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apostleship, for o- the world, to reveal to them, and work in them obebedience to the faith dience to the doctrine of the gospel (called the faith, among all nations, for his name:

Acts vi. 7.) in his name and to his glory. 6 Among whom are

6. In which number ye also are, as many as have ye also the called of received the faith of Jesus Christ: (see note [c] Jesus Christ : Matt. xx. 16.)

7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of

7. To all the Christians that are in Rome, Jews God, '5 called to be and Gentiles both, beloved of God, and which have saints : Grace to you received that special mercy from him, to be from a and peace from God state of all unworthiness brought in and received by our Father, and the him to be Christians and saints, I send greeting, and Lord Jesus Christ. 8 First, I thank my thereby my heartiest wishes and prayers, that all the God through Jesus divine mercies and goodness and all manner of proChrist for you all, sperity, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus that your faith is Christ, be multiplied upon you. spoken of throughout the whole world.

8. And the beginning of my greeting to you must 9 For God is my be my acknowledgment of the great goodness of God witness, whom I unto you all, (which is an infinite mercy also to me, serve with my spirit who do exceedingly desire the advancement of the Son, that without gospel amongst you,) that the report of your submisceasing I make men- sion to the gospel of Christ is spread far and near over tion of you " always all the world. in my prayers; 9, 10. For God knows, and will bear me witness, 10 Making request, (whom I inwardly and sincerely serve in the preachif by any means now at length I mighting of the gospel of Christ,) how daily constant I am have a prosperous in mentioning all your wants to God, and, whensojourney by the will ever I pray, making this one solemn request, that of Gods to come un- what I have so long designed and desired may hap

pily, if it seem good in God's eyes, be accomplished 11 For I long to at last, viz. that I may come personally unto you. see you, that I may 11. For I earnestly and passionately desire to see impart unto

you you, that whatever part of my apostolical office or of some spiritual gift, the gifts which God hath endued me with may conto the end ye may tribute any thing toward the confirming of you

in the 12 That is, that I faith (who are Christians already) may be by me may be comforted freely communicated unto you. together with you That by my affording you some spiritual aid by the mutual faith both of you and me. you may receive comfort and advantage, and I also

13 Now I would by your being thus confirmed by my means; and so not have you igno- we may be mutual comforts to one another, by the rant, brethren, that communicating of my knowledge and the increase of oftentimes I purposed to come unto

yours. you, (but was let 13. And truly, brethren, I desire you should know hitherto,) that I that it hath been no fault or omission of mine that I

to you.


• for the obeyiog of the faith, eis Ünakon ziotews.

5 the called saints: see ver. 1. 6 how uncessantly, es ådlanehnTWS. requesting always in my prayers, πάντοτε επί των προσευχών μου δεόμενος. . 8 that I may come unto you, didelv apos šmās. 9 in, ev.


might have

some have not come all this while; many resolutions I have fruit among you had (but from time to time some obstacle hath interalso, even as among posed) that I might have the comfort of seeing you,

and imparting somewhat to you which may tend to your advantage and proficiency, as I have in the rest of the nations that have been either converted by me or whom I have since visited and confirmed, as I de

sire to do you at this time, ver. 10. 14 I am debtor both

14. I count myself obliged to do whatsoever I can to the Greeks, and (either in the preaching of the gospel or confirming to the Barbarians ; them which have received it) to all sorts of men in and to the unwise.' the world, both those of the churches in Asia, Ephe

sus, &c. which are in Greece, and others which are most distant from them, and by the Greeks called Barbarians; and so I count myself to owe to you Romans the taking a journey to you at this time, from

which I have hitherto been hindered, ver. 13. 15 So, as much as

15. And so it is not my fault, who for my part, and in me is, I am ready as much as my will is concerned in it, am most cheerto you that are at fully ready to take this journey to Rome also, to Rome also. preach the gospel among you.

16 For I am not 16. For I am so far from concealing that I am very ashamed of the gos- forward and earnest to make known the gospel of it is the power of Christ, whatsoever opposition or persecution or pains God unto salvation it cost me, knowing it to be a most effectual means, to every one that the only one now designed by God, to bring all men believeth; to the Jew that embrace it to repentance and reformation of life, first, and also to the (see note [a] ch. x,) and that which is by God ap

pointed to be made known not only to the Jews, who had the privilege of having it first revealed to them, (see Acts iii. 26,) but to all others of all the nations of

the world. 17 For therein 10s 17. For that economy of God's, that gracious methe [6]righteousness thod of accepting and rewarding all those that shall of God revealed from receive the faith and obedience of Christ, whether faith to faith: as it is written, The just

Jews or Gentiles, is in or by the gospel revealed and shall live by faitá. promulgated, to this end, that men should believe on

him and obey him sincerely, and so be partakers of it, and being justified by faith should continue to live by faith ; that according to that which is said by the prophet Habakkuk, ch. ii. 4, The just shall by God's mercy accepting and rewarding his faith (his adherence and fidelity to him) return from captivity and live happily, so now in like manner all that fear God should return from the captivity of sin, and continue

10 the righteousness of God by faith is revealed to faith.



to live a pure Christian life here, according to the

rules of the gospel. 18 For the wrath 18. For on the other side the displeasure and venof God is revealed geance of God is most severely denounced against from heaven against those that join impious and unrighteous lives with the unrighteousness of profession of Christianity, that obey not the gospel men, who " [c] hold which they receive, ch. ii. 8, (and such are the Gnothe truth in unright- stic heretics among you,) or that by indulgence in

vicious courses obstruct the gospel, suffer it not to

have force on themselves or others : (see ch. ii. 24.) Because that 19. It being certain (and by their profession acwhích may be known knowledged) that God, as far as is necessary, is made of God is manifest known among them ; for indeed God himself hath rehath shewed it unto vealed and made himself known (beyond all excuse them.

of ignorance) by the various methods that he hath

made use of. 20 For the invisi. 20. For those things that are not of themselves visible things of him ble, the infinite power and divinity of God, which from [d] from the crea- time to time, ever since the creation of the world, tion of the world are have been in themselves invisible, yet being beheld clearly seen, being understood by the and seen, (as in reflection,) by his various dealings things that are in the world, are now become visibly discernible, so far 13 made, even


as to render them which do not discern, or which eternal power Godhead so that knowing do not serve and worship him as God, that they are without ex- is, do not live according to the rule of the gospel,

utterly uncapable of the excuse of faultless ignorance:

(see note [k] Matt. i.) 21 Because that, 21. Because that knowledge which they have and when they (e) knew boast of (and from thence style themselves Gnostics, him not as God, nei- the deepest knowing men) is not by them made use ther were thankful; of to the worshipping or acknowledging of him, but but became vain in they have fallen to the worshipping of images, (which their imaginations, are in Hebrew called vanities,

falsities, ver. 25, and and their foolish nothings, see note [d] ch. viii.,) and by so doing put heart was darkened.

out that light which was vouchsafed them by God.

(How this was true of the Gnostics, see notes [e][f].) 22 Professing them- 22. Assuming the title of Gnostics, of knowing selves to be wise, more, of being wiser than other men, they have they became fools, proved more sottish than any,

23. And changed 23. And instead of the invisible majesty and glothe [f] glory of the rious appearances of God in bright clouds, &c., uncorruptible God into

wherein God on mount Sinai manifested himself to

image made like to cor. Moses, but was not seen by him, they have expressed ruptible man, and him and worshipped him in the images of Simon

cuse :



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among them, dy aútois. 13 done, noijuao .. 14 so far

15 the likeness of an image of corruptible man, duobuatı 18 above, or,




to birds, and four. Magus and Helena, (see note [e],) and have fallen footed beasts, and into all the heathen idolatry, of worshipping of birds creeping things. 24 Wherefore God

and beasts and serpents, that is, the vilest and meanalso gave them up est things, by partaking in their idol-feasts, &c.

uncleanness 24. Upon which provocation of theirs God hath through the lusts of withdrawn his grace from them, hath not restrained,

own hearts, but left them to themselves, to the pursuit of all their to dishonour their own bodies between filthy desires, and permitted them to break out into themselves : all uncleannesses of the most odious unnatural kinds,

25 » Who changed one with another to commit all reproachful and the truth of God in- unnatural villainies : to a lie, and worshipped and serv- 25. A just punishment on them that had changed ed the creature the gospel into a fable, (see note [f],) or the true in

[9] more than the visible God into an idol, (a falsity, an empty vain Creator, whois bless- nothing, ver. 21,) worshipping mere creatures even ed for ever. Amen. 26 For this cause

above and in opposition to the Creator, (see 2 Thess. God gave them up ii. 4,) that one eternal Majesty whom alì are obliged unto vile affections: to worship. for even their wo

26. This, I say, hath provoked God to leave them men did change the

to their own lusts without restraint, to permit them to natural use into that which is against na- fall into reproachful sins, and mere violences, and ture :

contumelies of nature : for even their women27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the b their idolatry bringing these unnatural lusts upon woman, burned in them, the punishment of that former sin : (see note their lust one toward [f] Jude.) another; men with men working 19 that

28. And this by way of retaliation, as they have which is unseemly, not thought fit to acknowledge God in their practices, b and receiving in (but only to boast of their deep knowledge,) so God themselves that re- hath left them to themselves, and given them up to a compence of their villainous, detestable, abominable state of mind, to error which

commit unnatural things, such as nobody will think 28 And even

tolerably fit, or approve of; they 20 did not like 29, 30. Whether sins of uncleanness of all sorts, of 24 to retain God in which they are full, or whether malice, bloodiness, their knowledge,

every God

contention, (which also these Gnostics where them over to a [h] reprobate professed against the Christians,) falseness, baseness mind, to do those of disposition, infusing hatred and variance secretly things which are not into all, detestable abominable people, most insolent convenient;

in their reproaching of others, and boasting of them29 Being filled with all unrighteousness,

selves, inventors of all sorts of strange villainies, espefornication, 23 wick- cially those of uncleanness, contemners of all that are





16 in the lasts of their hearts unto uncleanness, εν ταις επιθυμίαις των καρδιών αυτών είς ακαθαρσίαν. . 17 As many as have transformed, Oltuves uethMatav. beside, tapé. 19 filthiness, åoxnuogúvnv. 20 have not thought good, oủk édokiuaoay. 21 to have God in acknowledgment, tov Oedy éxelv év ériyváoel. 22 meet, kadhKovta. 23 villainy, inordinate desires, naughtiness.


edness, [i]covetous- placed over them, especially the rulers of the church, ness, maliciousness; the apostles, &c. : (see note [d] Jude 8.) full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, 24

31. Caring not how they behave themselves tolignity; whisperers, wards other men, honestly or no, whether they in30 Backbiters, 25 ha- jure others or no, unfit for friendships, for leagues, ters of God, 24 [k]de- or bargains, who do not well in consort with others, spiteful, proud,

have nothing of trust or kindness or constancy in boasters, inventors of evil things, diso- them, void of all kindness to their nearest friends, bedient to parents, Luke xxi. 16, unreconcilable to all against whom they

31 27, [1] With- have conceived any malice, men without all bowels out understanding, of compassion in persecuting of others. [m] covenantbreakers, without natural

32. Who having received the faith of Christ, the affection, implaca- Christian profession, (taking upon them to be most ble, unmerciful : skilful in mysteries, to know more than any others,) 32 Who knowing of which it is one acknowledged part, that of such the judgment of sins as these eternal damnation is the just reward, God, that they which commit such things do yet not only favour themselves in the commission are worthy of death, of them, (to which they may have some temptations not only dothe same, from the flesh,) but, as if their very understandings but have pleasure in

were debauched and corrupted, do approve and pathem that do them. tronise (see Theophylact) them in others, and think

the committing such things so far from crimes in them that they make them parts of their religion, special mysteries and depths of their theology, very pious and commendable in any of their followers.

CHAP. II. THEREFORE 1. By this it appears how little can be said in exthou art inexcusable, cuse of those seducers among you, who judge and O man, '[a] whoso- condemn the orthodox Christians as breakers of the ever thou art that judgest: for where- law, only because they are not circumcised, &c., when in thou judgest an- they who thus condemn them observe not the law, no, other, thou

con- not in that very particular which circumcision pecudemnest thyself; for liarly noted, the abstaining from abominable uncleanthou that judgest doest the same nesses, but live and go on in those sins, ch. i. 29, and things.

so condemn themselves in judging others. 2 But ? we are sure

2. Whereas it is most infalliby certain and acknowthat the judgment ledged by all, that God passes judgment rightly, not of God is according sparing a Jew for his outward ceremonies when he to [b] truth against punishes a Gentile that lives as well as he, but them which commit such things.

punishing sin, rewarding disobedience (if it be not reformed and forsaken) wheresoever he finds it, without any acceptation of persons, or consideration of external performances or privileges or advantages in any.

24 ill disposition, Kakondeias. 25 hated by God, Beootuveis. 26 contumelious, haughty. 27 unconscionable. I every one, that judgest. 2 we know, oldauev.

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