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and find the work of his life broken into by some Jack of all trades? To my mind there is nothing more hurtful than the arguments advanced by some writers in defense of this species of brigandage. I think our associations should take some action on the question, and, by severely condemning the practice of encroaching on the territory of those who are already established, set a moral example and a precedent.
Another thing I wish especially to speak of is the mating of queens in the so-called baby nuclei. I myself have mated them in small nuclei like those spoken of, but they require a good deal of watching, and more skill than the larger nuclei, and the young queens can not be kept for a considerable time without special care. I find it absolutely necessary to keep queens on hand at any time ready to replace a played-out or poor queen with, and I think most beekeepers find it profitable to do likewise. For this class of bee-keepers the baby is not of much value, and I am sure it is a mistake to recommend it to any but those who possess considerable skill in handling and rearing queens-not that it can not be used to good advantage by the large bee-keeper who has the requisite patience and skill; but a great many, indeed, can not hope to succeed with it, and it is not right to urge this class to waste time and money with it. I should not have mentioned this, but I feel sure, from the prominence given it of late, that a good many will be induced to try it; and you know as well as I do, or even better, that, in many cases, failure is assured, and at best it is of doubtful value to the honeyproducer who has no great skill in queen breeding and mating.
OBJECTIONS TO A BROOD-NEST TOO SHALLOW.
Another thing I wish to call your attention to. In your footnote to my article in the July 1st issue of GLEANINGS you say if two bodies are used it would obviate some of the objections; but you fail to state what, in your opinion, the objections are. However, I presume that you imagine the queen would lay in the sections, and that pollen would be stored there, and, being too small for a brood-nest, would cause dwindling of the working force; and, indeed, this would be the case if a good many of the fellows who write had to manipulate the colony, both before and after its preparation for comb-honey work; but in my whole experience and practice it has never been the case, even once. There might be something in locality in this respect, but I doubt it. I think there is more in the man and his way of doing things. However, I can not explain in this article.
ing. As I said to friend Doolittle in our issue for Dec. 1, such references ought to be accompanied by the page and issue of the journal in order that we may see exactly what is said.
[If overstocking has been seriously advocated in these columns, without a protest, I did not know it or had overlooked it. I have frequently said that, in many localities I had visited, too many bees were plainly responsible for cutting down the honeyyields to an extent that was almost alarm
It may be that a caution is needed in regard to the use of baby nuclei for keeping queens. Our use of them has been confined entirely to the matter of having them mated. As soon as they were surely laying they were taken and another virgin would be given them. We have never tried them for keeping queens for any great length of time.
Regarding the use of two shallow broodnests, you in your last paragraph have anticipated the objections I had in mind. In some localities, and particularly with some bee-keepers, the pollen difficulty is a serious one. Even Dr. Miller has complained that a brood-nest as deep as the present Danzenbaker caused pollen to be forced up into the sections. - ED.]
THE WINGS OF THE BEE.
I. The Evolution of the Venation.
BY E. F. PHILLIPS, PH.D.
Careful students of insect life have recognized that the veins of the wings of various insects resemble each other; and numerous efforts have been made to refer the wings of all orders back to a hypothetical type. According to the theory of evolution, all forms of insects have probably descended from one species; and the effort has been made to discover, if possible, what the wings of this primitive form were, so that we can more nearly discover the relationships_existing between the forms living to-day. There are certain features in the venation of the wings of insects which occur in all the more generalized species, so that we are warranted in regarding them as typical of all insect wings, and therefore probably inherited from the hypothetical ancestors of the insects now living. Veins of the wings are of special interest to the entomologist, since they are useful in so many cases in identifying species; and for this reason the veins have been much studied. It is scarcely necessary to add that we shall probably never know very much about the ancestors of insects; but any evidence which can be found by comparing the forms now living are of great value in studying new forms.
Comstock and Needham, in the American Naturalist for 1898, in a very excellent series of articles discuss the relationships of the venations of the different insect orders; and to these articles the reader is referred for additional information. I can at this time present only the changes which have taken place in the evolution of the wing of the bee from the typical form.
The typical insect wing is supported by the following veins, beginning at the anterior edge: Costa, C; sub-costa, Sc; radius, R; media, M; cubitus, Cu; and several anal
veins, A. These are often branched, the branches being numbered in order; thus, the first branch of the vein radius being known as radius-one, R1. The space between veins is known as a cell, and is named from the vein which forms its front margin; thus, the space just behind the vein radius-one is
known as the cell R1. Numerous crossveins are found which are represented by small letters; thus, the cross-vein connecting R and M is the radio-medial (r-m).
Fig. 1 represents the wing of the typical insect belonging to the Hymenoptera (the order to which the bee belongs). No species of insect has a wing just like this; but a study of many species has indicated that
Fig. 2 represents the fore wing of the honey-bee with most of the veins and cells marked. In the evolution of this wing three veins have been entirely lost-the sub-costal (Se), radius-two (R2), and cubitus-two (Cue). In examining over one thousand wings, no cases were found in which any of these veins were present. The angles of the branches of the radius vein are also changed considerably. The veins R and M coalesce, and lie very near to the vein C, forming a rigid anterior edge. There is here also but one anal vein.
pose. The flies have but one pair of wings, of such a width that they support the weight of the insect in flight. Had the bee wings of this type they would need to be about of an inch from point to point when at rest, and this would have prevented its entrance to its own cell. We frequently see bees at
FIG. 1.-THE WING OF A TYPICAL HYMENOPTEROUS INSECT, ACCORDING TO COMSTOCK AND
In the case of the bee we get a remarkable case of adaptation to environment in the way in which the wings are placed in re
FIG. 2.-THE FORE WING OF THE HONEY-BEE WITH THE MAIN VEINS AND CELLS LABELED.
the ancestral form had a wing of this kind. The saw-flies come nearest to the type in this order. To follow out all the changes which have taken place in the formation of this wing would require considerable space, so that we must omit the discussion here.
gives much more power and regularity to the flight of the bee than would be obtained if the two pairs of wings acted independently. The number of these hooks is from 16 to 27, the average for drones being slightly higher than for workers, and the variation in number being far greater for drones.
When at rest the wings overlap and lie close to the body. In the wasps the wings at rest are confined to a still smaller space by being folded lengthwise. Philadelphia, Pa.
JUDGING HONEY AT FAIRS.
BY A SUBSCRIBER.
Recently I was at a fair and watched the judging of the honey exhibits, but was not myself a competitor. The judge was a very
careful and impartial man, and he went over the exhibits very carefully several times before giving the awards. So far as I could observe, the honey was judged almost entirely by its flavor, although the aroma received some consideration, and the appearance also was noted. This refers to extracted honey.
When the judge came to the comb honey I was almost knocked down with astonishment to see him break holes in beautiful white sections in order to taste their contents. The appearance of the exhibits was thus entirely ruined. According to my own ideas, comb honey should be judged by appearance only. The wholesale purchaser and the consumer, both of them, pay for the article according to its appearance. The best-filled sections, and those with the whitest cappings, are the ones that command the highest price, no matter who it is that is buying. A purchaser of comb honey does not ask to be allowed to taste the article, and he would not be allowed to do so, even if he did ask; therefore is it not reasonable that it should be judged according to the way in which it is sold, and be judged by its appearance only?
If I were judging I would give most points to smooth, well-filled combs. Such sections, with no pop-holes-well filled solid to the wood, and every cell sealed-would be placed above those which might be a little whiter in color, yet having a few cells not sealed
I would place the whiteness of the cappings second, and the cleanness and whiteness of the section itself third. Flavor I would not consider at all. We must remember that it is necessary to please the eye first, if we would draw from the pocket of a consumer. These conclusions are borne out by the grading-rules you publish in each issue of this paper. I can not help saying again that it seems to me a very strange proceeding to break open a section and judge by its contents.
As regards judging extracted honey, I would put appearance first, flavor second, density and weight third, and aroma fourth. A purchaser in a store would take a bottle of clear white honey in preference to a darkcolored one. The lighter the color, the more attractive to the eye; and, as before mentioned, it is generally the eye that controls the pocket. This is also proved by the market quotations you publish. I copy the following from the last number of GLEANINGS I have received:
to a lighter-colored honey that is lighter in weight; and all agree that thin unripe honey should not be placed on the market at all. The aroma is the last thing a buyer would think about.
Another feature about this fair that I noticed was that there were no samples of granulated honey exhibited. There were only two classes-extracted honey and comb honey. This year the exhibits were all liquid, but other years I have seen samples of both liquid and granulated honey competing in the same class.
Now, for my part I do not see how it would be possible for any man to judge both together. I have in my possession at the present moment some granulated honey as hard and solid as any cheese. It is now, in the crystallized state, as white as any sugar; yet when it was in a liquid condition it was very dark and cloudy. How, then, could this be judged with the liquid article? There are three very good reasons why I should not be expected to reduce this honey again to a liquid state. First, because the necessary heating would injure it more or less in color, flavor, and aroma; second, because most people prefer honey in the crystallized or granulated condition; third, because granulation is an absolute proof of purity.
I intend, therefore, to request the committee to place these classes of honey on their next program, to read thus: Class No.
comb honey in sections.
Class No. Class No. extracted honey, granu'ed. The judge referred to above is a grocer by trade. He is a thoroughly honest, impartial man, and, without doubt, an experienced taster. At the same time, however, he knows nothing whatever about how honey is produced, nor any of the fine points on which bee-keepers place the most value. Would it not be more satisfactory to exhibitors if a judge could be obtained who has had several years' experience as a modern bee-keeper? Fernhill, Napier, N. Z., Oct. 30, 1904.
[I don't know much about judging honey, but so far as I can see your points are all very well taken. It may be permissible, if a judge desires it, to taste comb honey from the same super, but he should not mutilate those perfect sections on exhibition, especially if the exhibit is to stand after the premiums are awarded. - ED.]
THE DANZENBAKER HIVE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HONEY.
Should the Brood-nest be Crowded with Brood?
BY WM. A. STEWART.
Mr. Root:-I have often thought of writing you something of our experience with the Danzenbaker hive; and after reading Mr. Doolittle's letter in the Oct. 1st issue I decided to do so, for I think your readers have not been fully informed as to its merits.
Mr. Doolittle says, page 925, "The broodcombs are manipulated till the whole are solid full of brood; and when in this shape, if any honey is stored it must go into the sections." Now, I do not want the broodcombs quite in that shape, for four reasons:
1. The manipulation above referred to takes time from the bees as well as from the bee-keeper.
2. I want a little unsealed honey in the frames-enough for the brood for a day or two at least, so the young or nurse bees will not have to go into the supers for it, where, in some cases, they would have to climb up over nearly finished sections to reach the fresh honey above.
3. With the best queens obtainable, there will always be a difference in the capacity of individuals, and I want more room so that an extra good one will never be crowded.
4. With the brood-combs solid full of brood (I suppose he meant to include the usual supply of pollen), what is to become of the extra supply of pollen which the bees often gather right in the height of the season? Will it not go into the sections also, or, more likely, crowd the queen into a still smaller space? Granted that it may all be needed later, we must have room for it when it comes. For these reasons I want no contraction of the brood-nest during the honeyflow.
Perhaps you would say that a beginner of two years' experience should hardly speak on matters like this, after Mr. Doolittle has spoken. No one feels that more than I; but I want to say that another experienced beekeeper, one who seldom speaks for himself, has a plan which suits me better, because it accomplishes the same purpose without these objections.
Mr. Danzenbaker's plan was to make a hive neither large nor small, but of the ordinary size, and of such shape that the natural place for the honey is in the supers, so that the bees will incline to put it there without being forced to do so, leaving the queen plenty of room, with food supplies for the brood right at hand. I want to emphasize the fact as we find it, that he did what he started out to do. In fact, it is a matter of practical experience with us that he builded better than he has ever dared to claim. I find no need to tier up the hives with second hive-bodies, except where increase is wanted. I just put on the super with full sheets as soon as the bees begin to carry honey faster than they use it, about the beginning of apple-bloom, and add more supers on top as they are needed. The bees and the hive do the rest.
Just one more point for the hive. We have a good honey-flow, but a climate so changeable and uncertain that such methods as the brushed swarm-well, anybody may try it who wants to. This county, with no cities and but two large towns, does not nearly produce its own supply of honey, and they don't eat it on the Texas plan either. Let the out-apiary men come; but let them come warned, for they will wish some wet morning that they had shaken themselves instead of their bees. Well, with the Danzenbaker hive I find it perfectly practicable to keep the bees ready for a honey-flow or ready for a famine from the beginning of apple-bloom until the end of buckwheatbloom in September. Even our nuclei are kept with a supply of honey in their frames, and we can make two from a strong colony without seriously decreasing its yield of honey.
In the two last seasons my sister and I have secured an average of comb honey per colony nearly equal to Mr. Doolittle's record, and have increased from 5 colonies in the spring of 1903 to 22 now, and have had but three natural swarms, all of them due to overcrowding. I expect to find swarming entirely avoidable; but please bear in mind, after Dr. Miller's experience, that I have no non-swarming race.
Allow me to add that we have had some of our best points on bee-keeping from Mr. Doolittle, and nearly all of them from your publications.
Elkin, Pa., Oct. 6, 1904.
HOW I MANAGE SWARMING WITH THE QUEEN-TRAP.
BY C. H. DIBBERN.
Having established an out-apiary some twelve years ago, and being short of help, I found the swarming business a pretty serious problem. I studied all known methods to prevent or control swarming, including the now popular method of clipping the queen's wings and making swarms by the shake or brush systems. These, however, soon proved unsatisfactory to me, and my first experience with the Alley trap, drone and queen guards, and various so-called selfhivers in the end proved equally unsatisfactory. But from the experience I had, I felt sure that the trap, when improved, was the best way to manage swarming, especially at an out-apiary where but one or two visits a week could be made. I made three or four different traps, but soon discarded all but the one on page 806; and after having had it in constant use for over ten years I do not see how any thing better could be desired.
About the time swarms begin to issue I go through the apiary when the bees are busy, and place a trap on every hive liable to swarm. This I determine from the way the bees are acting, and seldom make a mistake; but with plenty of traps one can be put on every hive. The bees soon become used to them, and I never could see that it made any difference in the amount of honey gathered. In two days there will be a good many drones in the traps, and these I shake out into a box, always keeping a lookout for queens. Should a queen be found, then probably a swarm has issued and returned unseen, or the bees are superseding their queen. In either case the hive should be opend, and actual conditions ascertained. If it is found
the bees had attempted swarming, the swarm can be shaken out, giving it the trapped queen. In an out-apiary, usually a glance at the hives will show by clusters of bees on the upper corners of the trap, just where swarms have issued. If one is present it is a very easy matter to hive the swarm. All that is necessary is to see that the queen is in the trap, which can easily be done if the new Tinker zinc is used. Set the new hive in the place where the old one stood; attach the trap and open the back door so the queen can run in with the bees when the swarm returns. Usually the bees will miss their queen in ten or fifteen minutes; but I have known them to settle on a tree and stay for hours. Generally one can be certain that no queen is present if they cluster on a tree, by that nervous movement among them, and by seeing a few bees flying around under the trees, as if hunting for something. After the bees are hived I leave the trap on the new hive for two or three days, to prevent desertion. Sometimes swarms will come out after being hived a day or two, and start for the woods. It is a great satisfaction to see them humbly returning in a short time.
I am well aware that most of this is no news to the experienced apiarist; but to the beginner and farmer bee-keeper it ought to be of value. When I read last year of the thousands of swarms roaming over the country I thought how easily this great loss could have been prevented with the new queen-trap. This is by no means all the use I make of the trap, and I will have something more to say in a future article. Milan, Ill.
LIZARDS AND BEES.
The Small Lizards Friends and Not Enemies; Some Noxious Spiders in California; an Interesting Nature Study.
BY C. W. DAYTON.
operations to a less wary kind of prey-a honey-bee, for instance.
The lizard described on page 658 as "at least a foot long " is an entirely different kind of reptile from the one referred to in your footnote as being "very tame," or the one that "would rather watch the apiarist, mentioned on page 981. The lizard" a foot long" does not possess either of these traits. When this lizard sees a person it gets out of sight as soon as possible, but would eat bees as soon as not. It crawls over the ground leaving a crooked track like a snake, except that it has four feet to help propel its body along, and lives mostly under ground, while the other lizard lives mostly tame" or smaller above ground. The kind seldom attain to a length of 8 inches, and do not crawl, but hop over the ground as clearly as a bird, leaving only the prints of its feet. It can climb up the side of an unpainted building, but the larger lizard can The small lizard can creep to within about three inches of a house-fly, and, by a flying jump, take in the fly before it can move; but the larger lizard must restrict its
The small lizard I consider a very good friend of the bee-keeper, unless, perhaps, they might become too numerous. Then they might possibly learn to eat bees on account of a scarcity of other insects. But I have watched them for over ten years, and only once have I seen one molest a bee, and that was owing to peculiar circumstances.
I have never seen a cat that would not catch a lizard of the small kind as soon as it would a mouse; but cats do not catch the larger one more than once or twice before they pay no more attention to them. Chickens will catch either kind whenever they But if the apiarist has no chickens or cats, let him place a warm board (either soft wood or a board which has some fuzz on it) on the ground on the warm side of a building, and another board on top of this, but separated by or inch blocks. Then place around three sides a rim to close the cracks up except on one side, which should be left open for the lizards to creep in. This will soon be used by all the lizards on the place as a roosting-place. As lizards hibernate through the night, in the early morning the top board can be lifted and the lizards picked up in a dormant state unless it should chance to be an unusually hot night.
To show how the lizard may be a friend to the apiarist I will describe a few instances.
For two or three months last summer there was a lizard which came into the house regularly between noon and one o'clock to catch flies and ants from the floor. There was a very industrious nest of ants located about thirty feet from the house, which formed a black line of foragers to the porch, and went up one of the porch-posts and down a wire into our wire-screened safe for fruit. I put tar on the wire, and then they marched in across the kitchen floor to a can of honey that was there for use on the table. Whenever honey was drawn into a dish a little would stick to the cap, and thus attract the ants. I noticed that, when the lizard caught a fly, it always turned and picked up from two to four ants, so I made him welcome. At the end of five or six weeks the ants seemed to be entirely cleaned out.
At another time an open five-gallon can of granulated honey was set on the stove to melt. A coarse cloth was thrown over it to keep robber bees out. The honey boiled up suddenly on one side and oozed through the meshes of the cloth. As I was at the dinner-table the honey was set off the stove on the floor a few feet from my chair, and about a dozen flies and five or six robber bees pounced upon the oozed honey at once. The lizard came in as usual, and immediately hopped up on the cloth among the bees and flies, and, after catching a dozen flies and not molesting a single bee, it climbed down as quietly as it came in, and disappeared out the door.
Although these lizards eat house-flies and ants, yet they prefer the larger flies, spi