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in September 1992. The Security Council had not taken up this request at year's end, although outgoing Secretary General Perez de Cuellar had indicated to the Council his intention to send a UN team to Angola to prepare a preliminary report on UN electoral assistance and monitoring for subsequent Council consideration. A UN elections expert from the UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development visited Angola December 13-24 for this purpose.
Cooperation with the Organization of African Unity
This year's General Assembly resolution calling for cooperation between the United Nations and the OAU was adopted by consensus as resolution 46/20. In an explanation of vote, the U.S. Representative noted that although the United States was pleased once again to join consensus, it believed that an important point had been overlooked in the resolution, notably that the General Assembly had not included any "recognition of the positive changes taking place in South Africa" and that the OAU had not seized "this moment to play a positive, active role in the historic efforts being made in South Africa to eradicate apartheid and bring into existence a democratic, nonracial government." The U.S. statement also noted that references in the resolution to acts of regional aggression and destabilization by the Government of South Africa were outdated and that, given the independence of Namibia, the peace accords in Angola and the ongoing negotiations in Mozambique, there was no reason to retain the "outmoded" references.
UN efforts to achieve peace in Central America intensified in 1991. Although the Council played an important role, most UN actions during the year were carried out by the Secretary General and his Special Representative for Central America, Alvaro de Soto, pursuant to a good offices mandate provided by the Council. The Secretary General looked to Security Council resolution 637 as basic for his role. Underlying UN actions in support of peace in Central America was the Esquipulas (Guatemala) II Accord signed by the presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua on August 7, 1987, which provided a framework for national reconciliation in establishing a stable and lasting peace in the region.
El Salvador. The Secretary General's role in the effort to end the civil war in El Salvador was formalized in a communique signed in Geneva on April 4, 1990, by the Secretary General and
representatives of the Government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Marti Liberation Movement (FMLN). The communique specified that the Secretary General, or his representative, would conduct two types of negotiations: direct dialog between the parties with the Secretary General's active participation and indirect talks with the Secretary General functioning as intermediary. Negotiations were to be conducted in strictest confidence.
Negotiations conducted by Special Representative Alvaro de Soto began shortly after the Geneva communique. In June 1990 the two parties signed in San Jose, Costa Rica, a political accord on human rights; at the time the accord was reached it was not clear whether it could be implemented in the absence of a ceasefire agreement. Implementation became a reality on May 20, 1991, when the Security Council adopted resolution 693 establishing the UN Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) to verify compliance of the San Jose accord. The resolution also envisioned an expansion of ONUSAL's mandate, subject to Security Council approval, to take on other tasks, including a peacekeeping operation once a ceasefire agreement was reached.
ONUSAL/Human Rights began deployment in June. Its staff of 146 includes educators, lawyers, political specialists, police and military liaison officers. The mission was tasked with active surveillance of the human rights situation in El Salvador, promotion of human rights, formulation of recommendations for eliminating human rights violations and investigation of specific charges of violations.
The El Salvador negotiations culminated on December 31 when Representatives of the Government of El Salvador, led by President Alfredo Cristiani, and the FMLN reached preliminary agreement in New York on a political settlement to end the decade-long civil war. The agreement was the last important achievement of UN Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar, whose term of office ended as the accord was being signed.
ONUCA. The United States joined in the consensus adoption of two Security Council resolutions (Resolutions 691 of May 6; and 719 of November 6) extending the mandate of the UN Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA). Established in November 1989 (Resolution 644) in response to a request from five Central American Governments, ONUCA's original mandate was to monitor two aspects of the Esquipulas II agreement: the cessation of aid to irregular forces and insurgent movements, and the nonuse of territory to attack other states. Resolutions 650, 653 and 656 (all adopted in 1990) broadened the mandate and defined ONUCA's role, in conjunction with the joint UN
OAS International Commission on Verification and Support (CIAV), in the voluntary demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance.
ONUCA's continuing efforts in 1991 to hinder the flow of materiel to insurgency movements had mixed results. Recognizing the need to transfer ONUCA's resources to ONUSAL as soon as a peace agreement in El Salvador was reached, the Council asked the Secretary General in resolution 719 to report on "any developments in the region that indicate that the present size of the Observer Group or its future should be reconsidered."
On December 17 the General Assembly adopted without a vote resolution 46/109, "The situation in Central America: Threats to international peace and security and peace initiatives." Cosponsored by the United States, the resolution was divided into two parts: "Procedures for the establishment of a firm and lasting peace in Central America"; and "Central America: Region of peace, freedom, democracy and development." Part A urged parties to the conflicts in El Salvador and Guatemala to continue negotiations and reaffirmed the Assembly's support for the Secretary General's mediation efforts. Part B called on the international community to assist Central America in the quest to consolidate democratic institutions and to achieve economic development.
The United Nations, working closely with the Organization of American States, made a significant contribution to Haiti's first free and fair elections on December 16, 1990. Electoral assistance was carried out through the UN Observer Group in Haiti (ONUVEH) comprised of electoral observers and security monitors. A reduced ONUVEH contingent remained in Haiti until the inauguration of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide on February 7.
On May 23 the General Assembly took the unusual step of adding to the resolution on special emergency assistance to Haiti it had adopted on December 21, 1990 (Resolution 45/257). Part B of resolution 45/257 renewed the General Assembly's appeal for assistance to support the efforts of Haiti's newly inaugurated democratic government.
President Aristide was overthrown in a military coup on September 29. Nevertheless, he addressed the Security Council on October 3. The Security Council, not usually involved in issues not affecting international peace and security, took no formal action, although the Security Council President made a statement on behalf of the members of the Council condemning the
coup and calling for support for the OAS effort to resolve the crisis. The General Assembly, however, adopted by consensus resolution 46/7, which condemned the coup and called on UN member states to support OAS sanctions against the de facto government in Haiti. The United Nations continues to recognize President Aristide as the constitutional head of Haiti. The United States cosponsored resolution 46/7.
Cooperation with the Latin American Economic System
On October 28 the United States joined in consensus on a General Assembly resolution on cooperation between the United Nations and the Latin American Economic System (SELA). Resolution 46/12 urged the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the UN Development Program (UNDP) and other UN organs and specialized agencies to broaden and deepen their cooperation with SELA. The resolution also requests the Secretary General and the Permanent Secretary of SELA to assess implementation of the agreement on cooperation between the United Nations and SELA.
The General Assembly also adopted consensus resolution 46/8 on October 16 extending observer status to the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an entity promoting economic cooperation and gradual integration of the English-speaking states in the Caribbean. CARICOM thus joined several other regional organizations that are UN observers.
The Secretary General, assisted by his Special Representative on Cyprus, Oscar Camilion, and by a member of his Secretariat staff in New York, Gustave Feissel, continued to pursue actively his good offices mission during 1991. The Secretary General visited Turkey in August, and his representatives traveled to Cyprus, Ankara and Athens on many occasions between January and September.
During the year, the United States became increasingly active in the search for a settlement. President Bush met in March with Turkish President Ozal and with Cypriot President Vassiliou in May. During his July visit to Greece and Turkey, President Bush made clear the U.S. interest in and support for UN negotiations regarding Cyprus, and joined the Secretary General in calling for a high-level meeting in September under UN auspices.
Unfortunately, Cypriot differences could not be overcome by September, and the October general elections in Turkey further interrupted negotiations, so that at year's end a draft framework agreement for a Cyprus settlement had not been completed. In an October report on his Mission of Good Offices to Cyprus, and later in a final report in December, the Secretary General underlined the areas in which significant advances had been made to bring the two Cypriot sides together and those where differences still remained. He urged that the momentum of the negotiation process not be lost and that the set of ideas upon which it was based be preserved. On October 11 the Security Council adopted resolution 716, cosponsored by the United States, commending the efforts of the Secretary General, endorsing his report, and supporting the resumption of his efforts to craft a draft framework agreement for a settlement and to convene a high-level international meeting in New York to conclude and sign the document.
The Council also met twice during the year to renew the mandate of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). On June 14 it unanimously adopted resolution 697, extending UNFICYP's mandate through December 15; on December 12 it again renewed the mandate under resolution 723 until June 15, 1992.
The issue of funding for UNFICYP continued to occupy the Security Council. In June it asked the Secretary General to consult on the question, taking into account reports on the subject by both the UN Secretariat Review Team (December 1990) and the Group of Friends of the President of the Security Council, issued May 31 in response to the Council's resolution 682 (1990). On October 15 the Secretary General, having examined a number of options for placing UNFICYP on more secure financial footing, reported his recommendations. He suggested, among other points, that UNFICYP be funded by assessed, rather than voluntary, contributions.
Despite arguments of the troop-contributors to UNFICYP, the Security Council "concluded that the necessary agreement did not currently exist in the Council for a decision to be adopted on a change in the financing of UNFICYP." However, the Council agreed to keep the matter under review, and the United States indicated its willingness to engage in a thorough reexamination of the Force's finances, mandate and composi
The 46th General Assembly took no action on the agenda item "Question of Cyprus," carried over from previous years.