that their plan of life, their values, the children.

brace a totalitarian solution to the social shall prevail generally ihroughout the Since there is a possibility that the and political problems that inevitably world. Anyone who doubts this statement present situation may not develop rapidly remain after the firing stops. should read the incisive analysis of the

The defense of our Nation and its ideals history and purposes of communism made

in the struggle which is deepening about us by Dr. Charles Malik of Lebanon before the COMMISSIONER MCGRATH delivered will call for the efforts of every individual Security Council in May. The proponents

this address at Saranac Inn, N. Y., on

and group in our society. In every war we

October 2, before the New York State of the other, Democracy, though not en

have fought, education has contributed

Council of City and Village Superingaged in an aggressive campaign to force

tendents of Schools. He also spoke on

mightily and must be prepared if need a way of life on those who do not want it,

the same subject at San Diego, Calif., be to increase that contribution. In the are equally determined that they themselves on October 4, before the annual meet. current program of defense the President shall be free to live under their own system,

ing of the California Association of

and the Congress have taken steps to in

School Administrators, and at the San that other nations shall have access to infor

sure that education has its rightful and

Diego Teachers Institute. SCHOOL mation about it, and have the right to adopt

LIFE, in this way, brings to many more

essential place in the planning and operait if they wish.

teachers and school administrators tion of programs in which schools and col. Though the world situation today is across the Nation the timely remarks of leges can make a major contribution. The

the Commissioner of Education on extremely complicated, it may be said that

efforts of education should be cooperative,

“Education and the National Defense,” the present crisis arises primarily from

presented upon these occasions.

involving leadership and full participation the conflict between those who accept one

at the national, State, and local levels. of these views and those who accept the

National Security Resources Board other. It is perhaps inaccurate to call the into a world conflict but instead continue present situation a crisis, if by that term for 10 or 20 years in waves of rising and

The plan of organization which the Presis meant a short period of stress and strain falling tension, education's first responsibil

ident and the Congress have established to at the end of which there will occur a de. ity from the nursery school through the

govern the role of education in the Execucisive and final turn in events for better or university is clear. The educational system

tive Department concerns all members of Those in a position to know most as a whole must continue and indeed im

the profession. The key organization in about world events, and the relations be

defense planning is the National Security prove programs of basic education for citi. tween nations, doubt that the present issues zenship and the normal activities of life.

Resources Board, established by the Naare likely to be soon resolved. They see We must keep in the forefront of our think

tional Security Act of 1947. The function ahead a long period of uncertainty and dis

of this Board is to advise the President coning the realization that until now the conflict order. During this time we must organize between communism and democracy has

cerning the coordination of military, indusour national life to carry on the ordinary been largely one of ideas and social pres

trial, and civilian mobilization. The powand necessary activities of everyday living

ers of the National Security Resources sures, not one of full-scale conflict on the while at the same time preparing for the

Board derive from the President himself, field of battle. In fact, a statement of Mr. possibility of a global conflict.

and the Chairman of the Board reports diVishinsky reveals that the Russians consider Life does not stop while we build the the ideological weapon superior to the tank

rectly to the Chief Executive. The Board Nation's military strength. Living goes on. and the bomb. He said: “We shall conquer

is therefore an immediate part of the ExecuChildren are born and grow up. They go the world, not with atom bombs, but with

tive Office of the President and places the to school and to college. You cannot put something the Americans cannot produce-

Chairman in a direct relationship to all a generation into educational cold storage with our ideas, our brains, our doctrines."'

agencies and departments concerned with and then later put them into an educational Americans will not accept this view, but it

the defense effort. The staff is organized in hothouse. The necessities of the long pull focuses attention on he fact that ideas and

the following units: Resources and Rebefore us are not merely military essentials. education are the most effective weapons we

quirements, Production, Materials, TransThere are equally basic essentials in non- have to use in fighting a world-wide system portation, Energy and Utilities, Manpower, military areas. To provide the essentials in of propaganda and false reasoning. Unless Foreign Activities, and Civilian Mobiliza


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tion. Educational planning falls under In accordance with this policy of estab. places responsibility for education and Manpower.

lishing departmental relationships with the training in the Office of Education, the Thus far the Board has limited its work Office of Education, there is now being President issued recently two documents to planning; and as operating programs formed an interdepartmental liaison com- that are of considerable importance to have come into existence, they have been mittee representing defense and civilian de. school administrators. On September 9, the

President issued Executive Order 10161 delegated to already existing Government partments and agencies concerned with the agencies. Upon the passage of the De- national defense. It is expected that the under the Defense Production Act of 1950. fense Production Act of 1950, for example, membership of this committee will be an- This order delegates authority for specific the President, by Executive Order, estab- nounced in the near future.

phases of defense production to certain Fed. lished the National Production Authority

eral Government agencies. Part VI of the in the Department of Commerce, and in the

Action by the Office of Education Executive Order dealing with labor supply same Order directed that this activity be co

The Office of Education has taken steps states: “The Secretary of Labor shall utiordinated with other Government functions to carry out the two general types of re- lize the functions vested in him so as to by the Chairman of the National Security sponsibilities delegated to it: First, that meet most effectively the labor needs of deResources Board. An additional example of serving as the focal point for educa- fense industry and essential civilian employ. of this policy is found in the delegation to tional planning in the Federal Government, ment, and to this end he shall: the Department of Labor of the function and second, of operating programs for

“(a) Assemble and analyze information on of establishing labor requirements in de. which funds and administrative authority

labor requirements for defense and fense industries. In the operation of de- are placed in the Office of Education as, for

other activities and on the supply of fense activities the Board will assume only example, defense training of war production

workers the function of coordination. This plan

workers of less than college grade; and pro- "(c) Formulate plans, programs, and polof organization is quite different from the grams similar to Engineering, Science, and

icies for meeting defense and essential pattern which evolved between 1940 and Management War Training.

civilian labor requirements. 1945, when entirely new agencies were

Within the Office of Education we have

“(d) Utilize the public employment service created, such as the War Production Board organized a defense council which meets


to carry out these and the War Manpower Commission. The regularly, considers emergency problems,

plans and programs and accomplish current policy is intended to make fullest and develops plans for their effective solu

their objectives. use of the skills and experience of existing tion. We have further appointed staff mem

“(e) Determine the occupations critical to Government departments and agencies. bers to deal with designated defense activ

meeting the labor requirements of ities. (See listing on page 20.)

defense and essential civilian active The Place of the Office of Education In order that educational leaders in the

ities. The National Security Resources Board schools and colleges may be informed of

This Executive Order was accompanied has designated the Office of Education as the Federal activities concerned with education,

by a memorandum from the Director of the agency for all educational planning. I the Office is issuing at irregular but fre

Bureau of the Budget approved by the Pres. quote from a statement authorized by the quent intervals a Defense Information Bul

ident which clarified responsibilities of the Board:

letin. This publication is sent to the Chief

State School Officers and institutions of Department of Labor and of the Federal In the field of education, the National

Security Agency with relation to the trainSecurity Resources Board and the President higher education. The Bulletin will pro

ing of defense workers. This statement are looking to the Federal Security Agency vide promptly official information concernand the Office of Education as the focal point ing defense training plans, manpower pol- placed responsibility for identifying train- . within the Federal Government where in

icies of the defense establishments and of ing needs for defense activities in the De. formation regarding the educational and training needs will be gathered and distrib

civilian agencies, and legislative and execu- partment of Labor. It also stated that the uted to the schools and institutions of higher tive actions. The regular publications of

Office of Education, Federal Security education so that they may make their max

the Office, School Life, a monthly maga- Agency, would “develop plans and proimum contribution to the defense effort. zine which reaches virtually all of you, and grams for the education and training, in The statement continues:

HIGHER EDUCATION, which reaches college groups or classes under organized educa- . In helping the Office of Education carry

executives, will continue to provide general tional auspices, of personnel needed for out its role, the National Security Resources articles on education and fuller discussions

work in occupations essential to the naBoard is seeking to establish relationships of defense-related activities.

tional defense." between other government agencies and de

In recent weeks the Executive Office of partments and the U. S. Office of Education.

The Department of Labor thus has the Thus the Office will have constantly availthe President has issued policy statements,

responsibility for making plans to meet deable current information which it will send and the Congress has passed laws, relating

fense and essential civilian labor requirepromptly to colleges, universities, and to the defense effort, of particular interest schools. The Office will also secure infor- to schoolmen. Two of the Executive Orders

ments, and the Federal Security Agency mation from the schools and colleges which relate to the training of workers for defense

through the Office of Education has the recan be used by the agencies of government occupations.

sponsibility for developing plans and proin their own educational planning. This

grams for the education and training needed joint effort of government and educational Defense Training Programs

by personnel who are to be employed in institutions will provide the most efficient means of putting all the Nation's educational In accordance with the policy of the Na- occupations essential to the national de. forces to effective use in the defense effort. tional Security Resources Board which fense.



Defense Mobilization Assignments in the Office of Education

These staff members are the Office of Education channels of communication between (1) Government departments and agencies and (2) educational institutions and individuals concerned with defense problems. The present assignments and the persons involved are as follows:

Accelerated Programs in Higher Education --- John DALE RUSSELL. Area and Language Studies-

KENDRIC N. MARSHALL. Audio-Visual Aids to Defense Training---- FLOYDE E. BROOKER. Civil Defense (Protection of Life and Property). William A. Ross. Curriculum Adjustments in Secondary Schools.- J. DAN HULL. Defense Facilities of Higher Education Institutions

Defense-Related Government-Sponsored Cam-
paigns in Schools...

Defense-Related Occupational Information and
Guidance -

Defense-Related Research


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The Department of Labor and the Federal Security Agency will coordinate their planning under the leadership of the National Security Resources Board. Appropriate steps have already been taken to reach an understanding concerning the division of labor in connection with these activities. Agencies having comparable responsibili. ties in the States and local communities will face many of the problems of coordination which exist in the Federal Government, and they will doubtless want to develop working relationships in their own communities to guarantee a minimum of duplication of effort and friction and a maximum of efficient planning and operation. The appropriate State and local agencies will be informed of policies and procedures as rapidly as they are developed by the Department of Labor and the Office of Education in order that local authorities may have the benefit of national experience in their planning.

Coordination of all educational activities within the States is very much needed if the various educational systems and institutions are to make their full contribution to the defense effort. State Boards for Vocational Education, local boards of education, and official bodies governing the operations of institutions of higher learning will be called upon to assume specific responsibilities with respect to planning defense training programs.

The Office of Education will continue its policy of dealing administratively with duly constituted educational authorities within the States. It is imperative, however, that all agencies concerned with planning, developing, and operating programs of education and training for defense purposes

should work out means of securing the highest possible coordination of these programs within States or even regions. State groups representing the various branches and levels of education might well consider devices for achieving such coordination and cooperative planning. Such a cooperative arrangement will assist the Nation in securing an adequate supply of well-trained and skilled workers for the various production activities essential to an efficient defense program.

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Allocations and Priorities

Another problem with which the schools will be concerned in the months ahead is the use of materials for equipment and construction. The Office of Education has made plans in this connection and when

Teacher Recruitment and Preservice Training --- W. EARL ARMSTRONG. Vocational Defense Training of Less-Than-Col. lege Grade


the time arrives for the control of the use materials which would place the inventory two factors: (1) The sudden increases in of critical materials through allocations and above the defined limit or ordering those school enrollments caused by Federal activ. priorities, the Office of Education is pre- which would place the inventory beyond this ities, and (2) the loss of local school revenue pared to take the following steps:

limit. It also requires an agency, for exam. resulting from the withdrawal from local 1. Call a national conference of educa. ple, a local school system, to keep all rec- tax rolls of substantial amounts of property. tional representatives to obtain their

ords concerning inventories, receipts, de- The study also revealed that the same disrecommendations concerning policies liveries, and the use of materials and pro- tricts included 250,000,000 acres of federfor conservation of materials

, policies vides that records must be made available ally owned land with a valuation estimated governing any rationing programs

to the National Production Authority on at more than 1312 billion dollars. It is that might be necessary, and proce

request. Most schools and colleges have estimated that taxation of this Federal propdures to be followed in making allo

not been in the habit of building up inven- erty at prevailing rates would yield more cations and granting priorities.

tories which would exceed what the regula. than $193 million a year for current operat2. Act in an advisory capacity to officials

tion defines as the “practicable minimum ing expenses. in other Government agencies which

working inventory;" consequently these Congress decided to approach this probhave responsibility for the adminis

regulations will not, at least at this time, lem by determining the amount of Federal tration of such programs.

work a hardship upon many institutions. It payments on the basis of the number of chil3. Assist other Government agencies in the

is possible, however, that other regulations dren involved. First, the number of chil. preparation of written guides and pro

may follow which will more seriously in- dren to whose schooling the Federal Govcedures relating to allocations and

volve schools and colleges. As these de. ernment ought to make a financial contribupriorities.

velopments occur your Chief State School tion is to be established. Second, the 4. Keep State and local educational offi.

Officer will be informed of them through amount per child to be paid by the Federal cials informed concerning the develour Defense Information Bulletin.

Government for current expenses is to be opment and operation of such

determined by the amount per child which New Legislation on programs.

is normally derived from local tax sources 5. Render consultative service to State and Federally Affected Areas

in comparable communities in the State. local officials in securing the materials

Two laws recently passed by the Congress The Federal Government is thus paying the they need.

have direct bearing on defense activities in local tax share of the cost of educating these 6. Keep officials of Federal agencies in

areas where Government installations have children in accordance with prevailing formed concerning the problems

caused major school problems. These standards of local tax support in the surwhich arise in connection with the

measures not only are related to our stepped- rounding areas. administration of the program.

up defense program; they also have im- The appropriation currently available for

portant implications for the long-term de- allotment under Public Law 815 is not Although the Office of Education


velopment of American education. At pres. sufficient to meet the total need for funds no official responsibility in the administra

ent they concern only a small proportion of tion of these programs, these projected

under the statutory formulas. It will the Nation's school districts; but if the de- therefore be necessary to approve projects activities of the Office will insure proper con

fense effort is stepped up, more units of on the basis of the relative urgency of need. sideration of the problems of schools and

the school system will be involved. House We shall cooperate fully with local and colleges with regard to the need for materials.

bill 7940, now Public Law 874, provides State school authorities in determining the

Federal assistance for current expense to urgency of such projects. The conservation of materials likely to be

school systems overburdened by the activi- The Congress regarded both measures as in short supply will involve the schools to

ties of the Federal Government; and Senate somewhat experimental, and therefore set a a considerable extent. There are likely to

bill 2317, now Public Law 815, provides terminal date on their operation. Public be shortages in such items as transporta- financial assistance for school construction Law 874, providing Federal assistance for tion equipment, rubber, gasoline, fuels and

to similar school districts. Public Law 815 current expenses, will be in effect for 4 years, oils, lumber and other building materials,

also provides for a Nation-wide survey of and the construction measure, 3. During metals, and textiles. The first step toward the need for school construction.

this time the Office of Education will ad. restrictions has already been taken by the

These measures are the result of long minister these measures under the terms of issuance of Regulation No. 1 of the National

study by a subcommittee of the House Com- the laws and continuously study their oper. Production Authority recently established

mittee on Education and Labor with the ation with a view to correcting any inequiby Executive Order in the Department of

help of the staff of the Office of Education. ties which may develop or suggesting reCommerce. This regulation, to which

The study showed that in 410 school dis. vision of the laws to guarantee that the schools and colleges are subject, sets up con

tricts school attendance had increased, since Government meets its full obligations to trols to prevent the accumulation of ex1939, an average of 70 percent. In that

local districts burdened with financial oblicessive stocks of material.

school year these districts were educating gation because of Federal activities. The regulation defines what it calls a

more than 130,000 children who lived on In the effort to get this program of finan. "practicable minimum working inventory"

nontaxable Federal property and about cial assistance promptly under way, all and provides that all agencies covered by

140,000 whose parents lived on private available resources of the Office have been the regulation shall hold inventories within

property, but who were employed on non- placed at the service of the Director of this specified limits. With certain exceptions, taxable Federal property. A double burden project. Forms, instructions, and proit specifically prohibits the receipt of such has been placed on these communities by cedures to follow in connection with the

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