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which being multiplied by x (or the width) gives 4x2+60x=216.(1)=square contents of glass.

Reducing (1) x2+15x=54. (2)

Completing square of (2) 4x2 + (0)+225=441. (3)
Extracting root of (3) 2x+15=±27. (4)

From (4) 2x=-6. (5)

From (5) x=3 inches. Answer.-H. NEILL.

43.-Bound Wisconsin correctly.

Wisconsin is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, northeast by Michigan, east by Lake Michigan, south by Illinois, west by Iowa and Minnesota, or perhaps, more properly speaking, by Minnesota, Mississippi river and St. Croix river.-D. M.

44.-What is the average monthly salary of male and female teachers in Wisconsin?

In the State Superintendent's report for last year, we find that the average wages of male teachers, exclusive of cities, to be $41.40, and that of female teachers, $27.62. In the cities, the annual salary of male teachers is $1,053; that of female teachers, $367. Presuming that there are ten months school taught during the year (though usually less), the monthly wages of male teachers would be $105.30, and of female teachers, $36.70.—Ib.

48.-Who administered the oath of office to President J. Q. Adams, and who were his constitutional advisers?

The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice John Marshall, and the following were his cabinet: Henry Clay, Secretary of State; Richard Rush, Secretary of the Treasury; James Barbour, Secretary of War; Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy; and William Wirt, Attorney General. The office of Secretary of the Interior was afterwards created, and the Postmaster General was afterwards determined to be a cabinet officer.-Ib.

49.-Is there a grammatical inaccuracy in question 8, April JOURNAL?

There is. It ought to read, "What was, etc.," instead of "What is, etc."—OLD MAID.

50.-Will some one who has a copy of Townsend's Civil Government, please copy for the Box the names and respective terms of office of the several Chief Justices of the United States, as the same, according to answer to Query No. 16, to be found on page 296?

The following is a list of the Chief Justices of the United States from the establishment of the Supreme Court in 1789, to 1868, with the dates of appointment: 1. John Jay, New York, Sept. 26, 1789. Resigned.

2. Jɔhn Rutledge, South Carolina, July 1, 1795. Mr. Rutledge was appointed during the recess of the Senate, presided over the Supreme Court one term, was nominated Dec. 10, 1795, and rejected by the Senate.

3. William Cushing, Massachusetts, Jan. 27, 1793. Declined.

4. Oliver Ellsworth, Connecticut, March 4, 1796. Resigned.

5. John Jay. New York, re-appointed December 19, 1800. Declined.

6. John Marshall, Virginia, Jan. 31, 1801. Died July 6, 1835.

7. Roger B. Taney, Maryland, March 15, 1836. Died 1864.

8. Salmon P. Chase, Ohio, Dec. 6, 1864.—Ib.


[HENRY NEILL, Alloa, sends us & communication, further discussing some former gramatical questions, but as he says he " agrees, or nearly agrees," with the other gentlemen, B. R. A. and A. O. W., except on one point, we omit all but that point,

and give it as a new question, B. R. A., being requested by Mr. Neill to answer. -EDRS.]

59.—Is a noun, which is attribute or part of the attribute to a sentence, in the same case after the verb as the noun to which the attribute relates is before the verb; or should it be put by apposition in the same case to the verb.

60. In the following sentence which is the principal sentence, and what do the the subordinate sentences limit or modify?: Pigeons fly in such flocks, that they often break down branches when they alight."

61.—What is the rate of growth of Coral reefs?—G. H. D., Janesville.

62.-Will some one tell about how long since Corals first commenced their labors on the peninsula of Florida?—Ib.

63.-Are Coral formations the secretion of animals or are they the animals themselves?—Ib.

64.-Is a Coral an insect?—Ib.

65.-Wanted, a list of those whose deeds have caused the people to erect monuments to their honor; also, to know, if possible, where the monuments stand.T. D., Clinton.

66.-Should the words, President, Vice President, and Elector, etc., be commenced with capitals when not used in connection with a proper noun ?—Ib 67.—Is the word earth, meaning the world, a proper noun?—Ib.

68.-Is the number of hours during which school is taught in a day uniform throughout the United States?-Ib.

69.-Has England, Scotland, Ireland, or France a system of compulsory educa


70.—Who can give the percentage of illiteracy in Prussia, Austria, Turkey, Spain, Italy, France, England and Scotland? Also of the native born in the Northern States?

71.-What States have adopted laws of compulsory attendance of school?-NORA C. WATERS, Portage City.

72.-When and where was the art of printing invented?—Ib.

73.-Are the degrees of latitude longer at the poles than at the equator? How measured, by an angle at the centre of the earth, or by an arc on the circumference? -A. CRAVEN, Madison.

74.-Does the best authority inform us that the sponge belongs to the animal or vegetable kingdom?-D. MoWRY, Windsor.

75. What causes civilization?-Ib.

76.-When, where, and by whom was gold first discovered in the United States.


77.-What kind of physical education is best adapted for introduction into our common schools?-Ib.

78.-What methods of instruction will most successfully lead pupils to original investigation?—Ib.

79.-Were John, John Quincy, and Charles Francis Adams in any way related, if so, how?-Ib.

80.-What are some of the most common terms taken from other languages and used in our own? What is their meaning in English?—Ib.

81.-What are the names of the persons who are and have been members of the Cabinet under the present Administration?-Ib.

82.-A box of glass contains fifty square feet. How many panes in a box, each pane being 6 by 8 inches.-Ib.

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83.-Correct the following sentences and assign your reasons for doing so: "This is a ten foot pole." Cedar is not so hard, but more durable than oak." My being sick was the cause of my being absent." "To the first man who would rebel death was threatened."-Ib.

84.- What is the name and official title of the ruler of each country in Europe, and its form of government.—Ib.

85.-What is the best method of teaching beginners the Multiplication Table? -OLD MAID.

86.--What is the best method for teaching Notation?-Ib.

87.--Is a woman's voice fitted to teach all the general divisions of Elocution—Ib. 88.-Will some one please inform us through the Journal, of the best work on Natural Philosophy?—Ib.

89.--Does one of the six. Constitutions of Wisconsin, furnished to each district, belong to the teacher at the close of the term?--Ib.

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9. Dearer than Gold.-In our time the human hair is dearer than gold, one ounce of the finest golden-hued hair costing $25.

10. The Wars of France.-That the French, in spite of many assertions to the contrary, are an eminently warlike nation, will be seen in the following statistics: In the 14th century, France had 43 years of war; of these, 5 were spent in civil and 38 in foreign wars; 13 were prosecuted in foreign lands and the rest in France, and 14 battles of note (Courtray, Crecy, Poitiers, etc.) took place. In the 15th century 71 years were devoted to war, 18 in civil and the rest in foreign. Among the 11 notable battles were those of Azincourt, Castillon, Monthery, Guinegate. The 16th century, one of the bloodiest on record, 85 years were spent in the prosecution of civil and foreign wars, the former occupying the space of 33 years! 27 battles of distinction (Marignan, Pavia, St. Quentin, etc.) were fought. In the 17th century, France had 17 years of civil and 52 of foreign wars (=69), with 39 battles. From 1700 to 1800, 58 years of war (7 of civil and 51 of foreign) broke down the rotten throne of the Bourbons, while the best blood of France flowed in 93 (!) battles. A resume for the 500 years shows that about 80 were spent in civil, and 246 in foreign wars, with a total of 184 battles!

11. Present Extent of Anthropophagy.—If there are any readers of this journal, who thinks that cannibalism has (at least nearly) disappeared from the face of our earth, and that our missionaries are pursuing an easy vocation, let them read the statements concerning modern man-eaters. The following figures will give an approximate idea of the present extent of this horrid practice. According to R. Andree, the various nations, or tribes, that practice anthropophagy, are, in Africa, the Battas, 200,000; the Cannibals of the delta of the Niger, 100,000; the Fan tribe, 80,000; the troglodytes (cave inhabitants) of Bassento, 10,009; the Niammiams, 500,000; in South America there are about 3,000 cannibals; in Australia, 50,000, and in Polynesia, 1,000,000—a total of nearly 2,000,000 human beings who consider it a religious duty to kill and devour their fellow men.

12. Wine in Paris.-Paris consumes eight million gallons of wine per month, or about one hundred million gallons per annum; yet there is less drunkenness in Paris than in any other city of the same or even a much lesser rank, as the cheapness of light French wines diminishes the demand for other and more ardent drinks.

Editorial Miscellany.


As has been thoroughly announced, the Association will hold its Twentieth Annual Session, in this city, commencing Tuesday evening, July 8, and closing Thursday evening, the 11th. The Examination for State Certificates will commence, it will be remembered, on Monday evening, at 7 o'clock. Its continuance and close, will of course be governed by circumstances.

Our prominent teachers have thus a double motive for being present at this gathering. We do not think it unfortunate, that to make a little journey and spend a few days in accomplishing this, will be attended with a little expense. We do not value that which "costs us nothing," and it is apt to do us little good. Come, then, teachers, in good numbers. Come and be measured, in the examination. If you do not quite come up to the mark this year, you will next, perhaps. You will get credit, as far as you go. Come and work as well as listen, at the Association. The Programme, which we present again below, is judicious and practical, and its very perusal is instructive. We bespeak then for the Association, a large, earnest and working attendance of our spirited and progressive teachers.


General Meeting, Assembly Chamber, Tuesday Evening, July 9th.

7.30. Introductory Exercises.

8.00. Lecture-J. H. Twombly, D. D., Madison.

9.00. Opening Exercises.

Wednesday Morning, July 10th.

9.15. President's Address-Samuel Shaw.

9.45. Appointment of Committees; Proposed Amendment of Constitution; Busi


10.00. Educational Intelligence-Two-minute verbal reports.

10.30. Recess.

10.40. Essay-"Woman's Wages for Teaching," Martha A. Terry.

11.00. Discussion-A. F. North, Ella Stewart.

High School Section, at Senate Chamber-W. D. Parker, Chairman.

11.30. Self Reporting by Pupils-W. C. Whitford.

11.50. Discussion-"Rhetorical Exercises," Albert Salisbury, W. W. Freeman. 12.20. Paper--" School Economy," W. D. Parker.

12.35. Discussion-J. K. Purdy, H. A. Hobart.

Intermediate and Primary Section, at Assembly Chamber-Robert Graham, Ch'n. 11.30. Essay "The Child," Mrs. H. E. G. Arey.

11.50. Discussion-"The Kindergarten," J. Q. Emery, A. Earthman.

12.20. Model Drill in Numbers-Anna W. Moody.

12.35. Discussion-" Arithmetic," Robert Graham, Duncan McGregor. General Meeting, Wednesday Evening, July 10th.

7.30. Report of Committee on County Academies-A. Earthman. 8.00. Conscience and Culture-Rev. J. L. Dudley, Milwaukee.

9.00. Opening Exercises.

9.15. Business.

Thursday Morning, July 11th.

9.30. The Mental Faculties Neglected in School, T. C. Chamberlin,

9.45. Discussion-"Course of Study," Alexander Kerr, C. F. Viebahn,

10.20. Reading-S. S. Rockwood.

10.30. Recess.

10.40. General Discussion-"To what extent should the Bible be used in Schools?" Samuel Fallows, Oliver Arey, M. Montague.

11.10. Election of Officers, etc.

3-[VOL. II.-No. 7.]

High School Section.

11.30. Have we a State School System?-G. S. Albee.
11.50. Discussion-W. H. Chandler, B. M. Reynolds.
12.20. Frequent Examinations of Scholars-George Beck.
12.35. Discussion-H. H. Drury, E. Marsh.

Intermediate and Primary Section.

11.30. Essay, "The Country Teacher "-Mrs. I. N. Stewart.

11.50. Discussion," How to Improve Mixed Schools "-J. B. Pradt, A. O. Wright. 12.20. Model Drill," Only a Kernel of Corn "-C. H. Allen.

12.35. Discussion, "Oral Instruction for Children "-D. E. Gardner, I. N. Stewart. General Meeting, Thursday Evening, July 11th.

7.30. Reports of Committees Business.

8.00. Reunion.

W. A. De La Matyr will take charge of the music.

STEAMERS AND HOTELS.-The railroad companies of the northwest having entered into a compact which precludes any reduction of passenger fares, the Executive Committee is unable to announce the usual arrangements with them.

The Goodrich steamers will carry teachers towards Madison at full fares, and will return them free on the Association certificate of membership, until July 14th. The Northwestern Union Packet Company will carry teachers holding vouchers of the Executive Committee, towards Madison, at half fare, and will return them on the Association certificate of membership, at half fare, until July 14th.

Members of the Association will be entertained as follows: Private boarding houses $1.00 to $1.50 per day, on application at the Assembly Chamber; Vilas House, $2.00 per day; Railway Hotel, $2.00 per day; Park Hotel, 2.50 per day.

In the names presented in the programme of exercises of the Association, the teachers of the State will find a guarantee of a profitable gathering, and a cordial invitation is extended to all persons who are interested in education, to attend the meeting and participate in the exercises.

SAMUEL SHAW, Pres. Assoc., Berlin.

WARREN D. PARKER, Chm. Ex. Com., Janesville.


The Commencement Exercises of the State University were of a superior character. The largest classes ever graduated from its halls, went out this year, twenty-five students having completed the course in Philosophy, ten in Arts, and twenty-nine in Law-sixty four in all.

The addresses of Mrs. A. C. Arnold, Miss Jennie Muzzy, Philip Eden, Horace M. Wells, John C. Keefe, Lewis M. Fisher and Elmer H. Craig, deserve special mention, though all the addresses were well written and to the point.

Mr. Craig, son of the former able and well remembered Superintendent of Public Instruction, acquitted himself admirably. He had the first honor oration of the class, corresponding to the usual valedictory oration. He justly deserved it for his high scholarship and ability as a writer. He intends making journalism his profession—a right and worthy choice. He will bring to the discharge of its responsible duties, a mind analytic and rigidly logical in its workings, yet keenly alive to the beautiful; well sfored with valuable knowledge and open to the reception of truth from all quarters. We wish him the most abundant success.

Whatever objections may have been entertained against the co-education of the sexes by the friends of the University, are rapidly disappearing. The ladies on all occasions, in the class-room and in public exhibitions, have won general praise. They have exhibited thoroughness in study, modesty of deportment, calmness and self-possession, in all the trying exercises of examination and commencement. M. P. JEWETT, LL.D., the first President of Vassar College, and the main projector of that noble institution of learning, a gentleman of wide experience as an educator of ladies, in behalf of the Board of Visitors expressed himself as highly

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