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(Candidates will attempt eight questions).
1. What did a Roman, at the beginning of the Christian era, know of the world? What were the most conspicuous faults and errors in his geographical system?
2. Describe, with a map, the great trade routes between East and West, down to the end of the Middle Ages.
3. Discuss the work in exploration and geography either of the Arabs, or of the Norsemen, or of Italian merchants.
4. Describe China as Marco Polo saw it; and estimate the influence of his account on subsequent exploration.
5. Why did Spain take the lead in exploration and colonisation? Was her start an advantage or a misfortune to her?
6. "Colonisation depends on sea-power for its success." Do you think that Spanish colonisation suffered from the inadequacy of Spanish sea-power?
7. Write a note on one of the following Elizabethan topics: (a) the North-West passage; (B) the Empire of Guiana; (y) Drake's voyage of circumnavigation.
8. Illustrate from the condition of western Europe at the end of the 16th century the effects of the great discoveries.
9. Can you see any special advantages possessed by England as a colonising power?
10. Describe either from Canada or New England the early stages of colonial constitutional developments.
11. What has been the place of religion in the founding and building of colonies? Illustrate from Canadian history possible disadvantages arising from ecclesiastical control.
12. Estimate the forces which aided in the creation of a British dominion in India. Discriminate between such a "dominion" and a "colony" pure and simple.
13. What are the claims of Chatham to be regarded as the founder of the British colonial empire?
14. Would it be correct to say that "the critical epoch in British Imperial history came, not in the duel with France, but in the subsequent attempt to adapt home standards to imperial necessities"?
1. Is reality the same as appearance? Give the view of (a) The Sophists, (b) Plato. Add remarks of your
2. Explain and examine the different views held regarding the nature of the state from the Sophists to Aristotle.
3. Using as a basis Aristotle's analysis of the soul, explain what he means by happiness. What relation exists between happiness and pleasure?
Right action is impossible without both intellect and character" (Ethics, Bk. VI). Explain fully what view or views of morality Aristotle is confuting.
4. Mill's theory of the basis of induction, or Descartes' theory of the foundation of certain knowledge, or Bacon's theory of eidola. Any one.
5. (1) Distinguish (a) want, appetite, desire, will. (b) character, conduct, habit.
(2) What is meant by the phrase "universe of desire"?
6. Is the will free? Give arguments for and against, stating and defending your own opinion.
7. What, according to Ladd, is the nature of:
Compare his view with (a) Kant's or (b) Fecerbach's or (c) Spencer's.
1. What was the positive teaching of Plato regarding the nature of knowledge?
2. Using as a basis Aristotle's analysis of the soul, explain what he means by Happiness. What relation exists between Happiness and Pleasure?
3. "Right action is impossible without both intellect and character (Aristotle's Ethics, Book VI). What view of morality is Aristotle confuting? Explain fully his position on the subject.
4. Explain the different views held regarding the nature of the State from the time of the Sophists until the time of the Epicureans. Which view commends itself to you? Give reasons for your answer.
5. Give the chief principles of morality as taught by the earlier Stoics. Show how the rigour of their teaching was modified by later Stoic writers.
6. What is meant by "ideas" in Berkeley's sense of the word? What are their sources? Estimate his view in this respect.
7. In the Cartesian philosophy, what explanation was given in the attempt to overcome the dualism between matter and mind? Is the explanation satisfactory? If not, suggest a better.