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dom if any mortal men have such a power of legisla- contrary to the interests of true religion, as it is tion and judgment in it. This inquiry will bring us plainly opposite to the maxims upon which Christ back to the first, which is the only true account of the founded his kingdom; who chose the motives which church of Christ, or the kingdom of Christ, in the are not of this world, to support a kingdom which is mouth of a Christian ; that it is the number of men, not of this world. And indeed it is too visible to be whether small or great, whether dispersed or united, hid, that wherever the rewards and punishments are who truly and sincerely are subjects to Jesus Christ changed from future to present, from the world to alone as their lawgiver and judge in matters relating come to the world now in possession, there the kingto the favour of God and their eternal salvation. dom founded by our Saviour is, in the nature of it,
The next principal point is, that, if the church be so far changed, that it is become, in such a degree, the kingdom of Christ, and this kingdom be not of what he professed his kingdom was not—that is, of this world,' this must appear from the nature and end this world; of the same port with other common of the laws of Christ, and of those rewards and punish- earthly kingdoms, in which the rewards are worldly ments which are the sanctions of his laws. Now, his honours, posts, offices, pomp, attendance, dominion ; laws are declarations relating to the favour of God in and the punishments are prisons, fines, banishments, another state after this. They are declarations of galleys and racks, or something less of the same sort. those conditions to be performed in this world on our part, without which God will not make us happy in (Ironical View of Protestant Infallibility.) that to come. And they are almost all general ap
(From the Dedication to Pope Clement XI., prefixed to Sir peals to the will of that God; to his nature, known by the common reason of mankind, and to the imita- R. Steele's Account of the State of the Roman Catholic Retion of that nature, which inust be our perfection.
ligion throughout the World.'] The keeping his commandments is declared the way Your holiness is not perhaps aware how near the to life, and the doing his will the entrance into the churches of us Protestants bare at length come to kingdom of heaven. The being subjects to Christ, is those privileges and perfections which you boast of as to this very end, that we may the better and more peculiar to your own : so near, that many of the effectually perform the will of God. The laws of this most quick-sighted and sagacious persons have not kingdom, therefore, as Christ left them, have nothing been able to discover any other difference between us, of this world in their view; no tendency either to the as to the main principle of all doctrine, government, exaltation of some in worldly pomp and dignity, or worship, and discipline, but this one, namely, that to their absolute dominion over the faith and religious you cannot err in anything you determine, and we conduct of others of his subjects, or to the erecting of never do: that is, in other words, that you are infalany sort of temporal kingdom under the covert and lible, and we always in the right. We cannot but name of a spiritual one.
esteemn the advantage to be exceedingly on our side The sanctions of Christ's law are rewards and punish- in this case; because we have all the benefits of inments. But of what sort ? Not the rewards of this fallibility without the absurdity of pretending to it, world ; not the offices or glories of this state; not the and without the uneasy task of maintaining a point pains of prisons, banishments, fines, or any lesser and so shocking to the understanding of mankind. And more moderate penalties; nay, not the much lesser you must pardon us if we cannot help thinking it to negative discouragements that belong to human so- be as great and as glorious a privilege in us to be ciety. He was far from thinking that these could be always in the right, without the pretence to infallithe instruments of such a persuasion as he thought bility, as it can be in you to be always in the wrong, acceptable to God. But, as the great end of his king with it. dom was to guide men to happiness after the short Thus, the synod of Dort (for whose unerring deciimages of it were over here below, so he took his sions public thanks to Almighty God are every three motives from that place where his kingdom first be- years offered up with the greatest solemnity by the gan, and where it was at last to end; from those re- magistrates in that country), the councils of the rewards and punishments in a future state, which had formed in France, the assembly of the kirk of Scotno relation to this world ; and to show that his king- land, and (if I may presume to name it) the convocadom was not of this world, all the sanctions which he tion of England, have been all found.to have the very thought fit to give to his laws were not of this world same unquestionable authority which your church at all.
claims, solely upon the infallibility which resides in St Paul understood this so well, that he gives an it; and the people to be under the very same strict account of his own conduct, and that of others in the obligation of obedience to their determinations, which same station, in these words : ‘Knowing the terrors of with you is the consequence only of an absolute inthe Lord, we persuade men :' whereas, in too many fallibility. The reason, therefore, why we do not Christian countries since his days, if some who profess openly set up an infallibility is, because we can do to succeed him were to give an account of their own without it. Authority results as well from power as conduct, it must be in a quite contrary strain : 'Know- from right, and a majority of votes is as strong a ing the terrors of this world, and having them in our foundation for it as infallibility itself. Councils that power, we do not persuade men, but force their out- may err, never do: and besides, being composed of ward profession against their inward persuasion.' meii whose peculiar business it is to be in the right,
Now, wherever this is practised, whether in a great it is very immodest for any private person to think degree or a small, in that place threre is so far a change them not so; because this is to set up a private from a kingdom which is not of this world, to a king- corrupted understanding above a public uncorrupted dom which is of this world. As soon as ever you hear judgment. of any of the engines of this world, whether of the Thus it is in the north, as well as the south; greater or the lesser sort, you must immediately think abroad, as well as at home. All maintain the exercise that then, and so far, the kingdom of this world takes of the same authority in themselves, which yet they place. For, if the very essence of God's worship be know not how so much as to speak of without ridicule spirit and truth, if religion be virtue and charity, in others. under the belief of a Supreme Goveruor and Judge, if In England it stands thus : The synod of Dort is true real faith cannot be the effect of force, and if of no weight; it determined many doctrines wrong. there can be no reward where there is no willing | The assembly of Scotland hath nothing of a true choice-then, in all or any of these cases, to apply authority ; and is very much out in its scheme of force or flattery, worldly pleasure or pain, is to act doctrines, worship, and government. But the church
of England is vested with all authority, and justly which, above all others, a difference of opinion is most challengeth all obedience.
allowable ; such as are acknowledged to be very abIf one crosses a river in the north, there it stands struse and unintelligible, and to have been in all ages thus : The church of England is not enough reform- thought of and judged of with the same difference and ed ; its doctrines, worship, and government, have too variety. much of antichristian Rome in them. But the kirk of Scotland hath a divine right from its only head,
CHARLES LESLIE. Jesus Christ, to meet and to enact what to it shall seem fit, for the good of his church.
CHARLES LESLIE (1650–1722), author of a work Thus, we left you for your enormous unjustifiable still popular, A Short and Easy Method with the claim to an unerring spirit, and have found out a Deists, was a son of a bishop of Clogher, who is said way, unknown to your holiness and your predecessors, to have been of a Scottish family. Educated at of claiming all the rights that belong to infallibility, Trinity college, Dublin, Charles Leslie studied the even whilst we disclaim and abjure the thing itself.
As for us of the church of England, if we will believe many of its greatest advocates, we have bishops in a succession as certainly uninterrupted from the apostles, as your church could communicate it to us. And upon this bottom, which makes us a true church, we have a right to separate from you ; but no persons living have a right to differ or separate from us. And they, again, who differ from us, value themselves upon something or other in which we are supposed defective, or upon being free from some superfluities which we enjoy ; and think it hard, that any will be still going further, and refine upon their scheme of worship and discipline.
Thus we have indeed left you ; but we have fixed ourselves in your seat, and make no scruple to resemble you in our defences of ourselves and censures of others whenever we think it proper.
We have all sufficiently felt the load of the two topics of heresy and schism. We have been persecuted, hanged, burned, massacred (as your holiness well knows) for heretics and schismatics. But all this hath not made us sick of those two words. We can still throw thein about us, and play them off upon others, as plentifully and as fiercely as they are dispensed to us from your quarter. It often puts me in mind (your holiness must allow me to be a little ludicrous, if you aduit me to your conversation), it often, I say, puts me in mind of a play which I have seen amongst
Charles Leslie. some merry people : a man strikes his next neighbour with all his force, and he, instead of returning it law in London, but afterwards turned his attention to to the man who gave it, communicates it, with equal divinity, and in 1680 took orders. As chancellor of zeal and strength, to another; and this to another; the cathedral of Connor, he distinguished himself by and so it circulates, till it returns perhaps to him who several disputations with Catholic divines, and by set the sport agoing. Thus your holiness begins the the boldness with which he opposed the pro-popish attack. You call us heretics and schismatics, and designs of King James. Nevertheless, at the revoburn and destroy us as such ; though, God knows, lution, he adopted a decisive tone of Jacobitism, there is no more right anywhere to use heretics or from which he never swerved through life. Remov. schisinaties barbarously, than those who think and ing to London, he was chiefly engaged for several speak as their superiors bid them. But so it is. You years in writing controversial works against quakers, thunder out the sentence against us. We think it ill Socinians, and deists, of which, however, none are manners to give it you back again ; but we throw it now remembered, besides the little treatise of which out upon the next brethren that come in our way; the title has been given, and which appeared in 1699. and they upon others : and so it goes round, till some He also wrote many occasional and periodical tracts perhaps have sense and courage enough to throw it in behalf of the house of Stuart, to whose cause his back upon those who first began the disturbance talents and celebrity certainly lend no small lustre. pretending to authority where there can be none.
Being for one of these publications obliged to leave We have not indeed now the power of burning the country, he repaired in 1713 to the court of the heretics, as our forefathers of the Reformation had. Chevalier at Bar le Duc, and was well received. The civil power hath taken away the act which con- James allowed him to have a chapel fitted up for tinued that glorious privilege to them, upon the re- the English service, and was even expected to lend monstrance of several persons that they could not a favourable ear to his arguments against popery; sleep whilst that act was awake. But then, erery- but this expectation proved vain. It was not posthing on this side death still remains untouched to sible for an earnest and bitter controversialist like us : we can molest, harass, imprison, and ruin any Leslie to remain long at rest in such a situation, man who pretends to be wiser than his betters. And and we are not therefore surprised to find him rethe more unspotted the man's character is, the more turn in disgust to England in 1721. He soon after necessary we think it to take such crushing methods. died at his house of Glaslough, in the county of Since the toleration hath been authorised in these Monaghan. The works of this remarkable man nations, the legal zeal of men hath fallen the heavier have been collected in seven volumes (Oxford, 1832), upon heretics (for it must always, it seems, be exer- and it must be allowed that they place their author cised upon some sort of persons or other); and amongst very high in the list of controversial writers, the inthese, chiefly upon such as differ from us in points in I genuity of the arguments being only equalled by the keenness and pertinacity with which they are on fall downward, and which we call gravity! taking all occasions followed out; but a modern reader sighs this postulatum, which had been thought of before, to think of vivid talents spent, with life-long perse that such power might decrease in a duplicate proporverance, on discussions which have tended so little tion of the distances from the earth's centre. L'pon to benefit mankind.
Sir Isaac's first trial, when he took a degree of a
great circle on the earth's surface, whence a degree at WILLIAM WHISTON.
the distance of the moon was to be determined also,
to be sixty measured miles only, according to the WILLIAM WHISTON (1667-1752) was an able but gross measures then in use, he was in some degree eccentric scholar, and so distinguished as a mathe- disappointed ; and the power that restrained the moon matician, that he was made deputy professor of in her orbit, measured by the versed sines of that mathematics in the university of Cambridge, and orbit, appeared not to be quite the same that was to afterwards successor to Sir Isaac Newton, of whose be expected had it been the power of gravity alone principles he was one of the most successful ex- by which the moon was there influenced. Upon this pounders. Entering into holy orders, he became disappointment, which made Sir Isaac suspect that chaplain to the bishop of Norwich, rector of Lowe- this power was partly that of gravity and partly that stoffe, &c. He was also appointed Boyle lecturer of Cartesius's vortices, he threw aside the paper of in the university, but was at length expelled for his calculation, and went to other studies. However, promulgating Arian opinions. He then went to some time afterward, when Monsieur Picart had London, where a subscription was made for him, much more exactly measured the earth, and found and he delivered a series of lectures on astronomy, that a degree of a great circle was sixty-nine and awhich were patronised by Addison and Steele. half such miles, Sir Isaac, in turning over some of his Towards the close of his life, Whiston became a former papers, lighted upon this old imperfect calculaBaptist, and believed that the millennium was ap- tion, and, correcting his former error, discovered that proaching, when the Jews would all be restored. this power, at the true correct distance of the moon Had he confined himself to mathematical studies, from the earth, not only tended to the earth's centre, he would have earned a high name in science; but as did the common power of gravity with us, but was his time and attention were dissipated by his theo- exactly of the right quantity; and that if a stone logical pursuits, in which he evinced more zeal than was carried up to the moon, or to sixty semi-diameters judgment. His works are numerous. Besides a
of the earth, and let fall downward by its gravity, Theory of the Earth, in defence of the Mosaic ac
and the moon's own menstrual motion was stopped, count of the creation, published in 1696, and some
and she was let fall by that power which before retracts on the Newtonian system, he wrote an Essay tained her in her orbit, they would exactly fall toon the Revelation of St John (1706), Sermons on the wards the same point, and with the same velocity; Scripture Prophecies (1708), Primitive Christianity which was therefore no other power than that of Revived, five volumes, (1712), Memoirs of his own
gravity. And since that power appeared to extend as Life, (1749-50), &c. An extract from the last men
far as the moon, at the distance of 240,000 miles, tioned book is subjoined :
it was but natural, or rather necessary, to suppose
it might reach twice, thrice, four times, &c., the same [Anecdote of the Discovery of the Newtonian distance, with the same diminution, according to the Philosophy.)
squares of such distances perpetually: which nolle
discovery proved the happy occasion of the invention After I had taken holy orders, I returned to the of the wonderful Newtonian philosophy. college, and went on with my own studies there, particularly the mathematics and the Cartesian philosophy, which was alone in vogue with us at that time. But it was not long before 1, with immense pains, but no assistance, set myself with the utmost zcal to the
DR PHILIP DODPRIDGE, a distinguished nonconstudy of Sir Isaac Newton's wonderful discoveries in formist divine and author, was born in London, June his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 26, 1702. His grandfather had been ejected from one or two of which lectures I had heard him read in the living of Shepperton, in Middlesex, by the act the public schools, though I understood them not at
of uniformity in 1662; and his father, a man engaged all at that time-being indeed greatly excited thereto in mercantile pursuits in London, married the only by a paper of Dr Gregory's, when he was professor in daughter of a German, who had fled from Prague to Scotland, wherein he had given the most prodigious escape the persecution which raged in Bohenia, commendations to that work, as not only right in all after the expulsion of Frederick, the Elector l'ala. things, but in a manner the effect of a plainly divine tine, when to abjure or emigrate were the only altergenius, and had already caused several of his scholars natives. The pious parents of Doddridge early into keep acts, as we call them, upon several branches structed him in religious knowledge. I have heard of the Newtonian philosophy; while we at Cambridge, him relate,' says his biographer, Mr Job Orton, poor wretches, were ignominiously studying the tic that his mother taught him the history of the Oli titious hypotheses of the Cartesian, which Sir Isaac and New Testaments, before he could read, by the Newton had also himself done formerly, as I have assistance of some Dutch tiles in the chimney in the heard him say. What the occasion of Sir Isaac New-room where they commonly sat; and her wise and ton's leaving the Cartesian philosophy, and of dis- pious reflections upon the stories there represented covering his amazing theory of gravity was, I have were the means of making some good impressions heard him long ago, soon after my first acquaintance upon his heart, which never wore out; and there. with him, which was 1694, thus relate, and of which fore this method of instruction he frequently recomDr Pemberton gives the like account, and somewhat mended to parents. In 1712, Doddridge was sent more fully, in the preface to his explication of his pbi- to school at Kingston-upon-Thames; but both his losophy. It was this: an inclination came into Sir parents dying within three years afterwards, he was Isaac's mind to try whether the same power did not removed to St Albans, and whilst there, was solemnly keep the moon in her orbit, notwithstanding her pro- admitted, in his sixteenth year, a member of the jectile velocity, which he knew always tended to nonconforming congregation. Ilis religious imgo along a straight line the tangent of that orbit, pressions were ardent and sincere; and when, in which makes stones and all heavy bodies with us | 1718, the Duchess of Bedford made him an offer to
DR PHILIP DODDRIDGE.
educate him for the ministry in the church of and have none but the birds of the air, and the beasts
• You know I love a country life, and here we when he published a pamphlet on the Means of Rehave it in perfection. I am roused in the morning viving the Dissenting Interest. He afterwards applied with the chirping of sparrows, the cooing of pigeons, himself to the composition of practical religious the lowing of kine, the bleating of sheep, and, to works. His Sermons on the Education of Children complete the concert, the grunting of swine and (1732), Sermons to Young People (1735), and Ten neighing of horses. We have a mighty pleasant Sermons on the Power and Grace of Christ, and the garden and orchard, and a fine arbour under somie Evidences of his Glorious Gospel (1736), were all well tall shady limes, that form a kind of lofty dome, of received by the public. In 1741 appeared his Pracwhich, as a native of the great city, you may per- ticul Discourses on Regeneration, ard in 1745 The haps catch a glimmering idea, if I name the cupola Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul. The latter of St Paul's. And then, on the other side of the forms a body of practical divinity and Christian house, there is a large space which we call a wilder- experience which has never been surpassed by any ness, and which, I fancy, would please you ex work of the same nature. In 1747 appeared his still tremely. The ground is a dainty green sward; a popular work, Some Remarkable Passages in the Life brook runs sparkling through the middle, and there of Colonel James Gardiner, who was slain by the Rebels are two large fish-ponds at one end; both the ponds at the Battle of Prestonpans, Sept. 21, 1745. Gardiner and the brook are surrounded with willows; and was a brave Scottish officer, who had served with there are several shady walks under the trees, be- distinction under Marlborough, and was aid-desides little knots of young willows interspersed at camp to the Earl of Stair on his embassy to Paris. convenient distances. This is the nursery of our From a gay libertine life he was suddenly converted lambs and calves, with whom I have the honour to to one of the strictest piety, by what he conceived to be intimately acquainted. Here I generally spend be a supernatural interference, namely, a visible rethe evening, and pay my respects to the setting sun, presentation of Christ upon the cross, suspended in when the variety and the beauty of the prospect in the air, amidst an unusual blaze of light, and accomspire a pleasure that I know not how to express. I panied by a declaration of the words, . Oh, sinner! am sometimes so transported with these inanimate did I suffer this for thee, and are these the returns?' beauties, that I fancy I am like Adam in Paradise ; From the period of this vision till his death, twentyand it is my only misfortune that I want an Eve, / six years afterwards, Colonel Gardiner maintained
the life and character of a sincere and zealous Chris- which was attended with convulsions. No one, my dear, tian, united with that of an intrepid and active can judge so well as yourself what I must feel on such officer. Besides several single sermons and charges an occasion ; yet I found, as I had just before done delivered at the ordination of some of his brethren, | in my secret retirements, a most lively sense of the Dr Doddridge published an elaborate work, the re- love and care of God, and a calm sweet resignation to sult of many years' study, entitled The Family Expo- his will, though the surprise of the news was almost sitor, Containing a Version and Paraphrase of the New as great as if my child had been seized in full health; Testament, with Critical Notes, and a Practical Im- for everybody before told me she was quite in a safe provement of each Section. This compendium of and comfortable way. I had now no refuge but prayer, Scriptural knowledge was received with the greatest in which the countenances of my pupils, when I told approbation both at home and abroad, and was them the story, showed how much they were disposed translated into several languages. Doddridge con- to join with me. I had before me Mr Clark's book of tinued his useful and laborious life at Northampton the Promises; and though I had quite forgotten it, for many years; but his health failing, he was, yet so it happened that I had left off, the Sabbath in 1751, advised to remove to a warmer climate for before, in the middle of a section, and at the beginthe winter. The generosity of his friends supplied ning of the sixty-fifth page, so that the fresh words ample funds for his stay abroad, and in September which came in course to be read were Matt. xxi. 22, of the same year he sailed from Falmouth for Lisbon. And all things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, He arrived there on the 21st of October, but sur. believing, you shall receive; the next, “If ye abide vived only five days, dying October 26, 1751. The in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what solid learning, unquestioned piety, and truly Catholic ye will, and it shall be done to you ; then followed, liberality and benevolence of Dr Doddridge, secured
Whatsoever ye shall ask my Father in my name, be for him the warm respect and admiration of his con- will give it you ;• Ask and receive, that your joy temporaries of all sects. He heartily wished and may be full ; Whatsoever ye shall ask in niy name prayed for a greater union among Protestants, and that I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the longed for the happy time when, to use his own words, Son;' ' If ye ask anything in my name I will do it ;
the question would be, not how much we may and at last, "The prayer of faith shall save the sick, lawfully impose, and how much we may lawfully and the Lord shall raise him up. These scriptures dispute, but on the one side what we may waive, and falling thus undesignedly and unexpectedly in my on the other what we may acquiesce in, from a prin- lother, in the order in which I bare transcribed them,
way, at that inoment, and thus directly following each ciple of mutual tenderness and respect, without dis: struck me and the whole family very sensibly; and I pleasing our common Lord, and injuring that great felt great encouragement earnestly to plead them in cause of original Christianity which he hath ap- prayer, with a very firm persuasion that, one way or pointed us to guard. As an author, the reputation another, God would make this a very teaching cir of Doddridge depends chiefly on his . Family Expositor, to which the only objection that has been cumstance to me and the family. Then Mr Bunyan urged, is the occasional redundance of some of his but i' told him it was matter of conscience to me to
came, and pleaded strongly against blistering her ; paraphrases. His interpretation of particular texts follow the prescriptions of the doctor, though I left and passages may also be variously judged of; but the issue entirely to God, and felt a dependence in the solid learning and research of the author, his him alone. I then wrote you the hasty lines which I critical acuteness, and the persuasive carnestness of hope you received by the last post, and renewed my his practical reflections, render the work altogether applications to God in secret, reviewing the promises an honour to English theological literature. Dr which had so much astonished and revived me in the Doddridge was author of what Johnson calls ‘one family, when those words, the prayer of faith shall of the finest epigrams in the English language.'
save the sick,' came on my heart, as if it had been The subject is his family motto, : Dum vivimus from the very inouth of God himself; so that I could vivamus,' which, in its primary signification, is not
not forbear replying, before I was well aware, 'then very suitable to a Christian divine, but he para- it shall ;' and I was then enabled to pray with that phrased it thus:
penetrating sense of God's alınighty power, and with Live while you live, the epicure would say,
that confidence in his love, which I think I never had And seize the pleasures of the present day:
before in an equal degree ; and I thought I then felt Live while you live, the sacred preacher cries,
myself inuch more desirous that the child might be And give to God each moment as it flies.
spared, if it were but a little while, and from this illLord, in my views let both united be;
ness, as in answer to prayer, than on account of her I live in pleasure when I live to thee.
recovery simply, and in itself, or of my own enjoy
ment of her. I lay open all my heart before you, my Our specimens of Doddridge are exclusively from dear, because it seems to me something of a singular his letters.
experience. While I was thus employed, with an
ardour of soul which, had it long continued, would [The Dangerous Illness of a Daughter.]
have weakened and exhausted my spirits extremely,
I was told that a gentleman wanted me : this grieved (Written from Northampton, August 1740, to Mrs Doddridge.] me exceedingly, till I found it was Mr Hutton, now
When I came down to prayer on Lord's day morn- of the Moravian church, whose Christian exhortations ing, at eight o'clock, immediately after the short and consolations were very reviving to me. He said, prayer with which you know we begin family worship, among other things, 'God's will concerning you is, Mrs Wilson (who has indeed showed a most prudent that you should be happy at all times, and in all cirand tender care of the children, and managed her cumstances ; and particularly now, in this circumtrust very well during your absence) came to me in stance; happy in your child's life, happy in its health, tears, and told me that Mr Knott wanted to speak happy in its sickness, happy in its death, happy in its with me: I immediately guessed his errand, especially resurrection ! He promised to go and pray for it, and when I saw he was so overwhelmed with grief that he said he had known great effects attending such a could scarcely utter it. It was natural to ask if my method. child were dead! He told me she was yet alive, but So it was, that from that hour the child began to that the doctor had hardly any hopes at all, for she mend, as I wrote word to you by him that evening, was seized at two in the morning with a chilliness, I and by Mr Omey yesterday morning. I cannot pre