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UNESCO
Is It Going Our Way?

by George D. Stoddard
President, University of Illinois, and
Chairman, U. S. National Commission for UNESCO

UNE

NESCO has been called a fledgling. It is certainly an infant, with

almost human traits. It cannot walk at all without help and it will never be able to get anywhere alone. Designed to increase understanding, it needs a bit of understanding itself! It is like the child in Overstreet's scene:

“Along a village street, on an April morning, a mother and small daughter were going together, from home to store. Going togetheryet through different worlds. The mother, clearly, was going to the store. The small daughter was just going. Happily, she zigzagged along, a few steps behind.

“Suddenly, where sunlight slanted across a garden, the child made a shining discovery: a stone flecked with mica. Then and there she squatted down to examine this wonder: “Look, Mummy—the stone has stars!'

“With abrupt impatience, the mother turned. “Oh, for heaven's sake. Come on! I can't be dragging along with you all day.'

"Perhaps the mother was overbusy; or worried. But there was that about her mouth, and the steel edge of her tone, that gave one a shivering conviction that she spoke in her normal manner. Besides, had she been a person quick to notice shining things, she could scarcely have denied herself the beautiful moment that was hers for the taking: the moment of looking at a stone through the earth-intimate eyes of child. Not out of patient parental virtue, but out of gratitude, she would have stopped to look.

“Yet there must have been a time when that mother, herself a child, zigzagged through a world too entrancing to cross in a straight line. What had the years done to her? They had done, we must suppose,

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what the demanding clock-ordered years do the capacities of school children of all ages UNESCO have long-range objectives. They to many of us: they had narrowed the range and to the teaching conditions peculiar to should be viewed not as organizations that of her seeing.” 1

the various countries of the world.” 2 are striving exclusively to cope with immeThe story illustrates the problem that ex- One of the first concrete recommenda- diate situations, but as organizations that ists today among peoples over the world. tions made in this report asked educators build up a potential in defense of fundaPersons who see shimmering in a stone the everywhere to see that the textbooks used mental human rights. ingredients for world order are pulled along in their schools presented an adequate pic- Hence it is important that students underby a society whose watchword is progress- ture of the world in which we live. Re- stand the need for such organizations. The progress measured by the production and cently, Dr. Jaime Torres-Bodet, Director

rôle played by the UN and its specialized distribution of material things. Who can General of UNESCO, referred to a need for agencies is a vital one, and the potential conafford to be unhurried in this competitive history texts that are not merely the pres- tribution they can make to society should age? The answer is, all those who seek to entation of the past as a succession of vic- be brought before the children. As one establish a higher standard of living. Para. tories and defeats. ... Appearing as a means of doing this in the classroom, vari. doxically, they cannot reach the goal with- sort of referee who decides the rounds in ous local organizations can present phases out, at the same time, reaching the higher giant and murderous brawls between peo- of the programs of international organizaground of world peace. All who would ples, the history book remains the principal tions with which they have had experience. aid a child to grow strong and finally to bastion of nationalism in most countries.” Since the most vivid learning process is develop a new leadership, must take time If UNESCO cannot feel free to condemn the experiential, let us ask what kind of out for thought, for the weighing of values, militant nationalism wherever found, it can

programs will interest pupils ? for the testing of cooperative endeavors. be of little help in achieving or maintaining UNESCO clubs are one path along which

The first true liberal is the little child, peace. A world understanding is unlikely pupils and teachers can get a glimpse of advancing without the impediment of exterwhen the textbooks that children read in

education for peace.

Developed around nally aroused fears and blockings, first school present a viciously distorted picture themes like the Declaration of Human through the example of parents and then, of people in other countries. Here then is

Rights and its relation to themselves, for a long time, through the example of a point where UNESCO meets the indi. UNESCO takes on new meaning. Projects teachers. Companions weigh in the bal- vidual teacher. The teacher should place a in which everyone can take part, like corance, but they in turn, have their attitudes value judgment on the textbooks being used responding with pupils in a school in anshaped by adults at home and at school. and speak out against the book that spreads other country, help to make clear many We place increasing responsibility for a poison. The chief poisons lie in the glorifi- aspects of international relations which

prepeaceful society on the teacher. By stoop

cation of war and the reduction of human viously had been vague. ing down with the pupil and being able to personality to the status of the pawn. The

Let us look, for example, at the work of fire his imagination through things close great danger is the loss of freedom.

the student council of the Riverside High at hand, the teacher stimulates new think

School in Milwaukee, Wis. This group deing and keeps faith alive. Pupil Awareness

cided last year that they wanted to adopt Thus it is that the infant UNESCO, an

a school in France in order to further inter

Another responsibility that falls on the organization which is founded on the prinindividual teacher is that of developing signed the Pont L'Eveque School in Pont

national understanding. They were asciple that the defenses of peace must be con

within pupils an awareness of international structed in the minds of men, moves forward affairs. If UNESCO is to fulfill its purpose

L'Eveque, France, by the Save-the-Children in a program to teach international under

Federation and immediately began writing of helping peoples speak to peoples, there standing to the peoples of the world.

to the pupils over there. Then began a must be a sense of responsibility in youth The aims of UNESCO in public educathat will enable them to envisage citizenship

campaign helped by everyone in Riverside tion are to be found in the following articles

High School which resulted in boxes of in world-wide terms. Perhaps international of faith:

clothing, food, school supplies, and athletic understanding can be dramatized for pupils “One of the chief aims of education today

goods being sent to the adopted school. An by teaching them to live peacefully with one should be the preparation of children and

important byproduct of the program was another. If pupils are given to bickering adolescents to participate consciously and

that students at the Riverside High School in the classroom they have hardly developed actively in the building-up of a world so

had an opportunity to become acquainted, the background for getting along with peociety, rich in its diversity, yet unified in its

through letters, with pupils from another ple from other countries. By instilling in common goals of peace, security, and a

country. This project has given new perpupils a desire to live harmoniously with fuller life for every human being.

spective to these pupils and has helped the one another and a desire to know and under“This preparation should consist not only

educational work being carried on in stand people far away, the teacher will in the acquisition of skills, but more par- have taken a long step forward.

France. ticularly in the formation and in the de

Another aspect of a teacher's responsi.

Another example of how students can development of psychological attitudes favor. bility deals with the way international or

velop interest in educating for peace able to the construction, maintenance, and ganizations are examined. The UN and

through UNESCO is to be found in work advancement of a united world.

done at the West Virginia University High ? Preamble to the Report of the Eleventh International Con. “This preparation should be adapted to

School in Morgantown. Last spring the

senior class decided to center its graduation 1 Overstreet, Bonaro W., Freedom's People, Harper and 3 Torres-Bodet, Dr. Jaime. “Education in UNESCO," SchoWith permission of the publisher. lastic, Vol. 54, p. 13, April 6, 1949.

program in UNESCO. Their first step was

ference on Public Education, Geneva, Switzerland, June 28-
July 3, 1948.

Brothers, 1915, p. 37.

to inform themselves thoroughly. When in the community was high and the class ef- How, then, may we all contribute to interthey had made progress in this direction, fectively presented a dramatic production in national understanding? We can explore they held an assembly program to present five scenes, each representing an article with others, and especially with the young, the story of UNESCO to the rest of the stu- in the preamble to the Constitution of

common paths toward understanding and dents in the high school. This proved so UNESCO. Ending with the reciting in world order. We can grow in stature insuccessful that they formed panels of speak- unison of “Since wars begin in the minds

dividually, while teaching others, if teaching ers and presented programs for the civic of men, it is in the minds of men that the

is our calling, that there is no peace without leaders in the community through Rotary, defenses of peace must be constructed,”

a price to be paid; it is not an easy thing to Lions, the Junior Chamber of Commerce, the

program was a concrete illustration of

win and it is never fully guaranteed. Like and the like. They also prepared and pre- how a single group of students, under sound

health and learning and success and happisented a radio program over a local station. guidance, can move others to follow a The general participation of the student chosen path.

ness, peace is built up slowly, gathering body resulted in a UNESCO Carnival that These illustrations are only two of many

strength through the constant rededication netted several hundred dollars. With this projects that are capturing the imagination of those who believe in it. money the senior class was able to help a of pupils who are eager to understand a

UNESCO walks slowly indeed but it is school in one of the war-torn countries of world that seems to move fast toward war- going toward a new freedom. It is going Europe. By commencement time, interest and haltingly toward peace and stability. our way!

Consolidations Within Office of Education

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sible for the Office of Education to achieve closer program coordination and more effective service.”

United States Commissioner of Education Earl James McGrath announced: “Galen Jones will be in charge of the combined Division of Elementary and Secondary Schools, with Don S. Patterson and J. Dan Hull Assistant Directors. Dr. Hull will also continue responsibility for liaison with the Commission on Life Adjustment Education for Youth. Increasingly, students of educational administration are emphasizing the importance of considering the total educational experience as one continuous growth. This consolidation will make it possible to give more effective consideration to common problems in elementary and secondary schools.”

The combined Division of Elementary and Secondary Schools will have four sections: Organization and supervision, instructional problems of elementary schools, instructional problems

of secondary schools, and exceptional children and youth.

Ralph C. M. Flynt will become the Director of the consolidated Division of Central and Auxiliary Services, with Lane C. Ash as Assistant Director. This Division will now include sections on research and statistical service, information and publications, visual aids to education, educational uses of radio, service to libraries, and administrative services.

The section on administration of school and college health services will be located in the Division of School Administration.

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Dr. Bess Goodykoontz Appointed
Associate Commissioner of Education

Dr. Goodykoontz entered service in the Office of Education on October 1, 1929. For some years Assistant Commissioner and, later, Director of the Division of Elemcntary Education, she has been the author

of scores of articles and publications and Dr. Bess GOODYKOONTZ has been appointed In her new staff capacity Dr. Goody. has represented the Office of Education in Associate Commissioner in the Office of koontz has the responsibility, with other Education, Federal Security Agency, ac

numerous conferences and committees. In professional duties, for general oversight of

1946 she served as a member of the Educacording to an announcement released re- Office of Education conferences, field sur

tional Mission to Germany to survey the cently by Federal Security Administrator veys, and liaison with the Citizens Federal

educational situation for the Office of Mili. Oscar R. Ewing.

Committee and with national meetings of “At this time when the abilities of women lay groups and professional organizations tary Government for Germany (U. S.) and

to formulate recommendations for the acare receiving increasing recognition in pub. concerned with education. lic life,” said Administrator Ewing, “it is Dr. Goodykoontz was born in Waukon, complishment of United States objectives. particularly appropriate that this promotion Iowa, and received the B. A. and M. A. de- Dr. Goodykoontz has served as member comes to one of the outstanding women in grees from the State University of Iowa. and officer of many educational organizaAmerican education."

She received an honorary doctorate from tions, including: American Association of U. S. Commissioner of Education Earl the New York College for Teachers. Her University Women, Altrusa, Pi Lambda James McGrath commented as follows: “I teaching experience included the following Theta, National Council of Administrative look forward to working with Miss Bess positions: Rural and urban schools in Iowa; Women in Education, National Education Goodykoontz in her new position as Asso- the University of Iowa Elementary School Association, National Society for the Study ciate Commissioner. Her long and varied for Demonstration and Research; Super- of Education, American Education Research experience in the Office of Education will, visor of Elementary Schools, Green Bay, Association, and Association for Supervi. I am sure, prove of great value to American Wis., Assistant Professor of Education, Uni- sion and Curriculum Development. She is education."

versity of Pittsburgh, School of Education. also a member of Phi Beta Kappa.

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PLANS FOR CONTINUING endorsement and support of the Appearing in the photograph above are representatives of “better schools campaign” and for a report to the Nation early groups at large, including, left to right, Donald G. Anderson, in 1950 on the critical need for construction and repair of school American Medical Association; Mrs. Brice Clagett, General Fedbuildings, were made at the meeting of the Citizen's Federal Com. eration of Women's Clubs: Olive Huston. National Federation of mittee on Education held in the Office of Education, Federal Se- Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc.; Earl J. McGrath, curity Agency, November 17 and 18. Words of praise were U. S. Commissioner of Education; Kathryn McHale, chairman, expressed by the spokesmen of national organizations and groups Citizens Federal Committee on Education; Ralph L. Goetzenmaking up this committee, with regard to the contribution of the berger, Engineers’ Council for Professional Development; Mrs. Advertising Council and industry in behalf of improved school Evalyn B. Ownes, American Home Economics Association; Agnes conditions. The Citizens Committee report on school building Sailor, League of Women Voters; E. B. Norton, National Congress needs will graphically set forth facts on the present status of of Parents and Teachers. Other members of the Committee repre. and future requirements for schools to accommodate the Nation's sent agriculture; business and industry; labor; Negroes; veterans; growing school population.

and religious groups.

Teachers Not Prepared To Use Audio-Visual Materials

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OT MORE THAN 25 percent of the Dr. Wesley Maierhenry, Professor of tion to other instructional materials in their

Nation's prospective teachers—those Education, Teachers College, University of teaching. now preparing for the profession-are re- Nebraska, cited specific evidence from re- 2. Teacher education institutions which ceiving any instruction in use of audio- search studies to show that the use of audio do not now have audio-visual centers should visual materials.

and visual materials increases the effective- establish them and use them as a laboratory This fact was impressed upon a confer- ness and quality of instruction. A student

for the distribution of instructional mateence of 15 specialists in teacher education in biology, for example, he pointed out, rials. and audio-visual education held recently in “could be expected to gain from 10 to 20 3. Teacher education institutions should the Office of Education to consider ways of percent more from his study as far as the take responsibility for helping school sys. improving teacher education in understand- basic facts of biology are concerned." tems on in-service educational programs ing and use of audio-visual materials. Developments in the use of atomic energy with special reference to the use of audio Chairman of the 3-day meeting was Earl are implicit in the recommendations of the visual materials. Armstrong, Associate Chief for Teacher conference. In its report the group said, 4. Teacher education institutions should Education, Division of Higher Education, “The secrets of nature are being revealed select the most effective instructional mateOffice of Education. Assisting Dr. Arm- at an ever-increasing pace. If education is rials. strong were Floyde Brooker, Chief of the to be adequate in the years immediately Those in attendance at the Conference on Office's Visual Aids Service, and several ahead, it must give to all men added com- Audio and Visual Aids: other Office staff members.

petencies, increased understandings, and a Finis Engleman, State Commissioner of Dr. Lee Cochran, Assistant Director of greatly improved body of knowledge.” Education, Hartford, Conn.; Floyd HenExtension Division, State University of

drickson, State Teachers College, Albany, Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, made the assertion Next Steps

N. Y.; Earl Wynn, Audio Visual Education, that only a small fraction of today's student

A full report of the conference will be sent

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, teachers are learning how to use audio. to all institutions and organizations engag.

N. C.; George W. Redd, Head, Department visual materials educationally.

of English, Fisk University, Nashville, "Television can supplement but will never ing in the preparation of teachers. From

Tenn.; Roben J. Maaske, President, Eastern the many recommendations, the following replace the classroom teacher," Francis

Oregon College of Education, La Grande, are regarded as the most important next Brown, of the American Council on Edu.

Oreg.; 0. W. Snarr, President, State Teachcation, told the conference. “Education is

steps:
1. Teacher education institutions must

ers College, Moorhead, Minn.; Wesley a give-and-take process that requires the make certain that their graduates are pre

Maierhenry, Professor of Education, Teach. personal day-to-day relationship between

pared to use audio-visual materials in additeacher and pupil," he said.

ers College, University of Nebraska, Lin.

coln, Nebr.; Lee Cochran, Assistant DirecRoben J. Maaske, President, Eastern Ore.

tor of Extension Division, State University gon College, asked that "institutions pre

"... Close-ups of world statesmen study.

of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Roger Albright, paring teachers reexamine their programs to ing and debating world problems will give Educational Director, Motion Picture Assodetermine how they can best prepare grad

students a better understanding of daily

ciation of America, 1600 I Street NW., uates to use visual and auditory materials

headlines.”
Earl James McGrath, U. S. Commissioner

Washington, D. C.; Charles H. Hoban, Di. in their teaching. Young teachers tend to

of Education, made this statement recently rector of Audio-Visual Materials, Catholic teach as they are taught,” said Dr. Maaske.

when he learned that sessions of the United

University, Washington, D. C.; Walter “We must help college teachers learn to use Nations General Assembly would be tele. these materials in their teaching."

Hager, President, Wilson Teachers College,

vised 2 hours daily from Lake Success over There should be no fear that we will be.

CBS network facilities.

Washington, D. C.; A. J. Brumbaugh, Amer

Commenting further on the decision of come a nation of illiterates if audio-visual

ican Council on Education, 744 Jackson

the Honorable Carlos Romulo, President of materials are used more extensively than

Place, Washington, D. C.; F. J. Brown,

the United Nations General Assembly, to in the past, the conferees agreed. “Some

American Council on Education: J. Stan

have the General Assembly programs teleimportant jobs can be done only through vised, Commissioner McGrath said, "School McIntosh, Assistant to Education Director reading,” said Roger Albright, Educational

officials will be alert to these important new of Motion Picture Association of America,

educational dimensions, as well as to the Director, Motion Picture Association of

1600 I Street, NW., Washington, D. C.;

new opportunities for strengthening democAmerica. “Both words and pictures are

Arthur Stenius, Professor of Education,

racy by keeping students informed.” essential tools of culture and learning."

Wayne University, Detroit, Mich.

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