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That ignorance of each other's ways and lives has been a common cause, thruout the history of mankind, of that suspicion and mistrust between the peoples of the world thru which their differences have all too often broken

into war;

That the great and terrible war which has now ended was a war made possible by the denial of the democratic principles of the dignity, equality and mutual respect of men, and by the propagation, in their place, thru ignorance and prejudice, of the doctrine of the inequality of men and races;

That the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for justice and liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of man and constitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfill in a spirit of mutual assistance and concern;

That a peace based exclusively upon the political and economic arrangements of governments would not be a peace which could secure the unanimous, lasting and sincere support of the peoples of the world, and that the peace must therefore be founded, if it is not to fail, upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind.

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Chapter 2

Statements by

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES

GEORGE WASHINGTON, First President of the United States

Citizens by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. THOMAS JEFFERSON, Third President of the United States

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, Sixteenth President of the United States

Let reverence for the laws be breathed by every American mother to the lisping babe that prattles on her lap; let it be taught in schools, in seminaries, and in colleges; let it be written in primers, spelling-books, and in almanacs; let it be preached from the pulpit, proclaimed in legislative halls, and enforced in courts of justice. And, in short, let it become the political religion of the nation; and let the old and the young, the rich and the poor, the grave and the gay of all sexes and tongues and colors and conditions, sacrifice unceasingly upon its altars. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, Twenty-fifth President of the United States

There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says that he is an American, but something else also, is not an American at all. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, T wenty-sixth President of the United States

To obey the law is to support democracy. If every man thinks every law must suit him in order that he shall obey it, he does not support democracy but destroys it. The basis of good government lies in the fact that the people are willing to obey the law as they have determined it to be.

WOODROW WILSON, Twenty-seventh President of the United States

I believe in democracy because it releases the energies of every human being. CALVIN COOLIDGE, Twenty-ninth President of the United States

Whether one traces his Americanism back three centuries to the Mayflower or three years to the steerage is not half so important as whether his Americanism of today is real and genuine. HERBERT HOOVER, Thirtieth President of the United States

Who may define liberty? It is far more than independence of a nation. It is not a catalog of political "rights.”. Liberty is a thing of the spirit—to be free to worship, to think, to hold opinions, and to speak without fearfree to challenge wrong and oppression with surety of justice. Liberty conceives that the mind and spirit of men can be free only if the individual is free to choose his own calling, to develop his talents, to win and to keep a home sacred from intrusion, to rear children in ordered security. It holds he must be free to earn, spend, to save, to accumulate property that may give protection in old age and to loved ones.

. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, Thirty-first President of the United States

Those priceless rights, guaranteed under the Constitution, have been the source of our happiness from our very beginnings as a nation. We have been accustomed to take them as a matter of course. Now, however, when we see other nations challenging those liberties, it behooves us to exercise that eternal vigilance which now, as always, is the price of liberty. No matter what comes we must preserve our national birthright; liberty of conscience and of education, of the press and of free assembly, and equal justice to all under the law.

As a free people we must defend our dearly won heritage of freedom against all assaults. HARRY S. TRUMAN, Thirty-second President of the United States

There is no more precious possession today than United States citizenship. A nation is no stronger than its citizenry. With many problems facing us daily in this perplexing and trying era, it is vital that we have a unity of purpose—to the end that freedom, justice, and opportunity, good will, and happiness may be assured ourselves and peoples everywhere. Dwight D. EISENHOWER, Thirty-third President of the United States

We must unitedly and intelligently support the principles of Americanism. Effective support of principle— like success in battle-requires calm and clear judgment, courage, faith, fortitude. Our dedication to truth and freedom, at home and abroad, does not require and cannot tolerate-fear, threat, hysteria and intimidation.

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As we preach freedom to others, so we should practice it among ourselves. Then, strong in our own integrity, we will be continuing the revolutionary march of the founding fathers. *

Truth can make men free! And where men are free to plan their lives, to govern themselves, to know the truth and to understand their fellow men, we believe that there also is the will to live at peace.

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