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branches of trees, the disk of a flower, the seeds of a fruit, the symmetrical parts of a radiate animal,----all alike due to the great law of Phyllotaxis, resulting from the dual action of the centripetal and centrifugal forces in nature.
The ORDER OF DEVELOPMENT in the animal kingdom, is from the lower to the higher. The coils of ascent around a central stem are formed by a system of dichotomous branches at right angles to each other. The alternating pairs of branches compose one circle of four rays of related animals, with a central stem of higher forms. The higher stem is analogous to the perpendicular axis of the snow-flake; to the trunk of a tree; to the earth's axis of rotation; to the centre of rotation of the planetary system; and to every axis of rotation in nature.
After showing the rise of group after group of animals in successive geologic periods through a line of extinct forms, from the Protozoans to the Primates, Miss Lewis proceeds:
The group known as the Primates is composed of both branches of the Quadrumana and Hominina. There can be doubt, although connecting forms are as yet wanting, that the extinct pachydermatous Quadrumana of the Eocene were the generalized forms from which arose these three lines of development. These pachyderms were neither true lemurs, monkeys, apes nor men, but were closely related to extinct ungulates, carnivores, proboscidians, rodents and insectivores. They had the dental arches unbroken by a diastema as in mun, which was the case with a large number of the Eocene Monodelphians.
It has been no part of my purpose to give the characters of the different groups in the animal kingdom. My object has been to show how, by the simple method of bichotomous branching, whorls of four great groups are formed in succession around a main trunk of comprehensive forms, from the Protozoa up to the Discoida, and that a man arises in the axis of development for the whole animal kingdom ; that he existed as the flower exists in the seed, and that in the line of his coming he lifted all below him and held them at a higher level. As yet there is no proof that this central stem hominina budded from its base earlier than the Quaternary period. If the great law of Progress continued without interruption, Man arose at first on a far higher round than his lateral congeners. The central stem has been shown to be the highest from the Metazoans which arose from a Protozoin base; the vertebrate from the invertebrate; the mummal from the lower classes; the monodelphian from the implacentals, and the discoidans from the lower monodelphians. There is no reason to suppose that a general law failed here, but every reason to believe that with successive changes the rise in development became infinitely important. If bone for bone, muscle for muscle, and every other physical character could be shown to be more similar in man and the apes than naturalists admit, the distinction between them would still remain one of the broadest in nature. In man, THOUGHT FORCE gained its true terrestrial exponent, and the Soul beamed from its tenement to work all the wonders it has wrought. Nothing paramount to this occurred earlier; not even the change from inanimate to animate matter was a rise so grand, so fruitful in results as this.
But as the forces and tendencies of intellectual life lie sleeping in the ovule from which is evolved the individual man, so in the germ of Being residing in atoms of ether may sleep the forces and tendencies of immeasurable spiritual power. The erect, large-brained thinker was ordained, when atoms ranged themselves by their axes of rotation. This intelligent being is a necessity of the eternal activities of nature, which, working under the guidance of the Divine Ordainer, must produce good, better, best. Atomic Force, Molecular Force, Growth Force, Nerve Force, Thought Force, Spiritual Power, these succeed each other because the universe is living and not dead; because the Supreme Soul vivifies eternally with light and lise and love,-with all the attributes of Mind.
Considering life as one of the cosmical forces resulting from the interaction of Spirit and Matter, coeval with God and eternal in duration, its sphere of activity must be boundless as infinitude; and, wherever all the forces of nature act together in due harmony, there must Life be exhibited in one phase or another of its development. To what height it may arise above anything known upon earth, it is impossible for the human mind to conjecture. Our individual duty is to rise as near the Source as is possible to each, and thus aid in elevating our own race.
That one single sphere should be selected as a theater for the display of the vital forces is incompatible with the play of the whole class of motions whose proper field of action is the universe. The improbability of the partial action of general laws is so strong as to bear the stamp of impossibility, and we are warranted in believing that we are connected by ties of relationship not only with every terrestial being, but also with those existing on every life center in the expanse beyond; and that the Purpose of Creation is to multiply beings attuned to the Divine Nature, destined to an immortal existence in the midst of His everlasting harmonies.
THE ORGANIZATION OF HOUSEHOLD LABOR.
BY ANNA C. GARLIN.
ORGANIZATION, as applied to labor, is that process of civilization which separates the industry of the world into parts, defines the details of each part, and sets each man at work upon that part and detail for which his taste and training fit him. This process has been applied to every part of industry more perfectly than to Household Labor. The relative positions of man and woman in respect to family life inhere in the nature of things, and are therefore unchangeable; but the method of each in accomplishing special work may and must change with changing outward conditions. The method of man has changed, until now he has become a specialist in labor, fulfilling his father-office in whatever way suits him best. But the mother-office still demands a general scope, includiug training in several distinct and differing industries. This pressure upon the house-mother is increased by the growing luxury of modern life, by the absorption of much trained and intelligent womanhood in other than domestic fields and by the increasing public demands made upon women. Added knowledge of the laws of inheritance, of physiology and hygiene is awakening women to the consciousness that lives so burdened can seldom transmit both physical and mental power to their offspring; while the taste for learning and selfculture, which is the fruit of better education for women, makes a large and increasing class of women shrink from that average condition of family life which has in it little or no place for the individual mental development of the woman who is its head. These various considerations prevent many women from marrying or from entering gladly into maternity, whom humanity can least afford to spare from its living links of transmitting and transmitted virtue and intelligence. Meanwhile,although the demands of business upon men, the high rents of cities, and other conditions of our civilization press upon our attention many difficult social problems,the leading intelligence of women is just now directed less toward family life, less toward the wifehood and motherhood of woman, than toward the developinent of a stronger, freer individuality in woman herself. This direction of thought and the increase of single women to whom self-support is a necessity, have together created a strong tendency toward the specialization of mental study and industrial training among women to suit the conditions of outside business, which man has already organized for the purpose of economy of force.
Can this tendency toward the stimulation of technical talent, toward concentrated training and active competition with men, be made to harmonize with that general, complex and exhaustive demand which the average home-life makes upon the wife and mother? A wise and enduring improvement in the education of women must be based on the inherent wants of the whole human nature, not on the suffering caused by a disturbance of the balance of the sexes. If this tendency is only more sharply accenting a choice to be made between single life, money independence and a congenial business on the one hand, and marriage, maternity and a complete absorption of one's self in one's relations on the other, then its enemies have coarse common sense on their side. If this tendency is only useful to the single minority, the training it indicates will be less popular than that general culture, which, however desirable in the home, has no “ market value;" and self-supporting women in fields outside of domestic lise will find the difficulty of determining in youth who is to be of the self-supporting class, the time and money which must be spent in learning any trade or profession, the breaking up of the ranks of skilled workers by marriage, operating against them forever, as now.
But is it not possible that when we have stripped from the natural and necessary demand made by family life upon women the covering of conventional tradition, it may be found to contain nothing incompatible with that education and mode of life which seem best adapted to the personal development of woman? A strong, free and happy womanhood seems to demand, in addition to moral, mental and physical culture, such a direction of practical energy as will make self-support as easy as it is for men; and a career for the emotional life as well. Home-making is such a career, but home-making and housekeeping are not synonymous terms. The one is spiritual, and is successful or unsuccessful according to the individual character. The other is a collection of industrial pursuits which lie nearest the home-life, and are therefore dependent on the home maker's direction ; but which are susceptible, like all other industries, of organization into an orderly process of business. How may such organization be effected ? By the process of division and combination man has used in his work.
First, By the annihilation of the private kitchen and laundry, and by such an arrangement of house-maid service as will secure to it the same freedom enjoyed by the male mechanical laborer, and to housekeepers the services of a competent person by the hour.
Second, By the establishment of public nurseries under the charge of trained nurses, not, of course, as substitutes, but as supplements—like the Kindergarten and School --to those of private homes. These would secure to women during the period of child-bearing and rearing from two to four hours a day freedom for special pursuits, and to babies, what only the exceptional few now enjoy, the constant attention of competent persons.
Third, By the simplification of clothesmaking, so that healthful and appropriate garments for women and children can be ordered and worn with no more trouble or expense than the masculine costume. In short, by culling out each separate department of household labor and making a definite business of it, to be owned and managed by separate and skilled workers, the domestic sphere would afford opportunities for special training and congenial life business, for definite and increasing compensation as one rose in its ranks, to those who chose it, whether married or single. And this organization would leave those who had chosen and trained themselves for some other business freedom to practice it, to some extent, after marriage without neglect of family claims. In this way women, whether married or single, could be independent in purse so far as their own personal needs were concerned, and the family expenses could all be definitely estimated and given into the hands of the masculine head.
Co-operative housekeeping schemes which have been presented to the public require large money capital and the highest kind of associate action for their realization; hence the practical difficulty in their way. Organization, on the contrary, may be a matter of small and individual experiment and little money. Four women of character and thorough business ability—an experienced cook, a capable laundry supervisor, a trained nurse and a practical artiste in clothes-making-could organize the household work of a neighborhood with no more risk or outlay than is necessary to the man who starts a new branch of business in a small way. And women must have courage and patience for this drudgery of small experiments if they would bring about a condition of society in which the needs and desires of single women and the claims of family shall no longer divide the interests and retard the advancement of the sex.
BY MRS. MELUSINA FAY PEIRCE.
“ CO-OPERATION” means - WORKING TOGETHER." I tell you the story of how poor and ignorant English men successfully worked together for the common good, in the humble hope of influencing well-to-do and educated American women to “go and do likewise."
The Expensiveness of Living and its Results. The increased expense of living developed by the complicated civilization of modern times is the most formidable problem facing either the philanthropist or the moralist, since the inability to attain the comforts of life by the effort possible to average humanity, not only involves suffering and privation, but, on account of this resulting privation, is the surest possible temptation to vice and crime. At the late meeting of the Social Science Association the startling fact was stated by Mr. George T. Angell, that “crime has more than doubled in Massachusetts during the past ten years, there being 10,000 persons confined in prisons in 1865, and more than 20,000 in 1875!" But the moralist is assured that not only must the various forms of swindling and stealing flourish in communities organized like our own. The deterioration of the relation between the sexes is a still more unfailing accompaniment of such a civilization. As expenses increase, marriage among the prudent classes becomes later and more precarious. Many of the young women who should marry between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two, find themselves still single. The young men who should be their husbands drown the domestic instincts in habits, which, though generally laid aside when they enter the conjugal state, too often return upon them in middle life to scourge and devastate the relation; while the aggregate of the victims of these discrdered conditions--the girls of the half-educated and lower classes-grows ever larger, their influence ever a more active and virulent poison in the moral life of the nation.
In Great Britain and on the continent, where aristocracies and courts and huge standing armies have to be maintained out of the proceeds of labor, the fearful pressure experienced by the suffering myriads who subsist from generation to generation
upon the barest necessaries of life, and without any possibility of bettering their condition, has induced an amount of attention to the problem of lessening the expenses of living, or, what is the same thing, of making earnings go farther, of which in this country we have no idea. In the first place, household economy and thrift are carried out in France and Germany to a degree unparalleled among ourselves, so that they are often held up to our reproach as if they were voluntary virtues on the part of the house-mistresses of those countries. But the truth is, that the severe economy of the latter in cooking and dressing exists simply because they cannot help it. Money is too hard to make in the Old World, there too much competition in every walk of industry, to allow people to part lightly with what is so scarce and so difficult to acquire. The economical triumphs of the French and German cuisine have been forced upon them by the centuries of savage wars throughout which the continent was wasted, and by the unproductive standing armies which still prey upon it. When people have very little to eat, it is not wonderful that they spend time in paring pea-pods, or that they consider carrots and coarse meat luxuries worthy of all the resources of their culinary skill.
Causes of the Increased Expensiveness of Living. But when the house-mistress has exhausted energy and effort in making the most of every morsel of food or shred of cloth that comes into her keeping, and when she has trained herself and her family to the utmost verge of self-denial, there comes at last a limit beyond which she cannot go, and that limit is reached when the effort of the individual becomes powerless against the organized forces of the community. In primitive times every family supplied its own wants within itself. It built its own hut, made its own pottery, spun and wove and washed its own clothing, procured and cooked its own food. In modern times the combination and accumulation of capital, the organization and division of labor, and the employment of machinery, have taken nearly all the ancient household industries out of the household, and instead of everything being produced singly, on the spot where it is wanted, and by the persons who are to use it, every article about us is manufactured by the thousand in mills and factories of every size and every conceivable function, and then distributed over the world by a wonderful and costly and complicated network of roads, railroads, canals, wagons, ships, horses and men, which convey them first to wholesale warehouses and retail stores, and finally to the families which consume them.
Here then Political Economy finds the secret of the increased expensiveness of living. It is this army of go-betweens or “middle men” who distribute the manufactured goods to the consumer, which adds so much to the cost of every article we use, that the aggregate is often found to exceed our income. Formerly the mother spun and wove the cloth that clothed her child or her husband. The producer and the consumer were therefore originally as close together as nature could bring them. Now, she buys cloth at a store, and has no idea where it was made, who made it, how it came there, or how many hands it has passed through before it reached hers.