« ÎnapoiContinuă »
diation is particularly beneficial, from the deposition of moisture which it determines upon the foilage; and it is only to tender plants artificially trained to resist the rigors of an unnatural situation, that this extra degree of cold proves injurious." It may be observed, also, that trees of lofty growth frequently escape being injured by frost, when plants nearer the ground are quite destroyed.
POETRY is the language of the imagination and the passions. It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to the human mind. It comes home to the bosoms and businesses of men; for nothing but what so comes home to them in the most general and intelligible shape can be a subject for poetry.
Poetry is the universal language which the heart holds with nature and itself. He who has a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect for himself, or for anything else. It is not a mere frivolous accomplishment (as some persons have been led to imagine), the trifling amusement of a few idle readers, or leisure hours-it has been the study and delight of mankind in all ages. Many people suppose that poetry is something to be found only in books, contained in lines of ten syllables, with like endings; but wherever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or harmony, as in the motion of a wave of the sea, in the growth of a flower that "spreads its sweet leaves to the air, and dedicates its beauty to the sun," there is poetry, in its birth.
Fear is poetry, hope is poetry, love is poetry, hatred is poetry; contempt, jealousy, remorse, admiration, wonder, pity, despair, or madness, are all poetry, Poetry is that fine particle within us that expands, rarifies, refines, raises whole being; without it, "man's life is poor as beasts." Man is a poetical animal; and those of us who do not study the principles of poetry, act upon them all our lives, like Moliére's Bourgeois Gentilhomme, who had always spoken prose without knowing it.
The child is a poet, when he first plays at hide-and-seek, or repeats the story of Jack the Giant-killer; the shepherd boy is a poet, when he first crowns his mistress with a garland of flowers; the countryman, when he stops to look at the rainbow; the city-apprentice, when he goes after the Lord Mayor's show; the miser, when he hugs his gold; the courtier, who builds his hopes upon a smile; the savage, who paints his idol with blood; the slave, who worships a tyrant, or the tyrant, who fancies himself a god; the vain, the ambitious, the proud, the choleric man, the hero and, the coward, the beggar and the king, the rich and the poor, the young and the old-all live in a world of their own making; and the poet does no more than describe what all others think and act.-HAZLITT.
FUTURITY.-Truly and beautifully has it been said, that the veil which covers futurity has been woven by the hand of mercy.
Never has the buzz of the gnat risen above the second A; nor that of the house-fly's wing sunk below the first F. Sound had at first the same connection with color as it has now, and the right angle of light's incidence might as easily produce a sound on the first turrets of Cain's city, as it is now said to do on one of the pyramids. The tulip, in its first bloom in Noah's garden, emitted heat, four and a half degrees above the atmosphere, as it does at the present day. The stormy petrel as much delighted to sport amongst the first billows which the Indian Ocean ever raised, as it does now.
In the first migration of birds, they passed from north to south, and fled over the narrowest part of the seas, as they will this autumn. The cuckoo and the nightingale first began their song together, analogous to the beginning of our April, in the days of Nimrod. Birds that lived on flies laid blueish eggs in the days of Joseph, as they will two thousand years hence-if the sun should not fall from his throne, or the earth not break her harness from the planetary car. The first bird that was caged, oftener sung in adagio than in the natural spirit.
Corals have ever grown edgeways to the ocean stream. Eight millions, two hundred and eighty thousand animalculæ, could as well live in a drop of water in the days of Seth as now. Flying insects had on their coats of mail in the days of Japheth; over which they have ever waved plumes of more gaudy feathers than the peacock ever dropped. The bees that afforded Eve her first honey made their combs hexagonal; and the first house-fly produced twenty millions, eighty-three hundred and twenty eggs, in one year, as she does at present. The first jump of the first flea was two hundred times its own length, as it was the
There was iron enough in the blood of the first forty-two men to make a ploughshare, as there is to-day, from whatever country you collect them. The lungs of Abel contained a coil of vital matter one hundred and fifty-nine feet square, as mine; and the first inspiration of Adam consumed seventeen cubic inches of air, as do those of every adult reader. The cat and the robin followed the footsteps of Noah, as they do ours.
ON DISTEMPER IN THE DOG.
HAVING, MR. EDITOR, FROM TIME TO TIME OBSERVED IN "OUR OWN JOURNAL," enquiries from various correspondents as to the best mode of treating DISTEMPER IN THE DOG- I have been induced to collect the following information (from one of the best authorities we have), both as to the nature of the disease, its symptoms, and the proper mode of treatment. Should you deem worthy a place in " Our Journal," it may perhaps prove both useful and interesting to many of its Readers.
NATURE OF THE DISEASE.-The distemper is a disease of the mucous surfaces, and was imported from France about one hundred years since. The French veterinary surgeons called it "la maladie des chiens," the disease or distemper in Dogs.
Dogs of all ages are subject to its attacks. Many, nine and ten years old, have died of pure distemper, as well as puppies of only three weeks; but it most frequently appears between the sixth and twelfth month of the animal's life. It generally proves fatal when it occurs very early; or when the dog is more than four years old. It is highly contagious, and yet it is frequently generated.
However keepers, or even men of education may boast of their specifics, the disorder is sadly fatal, and destroys fully one-third of the canine race. One attack of the disease, and even a severe one, is no absolute security against its return, although it confers on the dog a certain degree of immunity; or if he is attacked again, the disease is usually of a milder form. Youatt says, he has known it occur three times in the same animal, and at last destroy him.
Violent catarrh will often end in distemper; and low and insufficient feeding will protract it. It frequently follows mange; and whatever debilitates the constitution, predisposes it for the reception of distemper.
Inoculation used to be recommended as producing a milder and less fatal disease; but by those most experienced, the contrary is now believed to be the result. Distemper is epidemic, and it occurs more frequently in the spring and autumn than in the summer and winter. Sometimes it rages all over the country; at others it is endemic, and confined to some particular district. Not only is the disease itself epidemic and endemic, but the form which it assumes is so. In one season, almost every dog with distemper has violent fits; at another, in the majority of cases, there will be considerable chest affection, running on to inflammation of the lungs. A few months afterwards, a great portion of the distempered dogs will be worn down by diarrhoea, ich no medicine can
arrest; and presently it will scarcely be distinguishable from mild catarrh.
These facts shew us what a protean malady we have to grapple with, and how it is that remedies which are of the greatest service at one time, and in one case, may be perfectly useless at another. Consequently, that there can be no such thing as a specific for this disease; and I shall now show why many per sons are apt to be deceived, and led to suppose that they possess a never-failing remedy. The Shepherd's Dog generally cares little The disease varies much with different breeds. about it. The Cur is not often seriously affected. The Terrier has it more severely; especially the white Terrier. The Hound comes next; and after him, the Setter. With the small Spaniel it is more dangerous, and still more so with the Pointer. Next in order of fatality comes the Pug; and it is most fatal of all with the Newfoundland dog. Not only does it thus differ in different species of dogs, but in different breeds of the same species. “I have known," says Youatt, "several gentlemen who have labored in vain for many years, to rear particular and valuable breeds of Pointers and Greyhounds. The Distemper would uniformly carry off five out of six. Other sportsmen laugh at the supposed danger of distemper, and declare that they seldom lose a dog. This hereditary disposition to certain kinds of disease cannot be denied, and is not sufficiently attended to. When a peculiar fatality has often followed a certain breed, the owner should cross it from another kennel; and especially from the kennel of one who boasts of his success in the treatment of distemper. This has occasionally succeeded far beyond expectation." He continues,-"One thing is clear,—that for a disease which assumes such a variety of forms, there can be no specific; and yet there is not a keeper who is not in possession of some supposed infallible remedy. Nothing can be more absurd. The faith in these boasted specifics is principally founded on two circumstances, atmospheric influences, and peculiarity of breed. There are some seasons when we can scarcely save a dog. There are others, when we must almost wilfully destroy him in order to lose him! There are some breeds in which, generation after generation, five out of six die of Distemper; while there are others in which not one out of a dozen dies."
This I think is sufficiently explanatory. It is highly important to beware of confounding cases which would recover spontaneously, with those which are cured.
SYMPTOMS.-As may be supposed from what has been said of the nature of this disease, there is no one symptom which will invariably characterise it. To show what are
the most frequent and most strongly marked, but when it becomes dark, bloody, and of is all that can be done. fensive, death will ensue.
Early symptoms are, gradual loss of tite, spirits, and condition-the dog is less obedient to his master, and takes less notice of him. The eyes appear weak and watery, and there is a slight limpid discharge from the nose. In the morning, there will haps be a slight indurated mucus at the corner of the eye. This state of things may continue two or three weeks, without the dog becoming seriously ill. Then a peculiar husky cough is heard—an apparent attempt to get something from the throat. The discharge from the eyes and nose will increase; and the eyelids will be closed in the morning. The conjunctiva (i. e. the membrane which lines the inside of the eyelids, and is reflected on to the globe of the eye), will be considerably injected, not intensely red, but the vessels will be large, turgid, and frequently of a darkish hue. Occasionally, however, the membrane will be vividly red, and the eye impatient of light. Permanent blindness, however, is rarely the consequence of Distemper.
The duration of distemper is uncertain. It may run its course in five or six days; or it may linger on two or three months. the emaciation is rapid, extreme, and continuous, the dog will die,--but let him gain flesh, even though the purging be violent, and the discharge from the nose copious, and we may nevertheless confidentally predict his recovery. In the Pointer, Hound, and Greyof the chest and belly a pustular eruption, hound, there sometimes appears in the whole The result which peels off in large scales. intense yellowness often suddenly appears is usually unfavorable. In these dogs, an They fall away more in twenty-fours than would be thought possible; their bowels being obstinately constipated. They will neither eat nor move; and in two or three days death closes their eyes for
all over them.
TREATMENT.--In Distemper in any form, Common salt will do, when nothing else is at an emetic is the first thing to be given. hand; but the best emetic consists of equal parts of calomel and tartar emetic, from half dose. Place it upon the back of the tongue. a grain to one grain and a half of each for a Then, if the cough is urgent, and there is heaving at the flanks, and the nose is hot,
a moderate quantity of blood, (from three to twelve ounces); and if there has been previous constipation, follow this up with from two to six drachms of Epsom salts.
At this stage of the discase, the dog will be evidently feverish. He will shiver and creep to the fire, and will more rapidly and evidently lose flesh. The discharge from the nose will become thicker, stick about the nostrils, plug them up and obstruct the breath-take ing, and the huskiness will become more frequent and troublesome. The progress of the disease is now uncertain. Sometimes fits come on. One fit is serious,-if another occurs within a day or two, the chances of cure are diminished, and if they rapidly succeed each other, the dog is almost always lost. Fits seldom appear without a warning; and if watched for, they may possibly be prevented. Though the dog may previously have lost his appetite, it returns when the fits are at hand, and he becomes absolutely voracious. Nearly all the mucus disappears from the eyes; and for an hour or more before the fit, there is a champing of the lower jaw, frothing at the mouth, and discharge of saliva. The champing of the jaw is seen twelve hours before the first fit, and a little while before every other. There are also usually twitchings of the mouth, cheek, or eyelid. The inflammation of the membrane of the nose and fauces, sometimes extends along that of the windpipe; and the dog exhibits decided symptoms of inflammation of the lungs. At other times the bowels become affected, and a violent purging comes on. When mingled blood and mucus appear, the case is almost hopeless. While the discharge from the nose remains white, and free from smell, and the animal is not so much ema-blood must be taken. The bowels must be ciated, the termination may be favorable; opened with Epsom salts; and the digitalis,
Should the huskiness still continue, and with fever, it is now, if ever, that inflammation of the lungs will be perceived. The quick and laborious breathing, inability to lie down, elevated position of the head, and projected muzzle, will clearly mark it. More
the dog still droops, and there is much hus-
Worms are frequently a considerable source of irritation in young dogs. If speedily got rid of, Distemper will often rapidly disappear; but if suffered to remain, diarrhoea or fits are apt to supervene. From thirty to 60 grains of powdered glass should be added to each ball, as above.
nitre, and James's powder given more frequently, and in larger doses than before. The pulse of the dog may be felt at the side. If the digitalis produces an intermittent pulse, which it should do, it should be given more cautiously, and in smaller quantities.
If the inflammation is conquered, or it should happen that there is none of any moment, and the huskiness still continues; if the discharge from the nose increases, and the animal loses flesh, and is becoming weak, -the treatment must be changed. Half the quantity only of the sedative and diuretic medicine must be given, and some tonic, as gentian, from ten to twenty grains; and ginger from five to ten grains, for a dose; be added. An emetic must be given occasionally, and the bowels must be kept open, but not purged. The dog must be urged to eat; and if he obstinately refuse, he must be forced with strong beef-jelly. If, notwithstanding this, the strength of the animal continues to decline, and the discharge from the nose be comes purulent and offensive, the fever medicine must be omitted, and the tonic balls, with from thirty to sixty grains of carbonate of iron in each, be given. If the dog begins to recover, the tonic balls may be continued without the iron; giving now and then an emetic if the huskiness threatens to return. Wholesome food and good country air, however, are the best tonics.
When the discharge from the nose is very offensive, the lips swelled and ulcerated, and the breath foetid, half an ounce of yeast may be given every noon, and the tonics morning and night. The mouth should be often washed with a solution of the chloride of lime. When fits appear early, give a strong emetic. Then bleed, and open the bowels with five or six grains of calomel, and a quarter of a grain of opium, and commence the tonic balls. If they occur at a later period, all that can be done is to give a strong emetic; open the bowels with castor oil; and give the tonic balls, with a quarter of a grain of opium in each.
In the treatment of the yellow disease, we shall seldom succeed. One large bleeding, opening the bowels with Epsom salts, and then giving one-grain doses of calomel twice daily in a tonic ball, sometimes produces a good effect.
Let it be remembered, that while costiveness must be obviated, there is nothing more to be dreaded in every stage of Distemper than Diarrhoea. The purging of Distemper will often bid defiance to the most powerful astringent medicines. This shows the folly of giving (as is often done) violent cathartics in Distemper. It is of the utmost consequence that, when purging arises, it should be speedily checked. First, give a good dose of Epsom salts, then twenty grains
of chalk, ten grains of catechu, five grains of ginger, and a quarter of a grain of opium,made into a ball with palm oil; and this, for a middle sized dog, twice a-day.
When the "Twitchings" appear, a seton is necessary, and some stimulating embrocation, such as the tincture of cantharides,— may be rubbed along the whole course of the spine. Castor oil, syrup of buckthorn, and syrup of poppies, (in the proportion of three parts of the first, two of the second, and one of the last,) should be given morning and night, and a tonic ball at noon; but if the spasms spread over the animal, accompanied by a moaning, that increases to a cry, humanity demands that we should put an end to that which cannot be cured.
In the treatment of Chorea, (St. Vitus's dance) which is an occasional sequel of Distemper, a seton is the first thing. The bowels should be kept moderately open, and the nitrate of silver, (in doses of one-eighth of a grain, increased to one quarter of a grain, and made into a pill, with linseed meal) should be given morning and night.
Herein is comprised the best method of treatment for that fatal disease,--Distemper.
All your correspondents will doubtless be glad to hear of a medicine which is often successful in Chorea. Youatt says,-"nitrate of silver will be the sheet-anchor of the practitioner in this disease; and if used early, will seldom deceive him." We must never make too sure of the recovery of a distempered dog. It is a treacherous disease, and the medicines should be continued for a month at least after every symptom has disappeared. Palsy is sometimes the termination of Distemper,-it is usually accompanied by Chorea; and is then, in the majority of cases, hopeless. ZIG-ZAG.
towards the return of spring. Yet do we already mark among the thrushes and the blackbirds an increased activity; and certain peculiarities in their approaches towards each other, and in their "delicate attentions," which convince us they will all "mate" at a very early day.
We were busy musing at the remote end of our garden, a few days since, immediately under the shade of some lofty firs-and in the close proximity of the holly and the laurel, when some "well-known sounds" saluted our ear, which we recognised as the notes of dalliance. Several pairs of thrushes and several pairs of blackbirds were busily agitating the brushwood, and flitting restlessly along the whole length of a hollyhedge; pursuing each other, as these birds do, even at this early season of the year. All this gives the note of preparation for early incubation.
We have observed, too, certain incipient signs of approaching familiarity between cock-robin and his intended associate. The courtship of these birds is completely sui generis. They meet en avance, and as quickly retire en derrière; repeating these preparatory interviews from morning till night. They then separate altogether. They go through the same observances on the morrow, and the day following; and when their flirtations are completely over, the "proposal" is made, the "offer" considered, and the happy redbreast made a worthy husband for the season. His trammels are then thrown off a divorce is mutually agreed upon, and both parties once more retire to "Liberty Hall." We note these little episodes as we go on; for the innocence of birds, and their winning ways, cannot be too closely scrutinised and admired.
The robins and the blackbirds are among the very first of the feathered tribe to bestir themselves for the provision of a family. Ere the trees have any clothing, you may see, in a private garden, nidification commencing at the very beginning of February.
The blackbird of last year arrives at maturity in the following spring; assuming, with the change of season, a jet-black, glossy livery, and a bill as yellow as gold. The orbs of the eye, too, become bright yellow; and the whole figure bold and dauntless. The hen is of a dusky, dark brown color, and her eyes less brilliant than those of the male.
The instinct of the blackbird is by no means remarkable. There are very few birds indeed so palpably obtuse; for they build their nests in situations which, for the most part, expose them to certain robbery by idle boys and iron-hearted men. Hence the quantities of young birds exposed for sale at the commencement of March. We would
remark, en passant, that as this bird is very prolific, it is just possible Nature might have given it a limited instinct, with a view to an excess of numbers being thereby prevented. It is quite certain, that if these birds were not thinned in some way, their race would multiply to an alarming extent. They suffer greatly during the winter by the "rough practice " of the "cockney sportsman," who contrives to wound many hundreds, whilst perhaps he kills only one; and that, by the merest accident.
With all the slaughter, however, dealt out amongst them during the winter months, we always find plenty of survivors left to greet us from the top of the highest tree, at the earliest dawn of spring. We can already number in our own immediate precincts at least a dozen; and twice that number of thrushes-with wrens, robins, and tit mice, ad libitum. Sacred is our rural dwelling to the happiness and perfect enjoyment of these melodious rogues. Secure from pursuit, snug in the bosom of their affectionate families, and in the midst of plenty, with us all the feathered tribes are in safeguard. Woe be to him who levels a hollow tube, "big with mischief," at any of the settlers on our ground, who come to share the rites of our hospitality-we mean if we should catch him in the act! Once or twice lately, we have heard a neighbor's gun in active discharge" of its enjoined duties; but we trust that, after this "notice," it will be put by for the season. "Cruelty" is indefensible under any plea.
his vernal songs, just let us take a "peep Whilst the blackbird is busily rehearsing at the construction of his nest. The materials used are-1 fibrous roots, green moss, and or cased, with damp mould, and subsequently similar matters; the inside being plastered, lined with dry grass. The site chosen is and occasionally it is placed on the side of a sometimes a thick bush, sometimes a laurel, bank. The number of eggs laid seldom exceeds five. These are covered with brown spots at the larger end. The period of incubation is fourteen days.
Whilst we now write, the blackbirds in our immediate neighborhood are full of life and energy; and we can ever and anon catch the harmony (still low) of their sweet voices. Their love is already declared, their suit has been pressed, their acceptance" made sure, their "happiness" perfected. With such a mutual compact formed-how faithfully and religiously will it be kept! We may speedily expect the vernal melody to commence in earnest.
There is much diversity of opinion about the cause of birds singing. Why there should be more than one opinion, we know not. Birds sing, as we sing-because they are