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the corvette, of whose nationality, however, he might some were endeavouring to secure the guns, a few have had doubts.

had gone aloft to take in sail, but the greater Although the chase had now set every sail she number were running about, not knowing what to could carry, the corvette still gained on her.

do. Harry ordered his men to let go everything. “Those heavy tea-chests require a strong breeze to The top-gallant sails, which were still set

, were in an drive them through the water, observed the master instant torn into ribbons, the fore-topsail was blown to Harry. “I rather think, too, we shall have one out of the bolt ropes, and the mizen-mast, which had before long; I don't quite like the look of the sky, been wounded, was carried over the side. The prize and we are not far off the hurricane season.

lay a helpless wreck amid the raging seas, whicb The crew were piped for breakfast, and the officers every instant threatened her destruction. who could be spared from the deck went below. De Vere had been attacked by fever at Bencoolen, and was in his cabin. The master remained in charge of the deck.

CURIOSITIES OF THE CENSUS. Breakfast was hurried over.

BY CHARLES MACKFSON, F.S.S. When Harry and the captain returned on deck, a

am dark clouds were gathering in the northern horizon,

80 material an interest for all of us at one and fitful gusts of wind came sweeping over the period of our lives, and which will be asked again ocean, stirring up its bitherto calm surface, and and again by each succeeding generation as long as sending the spoon-drift flying rapidly over it. Still the world lasts, that it will be neither uninteresting the chase kept her canvas set, having altered her nor useless if we show from the census reports what course more to the southward.

a variety of occupations are open in our own little " They hope that we shall get the wind first, and island. Here is work for the brain and work for the be compelled to shorten sail, and that she will thus hand; work which calls forth the clearness of the eye have a better chance of again getting ahead of us,” and the acuteness of the ear; work which opens out a observed the master.

noble opportunity for the exercise of human sympathy Still the corvette carried on. The captain had his in the relief of bodily, mental, or spiritual distress, eye to windward, however, prepared to give the and work which at the first glance seems only calcuorder to shorten sail

. She had come up fast with lated to inflict pain; work which causes man to feel the chase, which she at length got within range of the high nobility of his being, and work which too her guns. A bow-chaser was run out and a shot often tends to remind him that he is indeed but one fired. The stranger paid no attention to it. A few step from the lower animals; work which grows out more minutes were allowed to elapse, when another of work, and work which simply supplies the needs shot was fired with the same result as at first. On of those whose lot it is to rest; work for the highest, this Headland ordered the English flag to be hauled and work for the lowliest; work for the oldest and down and that of France substituted. No sooner for the youngest, the richest and the poorest ; work, was this done than the stranger, hauling down the in short, suited to "all sorts and conditions of men, red ensign, hoisted the tricoloured flag.

aye, and of women and children too, for in this busy “I thought so,” exclaimed Headland; "shorten picture distinctions of age and sex are unknown. sail."

For males there are in all three hundred and eightyThe studding-sails were rigged in, the royals five different forms of occupation returned, but oven handed. Again the British flag was hoisted instead this large number scarcely represents the exact state of that of France, and a shot fired. On this the of the case, for under each subdivision we have a stranger took in her studding-sails and loftier | line devoted to the miscellaneous branches of the canvas, and as the Thisbe ranged up alongside, fired particular employments which are too numerous to a broadside.

be separately classified. The only heads under which The Thisbe's crew returned it with interest, and we find more than half a million of our eleven before the enemy could again fire they delivered a millions of males are those of the agricultural second broadside, which cut away some of her stand- | labourer, of whom there are 764,574, and the general ing and running rigging, and caused other damage. labourers, numbering 509,000. The occupations The stranger again fired, but after receiving a few which give employment even to upwards of a hunmore broadsides, evidently finding that she had no dred thousand are also very limited in number, inhope of escaping from her active antagonist, she cluding only farmers and graziers, of whom there hauled down her colours.

are 225,569; farm servants, 134, 157; engine and The wind had during the action been increasing, machine makers, 106,437; carpenters and joiners, and the sea getting up, it was necessary to take 205,624; plumbers, painters, and glaziers, 103,382; possession of her without delay; as unless her cotton manufacturers, 188,272; tailors, 111,843 ; canvas was speedily reduced, in all probability her shoemakers and bootmakers, 197,465; coal-miners, masts would be carried over the side. Harry volun- 268,091 ; iron manufacturers, 178,114; blacksmiths, teered to go on board, and, a boat being lowered, 112,035; and persons of undefined occupation, accompanied by Jacob and seven other men he 171,226. In a very considerable number of the pulled alongside. He had just gained her deck, and remaining classes there are less than 10,000 persons, was receiving the sword of the officer in command, and no small proportion of the whole are under when the gale which had long been threatening 2,000. struck the two ships. The Thisbo's crew having Looking first at the Professional class, we find that secured their guns, were swarming aloft to take in the Civil Service gives employment to about twentyher canvas.

five thousand persons, who are engaged in the The deck of the prize presented a scene of the various grades of clerical as distinguished from mere greatest confusion. Several of her men lay wounded, messengers' work, ranging from the Prime Minister




down to the much-discussed “Government writer," | period of age-ten to fifteen-it is easy to account whose grievances have of late occupied the attention for the return of 110, which represents the naval of members of Parliament on both sides of the House. cadets under training at the home ports; and it is Of these Civil Servants more than one-fourth are equally clear that thé 321 boy soldiers are drummers, between twenty-five and thirty-five years of age, fifers, or band-boys; but in the army an officer under after which the numbers decrease, until between fifteen must be an anomaly. The number of our sixty-five and seventy-five there are only 1,646. Even soldiers rises gradually up to thirty-five years of threescore years and ten do not, however, seem to when there is a great diminution, and when we reach prove a barrier to employment under the Crown, for forty-five years, the number has fallen below a thouthere are no less than 696 persons above seventy-five sand. In the navy the mass of the seamen are also in this class, including probably not a few who cling between twenty-five and thirty-five, a proof either to office because it is to them literally a second nature that the system of enlisting for limited periods of to go to and fro, to open their letters and to issue service results in the withdrawal of the men at a orders with that magniloquence and circumlocution comparatively early age, or else that they die or are which distinguish the Civil Servant of the old school. invalided. The probability is that the men from One of the curiosities of this portion of the work is inclination retire into civil life, and return to the that between the ages of five and ten we have one occupations which they left in early days when they civil servant returned, whose employment it would accepted the bait of the smart recruiting sergeant, or be decidedly interesting to ascertain. Between ten were drafted away to the guardship at some seaport and fifteen the number is under five hundred, but town. probably even already this has been considerably in- Another subhead of this great professional class creased, owing to the tendency, into the merits of is that filled by what are termed “Clergymen, which we will not now stay to inquire, to employ Ministers, and Church Officers." By the term boy-labour in the lower branches of the service. The “clergyman" must be understood the clergy of the number of workmen and messengers engaged by the Established Church, as the words “ Protestant minisGovernment is almost the same as that of the Civil ter"-a somewhat absurd piece of nomenclature, Servants properly so called, a fact which it is some- seeing that the title of Protestant is equally claimed what difficult to explain, for as it stands it would by the Church must, we conclude, be applied imply that each clerk required a subordinate to to all nonconformist ministers. Roman Catholic attend upon him. Probably, however, the car- priests are classed by themselves. The number of penters in the various offices, the bookbinders, the the clergy under five-and-twenty is nearly four hunattendants at the South Kensington Museum and dred, the great proportion, about 5,000, being similar places, are all included under this category. between thirty-five and forty-five, and the total nuniEven with this deduction there must be a suspicion ber about 20,000. The “Protestant ministers ” reach of wasted labour, into which, without suggestions of only half that number, and there are only sixteen false economy, it might be well for Mr. Disraeli hundred Roman priests. The church and chapel and his colleagues to inquire. Under the head of officers include three of very juvenile proportions, Government officials another large class of persons between five and ten years of age, while there are the telegraph clerks and messengers—will be in two scripture-readers, or missionaries, between ten cluded in the next census, but in the present volumes and fifteen, and four between fifteen and twenty. In we find them under the commercial class as the em- round numbers we have about 33,000 “ ministers of plöyés of public companies, the transfer of the tele- religion,” or, in other words, setting aside the eleven graph business to the Post Office having taken place hundred women employed in religious ministrations, since 1871.

we have one clergyman, Roman priest, minister, Local government absorbs almost as many men as scripture-reader, or missionary, to every six hundred national government, there being upwards of three persons, a fact which is somewhat startling, as it thousand magistrates, twenty-eight thousand police- proves that the spiritual destitution which we sadly men, and nearly eleven thousand union and parochial | know to be existing on every side is rather the officials. The number of the police gives a proportion result of ecclesiastical divisions and feuds than of of a little more than one of these functionaries to any actual lack of ministering power. Deducting every thousand of the population, a proportion which from the six hundred persons just named the infants might be tolerably satisfactory if the * Bobby,” as and very young children who require no teaching, it is he is familiarly termed from his connection with Sir clear that one teacher or preacher is more than suffiRobert Peel, were a sleepless animal; but as he is cient for five hundred hearers. Perhaps nothing can only mortal, and is consequently on duty either by serve more conclusively to show the extent of the dividay or night, it practically reduces the proportion to sions of Christendom. Does not such a fact as that

. half a policeman permanently on guard over every to which we have alluded speak in trumpet tones in thousand people. " Nearly half the constables are favour of a more earnest striving after unity, so as to between twenty-five and thirty-five.

prevent that multiplication of agencies over the same There is still a third class under this head de- field which seems to aim rather at denominationalising scribed as the East India and Colonial Government, than at Christianising the people? In point of fact we a title which must, we imagine, include some of the find much ground to a great extent untouched, while old East India Company's servants, and the repre- church and chapel stand side by side among the sentatives of the Colonial executivo, such as the people. Crown agents, consuls, and other officials.

Among the thirty-six thousand persons engaged in Turning from the non-combatant to the combatant connection with the law, apart from those charged services, we have another of those strange creations with the duty of its actual administration, who are inof the census-for we can scarcely believe in the cluded under the previous head of Government officers, reality of the individual—an effective army officer it is noticeable that the bulk of the barristers and under fifteen years of age. In the navy at the same solicitors are to be found in an earlier period of life

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than the majority of other professional men-be-| teen thousand beersellers, and to these must be tween twenty-five and thirty-five. The great body of added sixteen thousand women of the first and three the law clerks are between fifteen and twenty, pro- thousand of the second class, giving a total of ninetybably owing to their admission to the higher branches three thousand persons occupied in this trade under of the profession in after years, although a very large its several branches, from the hotel-keeper down to the number remain “clerks" to the end of their days. proprietor of the little wayside beerhouse of our rural In the medical class it is noticeable that dentists begin districts. These figures may almost be taken to repretheir work early in life, there being thirty-eight be- sent, with very slight deductions, the number of houses tween ten and fifteen, and nearly four hundred in the of public entertainment, as they are euphoniously denext period of age. Under the head of artists the scribed, in England and Wales, for the servants emcomparatively new science of photography gives employed at them appear in a separate table. And what ployment to four thousand men, and there are an astounding revelation is this ! Deducting from the eight hundred sculptors. The greatest number of whole population the six millions who are under musicians is to be found between the ages of fifteen years of age—and one would fain hope that twenty-five and thirty-five. The table of theatrical the publican gathers but little of his trade from mere persons tells a melancholy tale of early engagements, boys and girls—we have ninety-three thousand pubthere being several hundred under fifteen. The licans for sixteen millions of men and women, or number of males engaged in educational work at a nearly six for every thousand. youthful age is completely out of keeping with all These figures cannot strictly bo accepted as a the other professions, but this is easily explained by proof of the drinking propensities of the English the large number of pupil-teachers who are employed people; because, in the first place, a very large in our national and British schools. The number of number of the higher class of hotels are simply used “teachers, professors, and lecturers” fluctuates very as lodging-houses, while it may also be urged that curiously, as it stands at five thousand between they contain a considerable number of children under fifteen and twenty, then falls to twelve hundred be- fifteen who are excluded from the above calculation. tween twenty and twenty-five, next rises to two We will at once concede that such is the case, and thousand during the succeeding ten years, and again will admit that out of every six hotels or inns, one is falls to twelve hundred between thirty-five and forty- used simply for purposes of board and lodging, and five. The probable explanation of this variation is therefore merely stands to the traveller in the place

. that the pupil-teachers enter upon other pursuits of his own house for the time being; but having before they reach twenty years of age, and that the made this deduction-and it is a tolerably fair onegreat influx between twenty-five and thirty-five is we still have what we cannot help regarding as the caused by the introduction of a large body of young gigantic evil represented by five publicans, or beerclergymen and university men, who take a tutor's sellers, to every thousand people over fifteen years of post simply pour passer le temps, and who resign it age, or one to every two hundred. This result is directly they fall in with any permanent employment startling, but it is the creation of the census report, more congenial to their tastes. In a word, these and therefore it must be taken for what it is worth, figures prove what unhappily we had only too good and to our mind it should furnish a text for many a reason to suspect, that the profession of a teacher, sermon, lay and cleric. We do not argue-nay, we instead of being regarded as a noble calling worthy should be very loth to argue—that every signboard of the best energies of a man's life, is simply looked which hangs at the street corner is a proof of the upon as a make-shift—as a means of employment in drunkenness of the people; but we do assert without passing from college to the real business of life. Nor hesitation that it represents the means of temptation can this be wondered at. The position of under- to the weak, while it is a constant source of waste of master-the opprobrious term “usher” is happily time, and even of idleness, to those who resist the dying out with the associations which it inevitably grosser sin. calls up—is so badly paid that we can scarcely be It is not for us to point to a cure for such an surprised if men forsake it as soon as they can obtain evil as that which is here so plainly exhibited, anything more remunerative; and thus it is that the but one remedy is indicated in the very same most important work in many of our large schools, tables side by side with these figures, when we the teaching of the junior classes—is entrusted to find that for the whole of our enormous population men who are themselves only half-fledged scholars, there are only some five thousand coffee and eatingand whose interest in their work is on a par with houses. Here, then, is, we believe, the suggestion of their capacity for it. Whether our School Boards a remedy. Prevention, we all know, is better than and our Public School Commission will remedy cure; and although the results of the earlier closing this evil time alone can show, but there can be no of public-houses effected by the late Government, question that the vacillation betrayed by these coupled with the penalties imposed on habitual figures, and the withdrawal of men from the profes- drunkards, has had a very important effect in checksion at the very point when their practice and expe- ing what is proclaimed in every pulpit to be our rience would begin to fit them to discharge its duties, national vice, yet it stands to reason that the more are much to be deprecated.

powerful measure would be to secure, by the time the The second great division of the occupations of the next census is taken, at least a double supply of repeople is termed the Domestic class, including all freshment-rooms where the sale of intoxicating drinks “persons engaged in entertaining and performing is not made the first consideration. This is, we bepersonal offices for man," using this latter word, of lieve, one of the paths in which the philanthropist course, as answering to the Latin homo, purely as a might well direct his efforts. Compare the exterior generic term for the whole human race. The extent and the internal arrangements of these coffee shops of the public-house” business of the country is with the attractions of the gin-palace and the beerexhibited very clearly under this head, where we find shop, and what a contrast do we see! The one bright upwards of sixty-one thousand male innkeepers, thir- with gas and plate-glass, with an invitiug fire, a




warm-looking red curtain, and a comfortable chair ; are fifteen thousand still at work. But this again, the other with a row of confined boxes on either side though apparently out of harmony with the law of a long, dreary, and not always clean room, like a which holds good elsewhere, is easily explained, as set of comfortless unfurnished cabins on board ship; the farmer literally dies on his homestead in the and when to this repulsive aspect of affairs we add midst of his flocks and his herds, and practically the consideration that neither the liquids nor the never retires. As with the master so with the man, solids purveyed on the premises are of the most for the agricultural labourer seems to cling to his tempting description, we have a very easy clue to the spade or his plough as long as he can hold the one popularity of the tap-room as compared with the or guide the other, and for him there is no rest this coffee-room which the census exhibits. It is not, we side the grave. The same rule applies to all outdoor believe, in a large number of cases, because the occupations, increasing age being no bar to continued working man, the cabman, or the printer prefers beer labour. The contrast here furnished between the to tea that he seeks the bar, but simply because of workers without and the workers within doors is thus the greater show of comfort which is made to attract very great, but it will appear with still more force in him. And if, even as things are, the tea and coffee our next paper, when we shall look in detail at the shops are usually full, it can scarcely be doubted that varied employments of the great industrial classes of if they were more numerous and their appearance the country, and the ages of our artisans. So far, it more inviting, the tables might be turned ere another should be borne in mind, we have, unless otherwise census is taken.

stated, been writing exclusively of the male populaBut we must pass on. The male domestic servants tion. of all classes are most numerous between the ages of thirty-five and forty-five, although no less than twelve boys between ten and fifteen returned them

THE SAFE AND SPEEDY: selves as coachmen, about eight hundred of the same age as grooms, three hundred as gardeners, and a AMALGAMATED PROVIDENT AND GENERAL INVESTMENT thousand as hotel servants. Even when seventy-five is reached the old family servants seem to remain at their posts, although popular experience tells us that the race is fast dying out. The Commercial class might be more correctly

T has been already described as a list of persons employed in trade and

told that after her navigation, for it not only includes all men engaged

father's burial in mercantile pursuits, such as merchants, bankers,

Mary Dixon took salesmen, and the varied occupations of the com

up her abode in mercial traveller, and insurance agent, and the clerk,

the house of her which grow out of their trade transactions, but it

friends, the Batealso combines the vast army of men and boys em

There was ployed in the conveyance of goods, whether by land

plenty of room for or by sea, under which we find the whole of our

her, for it was a mercantile marine, and also those who perform the

better house than subsidiary duty of conveying messages, whether by

many in the street, telegraph or by hand. Here, in fact, we have the

and the shop in commercial enterprise of the community gathered

which the work was into a focus, and, as might have been anticipated, as

carried on was a age advances, the number of those engaged in the

separate building work of money-making—for that is what commerce at the rear.

at the rear. The constant skir-r-ring of the stockingreally amounts to-decreases with farless rapidity than frames was heard in the distance, and however harsh the number of men employed in other professions or the sound to ordinary ears, it had a pleasant savour of trades. The merchant or the banker, as we all know, good times to those who were accustomed to it. Daniel very frequently prefers to die in harness, and the Bateson himself worked in one of the frames, for figures prove that so far from the anxiety inseparable he was not a manufacturer proper, but a receiver from such a calling causing men to withdraw from and worker-up of materials for a larger establishit, they hold on even to such advanced ages as sixty- ment. Mrs. Bateson took charge of the seaming, five and seventy-five. The number of commercial and Mary Dixon helped her, giving some of it out travellers is greatest between twenty-five and thirty- to women in the neighbourhood, and doing a part five, probably owing to their absorption into the themselves. Mary received from the railway comother branches of their respective firms after going pany the five-and-twenty pounds to which she was the round of the country for a few years. Added to entitled by virtue of her poor father's insurance; and this, the work is of itself so arduous, involving had also a considerable investment in the post-office journeys north and south, east and west, with com- savings-bank, the result of her careful manageinent paratively little opportunity of rest, that it is easy of her father's earnings and her own. John Bateto understand the tendency to leave it in the years son was an industrious young man, with a good of middle life for a less exacting duty.

salary from his employers and a prospect of a rise. The Agricultural class furnishes the greatest pro- Altogether the household is - thriving and prosportion of aged workers, for here ve find, for instance, perous; and when Mary can recover a little from the the number of farmers and graziers gradually increas- shock of her poor father's violent death, and the ing up to the age of fifty-five, while up to sixty-five mourning shall have been put off, and the pain of and seventy-five there is a comparatively slight falling her bereavement softened, there will be a marriage off in the number in proportion to the average of in the family. other occupations, and even above seventy-five there It is early yet to think of this, though, of course,



it is well understood among them, and people will | Some thirty, some sixty, some an hundredfold,” he think of such things. John Bateson thought of it continued, reading from the motto of the "Safe and incessantly, and Mary knew it; though his conduct Speedy; " "that's a Scripture promise, ain't it? towards her in the first days of her sorrow was as Look it up, John, in the Bible." respectful and considerate as could have been desired. The Bible was a large and heavy one, and though The glazier did not fail to circulate the prospectuses always ready on a side-table, was, unhappily, not and other papers of the "Safe and Speedy," in Bur- very often opened. Mary found the text, however, ton Street and its neighbourhood, and special copies without difficulty, and read the parable of the sower were left at Daniel Bateson's house, addressed both and the seed aloud. “I don't see the application of to himself and “Miss Dixon." There was a great it,” she said, gently, when she had finished. deal of consultation about them; for though they “It's Scripture, anyhow," said Bateson ; "and it were looked at in the first instance without much seems to show how much a man ought to get who interest, yet the report of what had passed at “The works for it, whether he ploughs and sows or makes Feathers," and the fact that several of the neighbours stockings.” had resolved to go in for a good thing, reached their “Don't say 'ought,' Daniel,” said his wife ; “We ears, and Daniel Bateson and his son soon felt a have always got a fair return for our labour; there's desire to do the same.

no promise of thirty, or sixty, or a hundred per cent. " It seems hard now," said he, one evening, when for money after it's made and saved. We have no the little family were assembled in the parlour-"it ! right to expect that it will grow by itself, as it seems

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seems hard that I should only get two and a half to do in this club. I don't understand it, as you say, per cent. for my money, while others can have five but that's how it strikes me.” or ten, and sometimes make a lucky hit besides, like “ Here's another bit to the point,” said John, who that cent.-per-cent. story," pointing to one of the had been turning over the leaves of the Bible, sitting pamphlets.

very near to Mary that he might do so with the "A bird in the hand's worth two in the bush, more convenience; “Lord, thy pound hath gained Daniel,” said his wife ; “your money's safe where ten pounds." And he read the parable. it is, and you can get it when you want it; that's “That also was a return for honest labour,” said worth something; and thank God we have enough to Mary, and she pointed to the words, “how much go on with, and to spare."

every man had gained by trading.” Daniel was silent for a moment. “I don't see “Well, but,” said the other, “it's all one; for it why I shouldn't do better for myself, though, if I says lower down, 'Wherefore gavest thu not my can," he answered. “It's true we get work enough, money into the bank, that at my coming I might and I don't want to be idle ; but the greater part of have received mine own with usury?'. the profit goes to the factory-owners now. If I “That might mean the savings-bank," said Mary, could set up clear for myself, and supply the trade " if there had been one in those days; and the direct, I might live to be a rich man yet, old as “usury' would only be a proper payment for the use I am."

of the money; that is a moderate rate of interest, “I wouldn't be tempted, if I was you, Daniel ?” such as we get now. The post-office bank is better

“I don't mean; but you don't understand these than a napkin, anyhow." things : it's worth thinking about, at all events. "You're a clever lass, Mary,” said John, admir

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