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ment-science relationship and to assign some priority to the order of their solution, the subcommittee has amassed an impressive record of inquiry and investigation into many aspects of Federal science policy. As summarized in the subcommittee's cumulative record of 1970, the major subjects with which it has dealt from 1963 onward include: Federal science policy, funding and geographical distribution of Federal R. & D. programs, aeronautics, science education, National Science Foundation, science information systems and handling, standard reference data, environmental quality, fire research, technology assessment, management of Federal scientific activities, international science, and multidisciplinary or system studies.11
e. Senate Government Operations Study of Executive Reorganization for Science.-In the Senate Government Operations Committee, the Subcommittee on Reorganization and International Organizations under the chairmanship of Senator Hubert H. Humphrey began in 1957 an extended study of Federal organization of science activities, including science information. Convinced that reorganization of science activities was necessary, Senator Humphrey introduced legislation in 1958 and 1959 to establish a Cabinet-level Department of Science and Technology. During the 1959 hearings before this subcommittee, administration witnesses opposed the idea on the grounds that the newly created Federal Council for Science and Technology would perform the necessary coordinating role.
Gradually, the idea of a Department of Science was modified. Initial proposals to establish a Department of Science and Technology were redrafted to establish a Commission on a Department of Science and Technology to determine the content of a science department. This proposal in turn broadened into a Commission on Science and Technology to consider the organization of Federal scientific activities in general, with the need for and organization of a Department of Science and Technology as one aspect of a broader inquiry. Bills to establish such a Commission on Science and Technology were passed by the Senate in the 87th and 88th Congress and were reintroduced in the 89th Congress, but no further action was taken on any of them.
f. Senate Subcommittee on Government Research.-In the fall of 1965, the chairman of the Senate Government Operations Committee created a new Subcommittee on Government Research. The subcommittee served until 1969 as a legislative focus in the Senate for the examination of certain broad aspects of the Federal research and development program. Chaired by Senator Fred Harris, the subcommittee's inquiries included support for the social sciences, the establishment of a National Foundation for the Social Sciences, equitable distribution of research and development funds, Federal support of international social science and behavioral research, utilizing biomedical knowledge in the service of man, promoting social accounting and human resources development, and payment of overhead costs for contracts and grants with universities. The subcommittee disappeared at the end of the 90th Congress, although the committee chairman subsequently indicated the parent committee would sustain an interest in Government research.
41 See summary of activities of the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development 1963-1970, House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 91st Congress, 2d sess. 1970. Committee print. 83 p.
g. The House Select Committee on Government Research.Shortly after the creation of the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Development of the Committee on Science and Astronautics in 1963, the House of Representatives also approved the establishment of a Select Committee on Government Research, with Carl Y. Elliott as its chairman. The task of the Elliott committee was to conduct an investigation of the research and development programs of the various departments and agencies.2 The specific focus of the committee was to be directed to the following: (1) the overall total amount of annual expenditures on research programs; (2) what departments and agencies of the Government are conducting research and at what costs; (3) the amounts being expended by the various agencies and departments in grants and contracts for research to colleges, private industry, and every form of student scholarships; and (4) what facilities exist for coordinating the various research programs, including grants to colleges and universities as well as scholarship grants.
The membership of the committee consisted largely of ranking members from the several standing committees whose jurisdictions included Federal scientific and technical activities.
Working within a set deadline of the 88th Congress, the committee held a series of wide-ranging hearings between late November 1963 and January 1964. Testimony was taken from representatives of Government agencies, educational and nonprofit organizations, and industry. From an analysis of the hearings, the committee and staff selected 10 areas for further study, the results of which became the bases of staff studies, separately published. The final study was devoted exclusively to a discussion of national goals and policies for research and development, a subject which the introduction to the study noted had been an "underlying element throughout the hearings," whether or not directly discussed. Each study contained recom mendations for action, but not all of the staff recommendations were unanimously endorsed by the committee.
The hearings and staff studies of the Elliott committee provided a useful data base for subsequent investigations of aspects of this broad subject. One of its recommendations also led to the subsequent establishment of a new subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Operations. The Elliott committee itself expired with the 88th Congress.
h. The House Subcommittee on Research and Technical Programs. In 1965, the chairman of the House Committee on Government Operations established a Subcommittee on Research and Technical Programs. Chaired by Congressman Henry S. Reuss, its primary focus was on the management of research and development activities of the Federal departments and agencies.
Operating from 1965 to 1968, the Reuss subcommittee conducted investigations into many aspects of Federal research administration,
42 H. Res. 504, approved Sept. 11, 1963.
43 "Administration of Research and Development Grants." study No. I, Aug. 10, 1964; "Manpower for Research and Development," study No. II, Sept. 29, 1964; "Federal Facilities for Research and Development," study No. III, Nov. 19, 1964; "Documentation and Dissemination of Research and Development Results," study No. IV, Nov. 20, 1964: "Student Assistance in Higher Education," study No. V, Dec. 14. 1964; "Impact of Federal Research and Development Programs," study No. VI, Dec. 28, 1964; "Contract Policies and Procedures for Research and Development," study No. VII. Dec. 30. 1964; "Interagency Coordination in Research and Development," study No. VIII, Dec. 28, 1964: "Statistical Review of Research and Development." study No. IX, Dec. 28, 1964: "National Goals and Policies," study No. X, Dec. 29, 1964, study No. X, pt. II, Feb. 18, 1965.
including conflicts between Federal research programs and the Nation's higher education goals, decisionmaking for Federal research and development, the brain drain and the dollar drain, utilization of Federal laboratory resources, the use of social research in Federal domestic programs, better management of medical research in Federal domestic programs, and better management of medical research on the aging. The Reuss subcommittee was not continued after the 90th Congress.
A more comprehensive review of congressional science involvment during this decade would have to include mention of the activities of several other committees, including Education and Welfare, and Government Operations in the House, and Labor and Public Welfare, and Commerce in the Senate.
4. Organization for the U.S. Space Program
If any one activity can be identified which characterized the postSputnik period, it is the U.S. space program. From the successful launching and return of the first astronaut into outer space to the voyage and return from the moon, the space program captured the imagination and support of the American people. More practical reasons relating to American international prestige and military considerations further justified the effort.
President Eisenhower's message to Congress of April 2, 1958, in which he proposed the establishment of a National Aeronautics and Space Agency, contained a policy statement on the justification of the program. Referring to the findings of a study which his Science Advisory Committee had conducted, the President noted four factors in support of advancing space technology. These factors were: "(1) the compelling urge of man to explore the unknown; (2) the need to assure that full advantage is taken of the military potential of space; (3) the effect on national prestige of accomplishment in space science and exploration; and (4) the opportunities for scientific observation and experimentation which will add to our knowledge of the earth, the solar system, and the universe." The President said that these factors "have such a direct bearing on the future progress as well as on the security of our Nation that an imaginative and well-conceived space program must be given high priority and a sound organization provided to carry it out." 44
In the following months, the administration and the Congress labored to work out an organization which was acceptable to both. Principal issues in disagreement were the form the agency should take whether it should resemble the already existing NACA, controlled by a large part-time board of Government and non-Government members, or the AEC with a full time, small Commission—and also the question of civilian versus military control of outerspace research.
The compromise solution which was approved with the signature of the Space Act on July 29, 1958, established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as an independent agency under a single administrator which would take over the activities of the old National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Presidential guidance and inter
44 Message to the Congress of the United States, Apr. 2, 1958, in Inquiry into satellite and missile programs. Hearings * op. cit., pp. 2371-2372.
agency coordination would come from a National Aeronautics and Space Council, composed of Government and private citizens. Three years later, a 1961 amendment to the Space Act reorganized the Council under the chairmanship of the Vice President and limited its membership to Government members. From the public record, it appears that the Space Council has never been utilized fully as an advisory body in the formulation of space policy decisions.
The basic policy goals concerning space exploration which President Eisenhower had enunciated in 1958, were reemphasized and given new urgency in 1961, with the decision of President John F. Kennedy to commit the United States to a manned lunar landing by 1970. The President proposed this goal to the Congress on May 25, 1961. In his message, the President enumerated urgent national needs on which action must be taken in order that the Nation might secure its position of leadership among the free nations of the world. In addition to outlining measures to be taken in the economic, military and intelligence, civil defense, and disarmament areas, the President enunciated four space goals.
Pointing to the impact of space achievements on men's minds, from Sputnik to the recent manned space flight of Commander Alan B. Shepard on May 5, 1961, the President said:
Now it is time to take longer strides-time for a greater new American enterprise-time for this Nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement which in many ways may hold the key to our future on earth.
I believe we possess all the resources and all the talents necessary. But the facts of the matter are that we have never made the national decisions or marshaled the national resources required for such leadership. We have never specified long-range goals on an urgent time schedule, or managed our resources and our time so as to insure their fulfillment.
I therefore ask the Congress *** to provide the funds which are needed to meet the following national goals:
First, I believe that this Nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth. *** In a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon *** it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there." The three other space goals concerned acceleration of the nuclear rocket program, the communications satellite program, and the satellite system for worldwide weather observation.
The effect of the policy decision was to expand the scope and increase the pace of NASA's program, resulting in a reorganization and expansion of the space effort.
Public support for the space program was reflected through an increasing funding level. From fiscal year 1959 through fiscal 1970, approximately $40 billion was appropriated for the civilian space program. Research and development accounted for $32.5 billion of the total. These figures do not include annual appropriations for the military space program.
Within the decade, President Kennedy's goal was realized. On July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong first stepped onto the moon, he was accompanied in spirit by an amazed American and world audience. who shared the experience through television. The estimated cost of
45 "Urgent National Needs," address of the President of the United States (H. Doc. No. 174). Congressional Record, vol. 107, May 25, 1961, pp. 8877-8882. At p. 8881.
the effort through the first manned landing and return was calculated by NASA at $21.35 billion through July 31, 1969.
With the realization of this space goal at the close of the 1960's the question of: "Where shall we go from here?" came to the fore. In February 1969, President Richard Nixon established a Space Task Group, chaired by the Vice President, to study the scope and pace of the space program for the decade of the 1970's.
Their report together with supporting documentation from NASA, the Department of Defense, and the President's Science Advisory Committee, formed the basis for a policy statement of March 7, 1970, by the President concerning the future of the U.S. space program.
In essence, the new policy statement outlined a slowing down of the space program. The President acknowledged that "we must build on the successes of the past, always reaching out for new achievements. But we must also recognize that many critical problems here on this planet make high priority demands on our attention and our resources. By no means should we allow our space program to stagnate. But— with the entire future and the entire universe before us—we should not try to do everything at once. Our approach to space must continue to be bold-but it must also be balanced." He then listed three general purposes which should guide our space program, namely, exploration, scientific knowledge, and practical application of lessons learned. With these considerations in mind, he outlined the following specific objectives as goals for the space program:
1. We should continue to explore the moon ***
2. We should move ahead with bold exploration of the planets and the uni*** [Preparations for the "Grand Tour" missions of the late 1970's will begin in 1972.]
3. We should work to reduce substantially the cost of space operations * * 4. We should seek to extend man's capability to live and work in space. [This involves the Experimental Space Station now being built] * * *.
5. We should hasten and expand the practical applications of space technology ***.
6. We should encourage greater international cooperation in space Congressional endorsement of the new space program was reflected in the NASA authorization for fiscal 1971 which approved $3.4 billion, within $100 million of the administration request of $3.3 billion. 5. Policy Aspects of Government-University Relations for Academic Science.
a. Support of basic scientific research by mission-oriented agencies. At present all departments and agencies have authority to employ both grants and contracts as instruments for funding scientific research in academic institutions and elsewhere. Prior to 1958, however, the authority to make grants for research was contained in the enabling acts of only a few agencies, namely, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Department of Agriculture. Other departments and agencies such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Defense, and the National Bureau of Standards had only contracting authority.
46 "The Next Decade in Space," a report of the Space Science and Technology Panel of the President's Science Advisory Committee. Released March 1970. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 63 pp.)
47 "The Future of the U.S. Space Program," statement by the President, Mar. 7, 1970. Weekly compilation of Presidential documents, Mar. 9, 1970, pp. 328-331.
48 Ibid., pp. 330–331.