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The abrupt opening of the narrative with a series of proper names presupposes that the reader is already acquainted with their historic import. The chronicler intends to give a synopsis of the archæology of man, as recorded in the book of Genesis, by way of fixing the place of Israel in the great human family. Arabian and monkish annalists of the middle ages have followed his precedent, at least so far as regards the external form of their histories. William of Malmesbury, for instance, does not hesitate to trace the line of the Saxon kings to Adam; and the chroniclers of Spain have derived their monarchs from Tubal, a grandson of Noah. Such inventions, of course, bear only an artificial resemblance to the Biblical records, which are undoubtedly survivals of a remote antiquity, a fact which should suggest caution in theorising upon their interpretation.

Chapter i. falls naturally into three sections. (1) The ten generations of the first age of humanity, with a table of races and countries, given in genealogical form according to ancient conceptions (verses 1-23). (2) The ten generations after the Flood, from Shem to Abraham, the second age of man, with a list of the races claiming descent from Abraham (verses 24-42). (3) A catalogue of the kings of Edom anterior to the Israelite monarchy and of the tribal chieftains of that country (verses 43-54).

Verses 1-4 are an abstract of the fifth chapter of Genesis. (See the Notes there.) The arrangement of the names, in three triads and a quartette, is perhaps mnemonic. In our translation the Hebrew spelling is followed more closely here than in Genesis v. Sheth, Enosh, Kenan, Jered, Henoch are nearer the original than Seth, Enos, Cainan, Jared, Enoch (the spelling of the LXX).

(1) Adam (man) is here treated as a proper name; in Gen. v. 1-5 it is an appellative.

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The Chaldeans also had a tradition of ten antediluvian patriarchs or kings, beginning with Alorus and ending with Xisuthrus (Hasis-Adra), the hero of the Flood. They made the duration of this first period of human history 432,000 years. Remembering that Abraham, the Hebrew, was from Ur (Uru, the city) of the Chaldees," we can hardly suppose the two accounts to be independent of each other. The comparative simplicity and, above all, the decided monotheism of the Hebrew relation, give a high probability to the assumption that it represents a more original form of the tradition.

(5) The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. (6) And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and

Sheth, Enosh.-Those who have imagined the present list to be a mere duplicate of that given in Gen. iv. 17 sqq., and who explain the whole by the fatally easy process of resolving all these different names into a capricious repetition of one original solar figure, are obliged to admit a difficulty in connection with the names of Sheth and Enosh, which are acknowledged “not to belong to mythology at all” (Prof. Goldziher). Considering that most Hebrew names have a distinct and intentional significance, it is obviously a mere exercise of ingenuity to invest them with a mythological character. Meanwhile, such speculations cannot possibly be verified.

(4) Shem, Ham, and Japheth.-There is no doubt that Ham means black, or sunburnt, and Japheth (Heb., Yepheth) is probably the fair-skinned. Shem has been compared with an Assyrian word meaning brownish (sa’mu). Thus the three names appear to allude to differences of racial complexion.

Verses 5-23 are an abridgment of Gen. x. The proper names represent, not persons, but peoples and countries. By adding them all together, the old Jewish interpreters made a total of seventy nations for the world. The list is a classified summary of the ethnical and geographical knowledge of Hebrew antiquity.




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The Oriental theory of political and even social communities refers each to a common ancestor. The Israelites are known as "sons of Israel," the Ammonites as sons of Ammon (Authorised version, 'children"). In the same way, an Arab tribe is called the "Beni Hassan " (sons of Hassan), and Assurbanipal styles his subjects Isons of Asshur." Sometimes a people is called " sons of the land or city they inhabit; e.g., the Babylonians are styled "sons of Babel." The "sons of Japheth" are probably the fair Caucasian race.


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(5) Gomer.-The Cimmerians of the Greek writers; called Gi-mir-ra-a-a in Assyrian inscriptions. Their country was Cappadocia, called Gamir by the ancient Armenians. The Arabic version has " "Turkey."

Magog.-Ezek. xxxviii. 2, 3, 6 speaks of Gog, king of Magog, and suzerain of Tubal, Meshech, Gomer, and the house of Togarmah. With the name Gog compare Gâgu, king of Sahi, mentioned in connection with Assurbanipal's campaign against the Mannâ-a. Magog appears to be a general name for the peoples north of Assyria, i.e., in Armenia.

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Madai.—The Medes. 2 Kings xvii. 6; Isa. xiii. 17. Assyr., Ma-da-a-a.

Javan. The Assyrian Yavnan, i.e., Cyprus, mentioned in the Behistun Inscription, as here, along with Media, Armenia, and Cappadocia. (Comp. Joel iv. 6; Isa. lxvi. 19.)

Tubal and Meshech, the Tibareni and Moschi of classical writers; and the Muski and Tabali of Assyrian records.

Tiras has been compared with the Tyras or Dniester. Perhaps we may compare Tros and the Trojans.

(6) Ashchenaz. Jer. li. 27, near or in Armenia. Apparently the Asguzâa mentioned by Esarhaddon in the account of his campaign against the Cimmerians and Cilicians. The Arabic has Slavonia.

Riphath. The reading of Gen. x. 3, some Heb. MSS., the LXX., and Vulg. The common Hebrew text (Van der Hooght's) wrongly reads Diphath (Syriac, Diphar). Togarmah seems to be the Tulgarimme on the border of Tabali, which Sennacherib reduced in his expedition against Cilicia (Smith, Sennach., p. 86).

(7) Elishah.-Usually identified with Hellas, or the Hellenes. Perhaps, however, Carthage is meant : comp. the name Elissa, as a by-name of Dido, Virg. Æn. iv. 335.

Tarshish.-Usually identified with the Phoenician colony of Tartessus, in Spain. (Comp. Ps. lxxii. 10.)

Dodanim. So many Heb. MSS., the Syriac, Vulg., and Gen. x. 3. The LXX. has " Rhodians," which implies a reading, Rodanim, which we find in the common Hebrew text. Dodanim might be the Dardanians of the Troad, or the Dodoneans (Dodona, the seat of an ancient oracle, the fame of which might have reached Phoenician ears).

Thus far the list appears to deal with Asia Minor and adjacent lands; and Japheth, whose name is curiously like the Greek Iapetus, seems to include the western races so far as known to the Hebrews.

SWARTHY (verses 8-16).

(8) Cush.-The Greek Meroë, Assyrian Miluhha, or Kûsu, south of Egypt, in our Bibles often called Ethiopia (Isa. xix. 1). The Arabic gives Habesh, i.e., Ethiopia.

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Mizraim.—The common Hebrew name of Egypt: strictly, the two Miçrs "—i.e., Upper and Lower Egypt. But the name should rather be spelt Mizrimthe Egyptians; the form Mizraim being probably a mere fancy of the Jewish punctuators. The Assyrians wrote Muçuru, Muçru, Muçur. The Inscription of Darius has Miçir. Maçôr was the name of the wall which protected Egypt on the north-east. Hence it gave its name to the whole of Lower Egypt.-Cush and Muçur are coupled together in the inscriptions of Esarhaddon and his son Assurbanipal.

Put.-Perhaps the Egyptian Punt, on the east coast of Africa. King Darius mentioned Pûta and Kûsu as subject to him (Behist. Inscr.). Comp. Nah. iii. 9;

Jer. xlvi. 9; Ez. xxx. 5. The Arabic has Kibtu, i.e., Coptland.

Canaan.-There are many proofs of an early connection between Egypt and Canaan. The Philistines were colonists from the Delta (verse 12), and Ramses II. (cir. 1350 or 1450 B.C.) had wars and made alliance with the Hittites.

(9) Seba.-Capital of Meroë. The other names represent Arabian tribes and their districts.

Sheba.-The famous Sabæans, whose language, the Himyaritic, has quite recently been deciphered from inscriptions.

(10) Cush begat Nimrod.-Micah (v. 6) speaks of the 64 land of Nimrod" in connection with the land of Asshur." The land of Nimrod is plainly Babylonia; and some have supposed the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia-" the black-headed race (zalmat qaqqadi) as they styled themselves-to have been akin to the peoples of Muçur and Cush. At all events, Cush in this table of races appears as father of a series of mixed populations, ramifying from the north-west of the Persian Gulf in a southernly direction to the coast of Arabia. The Asiatic Cush represents that primitive Elamitic Sumerian race which occupied the north-west and north coast of the Persian Gulf; or rather that portion of it which attained to empire in Babylonia.

The name Nimrod appears to be identical with Merodach, the Accadian Amar-utu, or Amar-utuki, Assyrian Maruduk. Merodach was the tutelar deity of Babylon, as Asshur was of Assyria; and many Babylonian sovereigns bore his name. (Comp. Merodach-baladan, Isa. xxxix. 1.)

He began to be.-He was the first to become. Tradition made Nimrod the first founder of a great Oriental empire. The statement about his four cities (Gen. x. 10), the first of which was Babel (Babylon), is omitted here.

Mighty. Literally, a hero, warrior (gibbôr); a title of Merodach.

(11, 12) The names in these verses are all in the masculine plural, and obviously designate nations. Mizraim, the two Egypts, is said to have begotten the chief races inhabiting those regions -a common Oriental metaphor. The Ludim are the Ludu, or Rudu, of the hieroglyphs (Prof. Sayce thinks, the Lydian mercenaries of the Egyptian sovereigns); the Anamim are perhaps the men of An (On, Gen. xli. 50), Lehabim, the Lybians. The Naphtuhim seem to get their name from Noph, i.e., Memphis, and the god Ptah. Perhaps, however, the name is to be recognised in the town Napata.

(12) Pathrusim.-The men of the south (Egyptian, pe-ta-res, "the southland "), or Upper Egypt.

Casluhim . . . Caphthorim.-The men of Kaftûra, or the Delta. (See Amos ix. 7: "Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Mizraim? and the Philistines from Caphtor ?" and comp. Deut. ii. 23.) The

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10, 23.

of Shem.

(13) And Canaan begat Zidon his first- 1 Or, Mash, Gen. Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, born, and Heth, (14) the Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, (15) and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, (16) and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite.

2 That is, Division.

a Gen. 10. 23 & 11.

(17) The sons of aShem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Gen. 10. 26.

Casluhim may have been a leading division of the

CANAAN (verses 13-16).

(13) Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn.-Or, in modern phrase, Zidon is the oldest city of Canaan. It is usually mentioned along with Tyre, the ruling city in later times. Sennacherib speaks of the flight of Luli, "king of Zidon," from Tyre. Esarhaddon mentions Baal of Tyre as a tributary. Of the eleven sons of Canaan" all but three or four have been identified in the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria.

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And Heth-that is, the Hittite race, called Heta by the Egyptians, and Hatti by the Assyrians. (See verse 8, Note.) The Hittites were once the dominant race of Syria and Palestine. Carchemish, on the Euphrates, and Kadesh, as well as Hamath, appear to have been Hittite cities. Their kings had commercial relations with Solomon (1 Kings x. 29). Inscriptions, in a kind of mixed hieroglyph, have been found at Hamath and Carchemish, but they still await decipherment.

(14) The Jebusite.-The men of Jebus, or Jerusalem (chap. xi. 4).

Amorite. The hill-men of the trans-Jordan.

Girgashite. Perhaps of Gergesa (Matt. iii. 28). (15) Hivite.-On the slopes of Lebanon (Josh. xi. 3), "under Hermon," but also in Gibeon and Shechem (Josh. ix. 7; Gen. xxxiv. 2). Delitzsch suggests that the name is connected with Hamath (Assyrian, Hammath Havvath).

Arkite, and the Sinite.-Tribes living to the west of northern Lebanon. A fragment of the annals of Tiglath-pileser mentions along with Simyra the towns of Arqâ and Sianu "on the sea-coast" (B C., 739). Josephus mentions a town Arka, which is otherwise known as the birthplace of the emperor Alexander Severus (Ruins: Tell'Arga).

(16) Arvadite.-Arvad, or Aradus, now Ruâd, an island off Phoenicia. Assurnâçirpal (B.c. 885) calls it "Arvada in the mid-sea." Its king submitted to Sennacherib.

Zemarite. The people of Simyra, on the coast of Phoenicia, south-east of Arvad. Šimyra (Assyrian, Çimirra) was a fortified town commanding the road from the coast to the upper valley of the Orontes (Ruins: Sumra).

Hamathite. The people of Hamath (Hamah) on the Orontes, a Hittite state which made alliance with David (circ. 1040 B.C.).

On a review of verses 8-16 we see that the "sons of Ham" include Ethiopia, Egypt, and the neighbouring shores of Arabia, and perhaps the founders of Babylon (verses 8-10). The tribes of Egypt and Canaan are enumerated in verses 11-16.


(17) Elam.-The Elamtum of the Assyrian inscription, the classic Susiana, a mountainous land eastward

and Meshech. (18) And Arphaxad begat Shelah, and Shelah begat Eber. (19) And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was 2Peleg; because in his days the earth was divided and his brother's name was Joktan. (20) ₺ And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph,


of Babylonia, to which it was subject in the days of Abraham (Gen. xiv.). The names Assurû, Elamû, Kassû, and Accadû occur together in an old Assyrian list of nations. Elama, from which the Assyrian and Hebrew names are derived, is Accadian. The native designation was Ansan. The Sargonide kings of Assyria had frequent wars with Elam.

Asshur.-Assyria proper, i.e., a district on the Tigris, about twenty-five miles long, between the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh parallels of latitude. Asshur was the name of its older capital and tutelar god. The Semitic Assyrians appear to have been settled at Asshur as early as the nineteenth century B.C. They were emigrants from Babylonia (Gen. x. 11). The original name was A-usar, "water-meadow."

Arphaxad apparently means Babylonia, or, at least, includes it. Babylonian monarchs styled themselves "King of the Four Quarters' (of heaven); and Arphaxad may perhaps mean land of the four quarters or sides, and be derived from the Assyrian arba-kisâdi, four sides" (Friedrich Delitzsch). More probably it is Arph-chesed, "boundary of Chaldea."

Lud, usually identified with the Lydians (Assyrian Luddi), perhaps their original home in Armenia. The name has also been compared with Rutennu, the Egyptian name of the Syrians (1 and r being confused in Egyptian). But comp. Ezek. xxvii. 10, xxx. 5.

Aram. The high land-that is, eastern and western Syria, extending from the Tigris to the Great Sea. The name is constantly used for the Arameans, or Syrians.

Uz.-An Arab tribe, called Hâsu by Esarhaddon, who reduced them. Perhaps, however, Uz (Heb., Üç), is the Assyrian Uçça, a district on the Orontes, mentioned by Shalmaneser II. (B.c. 860-825). Job lived in the "land of Uz." The remaining names appear to be also those of Arab tribes, who must have lived northward in the direction of Aram; these are called sons of Aram in Gen. x.

Hul is the Assyrian Hûlî'a, which formed a part of the mountain land of Kasiar or Mash (Inscription of Assurnâçirpal, B.C. 885-860). For Meshech Gen. x. has Mash, which is compared with Mount Masius, near Nisibin. (So the Syriac and some Heb. MSS.)

(18) Eber. The land on the other side (Gr., ǹ népav) Peræa. Here the land beyond the Euphrates is meant, from which Abraham, the Hebrew" (i.e., Eberite), migrated.

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(19) Two sons.-This indicates the ancient consciousness that the Hebrew and Arabian peoples were akin. The earth was divided.-Or, divided itself. (Comp. Deut. xxxii. 7-9.) The words probably refer to a split in the population of Mesopotamia.

(20) Joktan begat Almodad.-The Joktanite tribes lived along the coast of Hadhramaut (Hazarmaveth) and Yemen, in southern Arabia. The tribes of Yemen call their ancestor Qahtân (= Joktan). The names in verses 20, 21, are all explicable from Arabic sources.

The generations


and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, (21) Hado- a Luke 3. 24. ram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, (22) and

from Shem to Abraham. Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, (30) Mishma, and Dumah, Massa, 1Hadad,

Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, (23) and 12adar, Gen. and Tema, (31) Jetur, Naphish, and Ke

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f firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Gen. 25. 13 to 17. All these are the sons of Keturah.

(22) Ebal.-Gen. x. 28 Obal, where, however, the LXX. read Evάx (Ebal). The different spelling is due to the common confusion in MSS. of the Hebrew letters w and y. Both Ebal and Abimael are unknown.

(23) Öphir.-Abhira, at the mouth of the Indus. Jobab.-Probably a tribe of Arabia Deserta. (Comp. the Arabic yabab, a desert.)

All these were the sons of Joktan.-Gen. x. 30 adds a definition of their territory: "Their dwelling was from Mesha " (Maisânu, at the head of the Persian Gulf), "until thou comest to Sephar" (probably Zafâru or Isfor, in South Arabia) " and the mountains of the east" (i.e., Nejd, a range parallel to the Red Sea).

From the whole section we learn that the Elamites, Assyrians, Chaldees, Arameans, Hebrews, and Arabs, were regarded as belonging to the great Semitic family. In regard to Elam, modern philologers have questioned the correctness of this view. It is, however, quite possible that at the time when the original of this table of nations was composed, some Semitic tribes were known to have effected a settlement in Elam, just as kindred tribes occupied Babylonia and Assyria.

The fourteen sons of Japheth and the thirty sons of Ham, and the twenty-six sons of Shem, make a total of seventy eponyms of nations. The number seventy is probably not accidental. Comp. the seventy elders (Num. xi. 16); the seventy members of the Sanhedrin; and even the seventy disciples of Christ (Luke x. 1). The seventy nations of the world are often mentioned in the Talmud. Ezekiel's prophecy concerning Tyre, and the peoples that had commerce with her (Ezek. xxvii.), is a valuable illustration of the table.



Between Arphaxad and Shelah the LXX., at Gen. xi. 12, insert Kaïváv Heb. Kenan (verse 2, above). The name is not contained in our present Hebrew text of Genesis. Kenan may have been dropped originally, in order to make Abraham the tenth from Shem, as Noah is tenth from Adam. The artificial symmetry of these ancient lists is evidently designed. Comp. the thrice fourteen generations in the genealogy of our Lord (Matt. i.).

Verses 28-42 enumerate a second series of seventy tribes or peoples, derived from Abraham through the three representative names of Ishmael, Keturah, and Isaac; just as the seventy peoples of the former series are derived from Noah through Shem, Ham, and Japheth. And as, in the former list, the sons of Japheth and Ham were treated of before the Semitic stocks, so, in the present instance, the sons of Ishmael and Keturah precede Isaac, and of Isaac's sons Esau precedes Israel

(35, sqq.); because the writer wishes to lead up to Israel as the climax of his presentation.

(29) These are their generations.-Or, their genealogy or register of births. Before a personal name the term Toldoth denotes the "births." i.e., the posterity of the man, and the history of him and his descendants. Before the name of a thing Toldoth signifies origin, beginnings (Gen. ii. 4). The Hebrew expression sefer toldoth answers to the Bißλos yevéσews of Matt. i. 1. The twelve sons or tribes of Ishmael (verses 29-31) are given first, in an extract from Gen. xxv. 13—16.

Nebaioth. The Nabateans of Arabia Petræa, and Kedar, the Cedrei of classical writers, are named together, Isa. lx. 7. (Assyrian Naba'âta and Kidra'a reduced by Assurbanipal.)

Adbeel. Both here and in Genesis the LXX. read Nabdeel. But Adbe'êl is the Assyrian Idiba'il or Idibi'il a tribe south-west of the Dead Sea, towards Egypt; mentioned along with Massa and Tema, as paying tribute to Tiglath-pileser II.

(30) Dumah.-Isa. xxi. 11, as a name of Edom. There is still a locality bearing this name, "Duma the Rocky," on the borders of the Syrian desert and


Hadad.—The right reading here and in Genesis. Tema.-Taima'u, in the north of the Arabian desert. The LXX. confuses it with Teman. (Assyr. Têmá'a). (31) Jetur.-The Itureans beyond Jordan (Luke iii. 1). The other names are obscure.

(32) The sons of Keturah.-An extract from Gen. xxv. 1-4.

Medan is very likely a mere repetition of Midian, due to a mistake of some ancient copyist. Gen. xxv. 3 adds, "And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim;" which is, perhaps, an interpolation, as the three names are of a different form from the others in the section; and the chronicler would hardly have omitted them had he found them in his text.

Midian. The most important of these tribes. The Midianites dwelt, or rather wandered, in the peninsula of Sinai.

Sheba, and Dedan.-See verse 9, where these names appear as sons of Cush. The names may have been common to different tribes settled in different regions. Sheba (Assyr. Saba'a'a), Massa, Tema, and Adbeel, are described by Tiglath-pileser as lying "on the border of the sunset lands"

(33) The five clans or tribes of Midian. These, with the seven names of verse 31, make a total of twelve tribes for Keturah.

Ephah.-Called Ha'âpâ, or Hayâpa by Tiglath


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a Gen. 36. 9, 10,
1 Or, Zepho, Gen.

36. 12.

Or. Heman, Gen.

36. 22.

3 Or, Alvan, Gen.

36, 23.

and of Seir. (40) The

and Timna was Lotan's sister. sons of Shobal; Alian, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shephi, and Onam. And the sons of Zibeon; Aiah, and Anah. (1) The sons of Anah; 'Dishon. And the sons of Dishon; Amram, and Eshban, and

(35) The sons of " Esau; Eliphaz, Reuel, and Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah. (36) The sons of Eliphaz; Teman, and Omar, Zephi, and Gatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek. (37) The sons of 4 Or. Shepho, Gen. Ithran, and Cheran. (42) The sons of Reuel; Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.

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36. 23.

b ch. 2. 31.

36. 25.

(38) And the sons of Seir; Lotan, and 50r, Hemdan, Gen. Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezar, and Dishan. (39) And the sons of Lotan; Hori, and 'Homam: e Gen. 36. 31.

6 Or, Achan, Gen.
36. 27.

(34) Abraham begat Isaac.-From Gen. xxv. 19. Esau and Israel.-Esau is named first, not as the elder, but because the tribes of Esau are to be first enumerated. (Comp. Note above on verses 28 -42.)

Israel. The more honourable appellation (Gen. xxxii. 28) almost wholly supplanted Jacob as the name of the chosen people, except in poetry and prophecy. Some moderns have seen in such double names as Jacob-Israel, Esau-Edom, a trace of an ancient fusion or amalgamation of distinct races.

(35-42) The tribes of Esau and Seir, extracted from Gen. xxxvi.

(35-37) The sons of Esau.-Comp. Gen. xxxvi. 9— 13. In verse 36 the name of Timna occurs under the general heading," Sons of Eliphaz." According to Gen. xxxvi. 12, Timua was a secondary wife of Eliphaz, and mother of Amalek. Strange as this difference may at first sight appear, it is in fact absolutely unimportant. The writer's intention being simply to enumerate the principal branches of the sons of Eliphaz, the statement of the special relations between the different clans might be omitted here, as fairly and naturally as the relations between Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth are left unnoticed in verse 4. Comp. also verse 17, where Uz, Hul, &c., are apparently co-ordinated with Aram, although Gen. x. 23 expressly calls them "sons of Aram." The Vatican MS. of the LXX. has our text; the Alexandrine MS. follows that of Gen. xxxvi. 12. It is at least curious that if Timna-Amalek be excluded from account, the sons of Esau are twelve in number. The fact is obscured in the compressed statement of the chronicler; but it becomes evident by reference to Gen. xxxvi. 11-14, where five sons are reckoned to Eliphaz (verse 11), four to Reuel (verse 13), and three to Esau's wife Aholibamah (verse 14), viz.: Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah. Although verse 12 of that passage reckons Amalek with the sons of Adah, mother of Eliphaz, it distinctly separates TimnaAmalek from the sons of Eliphaz. It would seem that Amalek was known to be but remotely connected with the pure Edomite stocks. For the organisation of a people in twelve tribes, &c., comp. Ewald, Hist. of Israel, i. 362, and his Antiq. of Israel, § 280. However, Gen. xxxvi. 15-19 enumerates Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, Gatam, and Amalek, sons of Eliphaz; Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, Mizzah, sons of Reuel; and Jeush, Jaalam, Korah, sons of Aholibamah; as chiliarchs (allûfim—LXX., púλapxoi) or chieftains of Esau-Edom.

Ezer; Bilhan, and Zavan, and Jakan. The sons of Dishan; Uz, and Aran.

(43) Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel; Bela the son of Beor: and the name of


(38-42) The sons of Seir (from Gen. xxxvi. 2030). There is no apparent link between this series and the preceding. Comparison of Gen. xxxvi. 20 shows that Seir represents the indigenous inhabitants of Edom ("the inhabitants of the land," comp. Josh. vii. 9) before its conquest by the sons of Esau. In time a fusion of the two races would result, the tribes of each being governed by their own chieftains, as is indicated by Gen. xxxvi. 20, 21, where the seven sons of Seir (verse 38) are called chiliarchs of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom." Deut. ii. 22 implies not the actual extermination of the Horites (Troglodytes or Cave-dwellers) by their Semitic invaders, the sons of Esau, but only their entire subjugation. The differences of spelling noticed in the margin are unimportant as regards the names Zephi (verse 36), Homam (verse 39), and Alian and Shephi (verse 40); the note on Ebal-Obal (verse 22) explains them. The written w and y in Hebrew are so similar as to be perpetually confounded with each other by careless copyists. The same fact accounts for the missing conjunction and in verse 42, which is expressed in Hebrew by simply prefixing the letter w to a word. The w in this case having been misread, and transcribed as y, the name Jakan (Yaqan) resulted. The Aqan (not Achan) of Gen. xxxvi. 2 is correct. (So some MSS., the LXX., and Arabic.) Amram, in verse 41, is a mistake of the Authorised version. The Hebrew has Hamran, which differs only by one consonant from the Hemdan of Gen. xxxvi. 26; a dif. ference due to the common confusion of the Hebrew letters d and r, already exemplified in verses 6 and 7 (Riphath-Diphath, Dodanim - Rodanim). Many MSS. and the Arabic read Hemdan here.

(39) And Timna was Lotan's sister.-This appears to mean that the tribe settled in the town of Timna was akin to the sons of Lotan, but not a subdivision of that tribe. Towns are feminine in Hebrew, and are sometimes called mothers (2 Sam. xx. 19), sometimes daughters.

(41) The sons of Anah; Dishon.-Gen. xxxvi. 25 adds, "and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah.' (Comp. verse 52, "the chiliarch of Aholibamah.") Dishon, like Ammon or Israel, being the collective name of a number of tribes or clans, there is nothing strange in the expression, " The sons of Anah; Dishon."

(43-54) The ancient kings and chiliarchs of Edom, a transcript of Gen. xxxvi. 31-43, with only such differences as are incidental to transcribing.

(43) Before any king reigned over the children of Israel.-Comp. Num. xx. 14-21, the message of Moses to the king of Edom, asking for a free passage

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