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than authorized or has otherwise violated his or her immigration status;

(v) An alien who has been ordered removed under section 235(c) of the Act;

or

(vi) An alien who is an applicant for admission, or has been admitted, as an alien classified under section 101(a)(15)(S) of the Act.

(2) Rules of procedurem(1) General. Except as provided in this section, proceedings falling under the jurisdiction of the immigration judge pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall be conducted in accordance with the same rules of procedure as proceedings conducted under 8 CFR part 240, except the scope of review shall be limited to a determination of whether the alien is eligible for asylum or withholding of removal and whether asylum shall be granted in the exercise of discretion. During such proceedings all parties are prohibited from raising or considering any other issues, including but not limited to issues of admissibility, removability, eligibility for waivers, and eligibility for any form of relief other than asylum or withholding of removal.

(ii) Notice of hearing procedures and inabsentia decisions. The alien will be provided with notice of the time and place of the proceeding. The request for asylum and withholding of removal submitted by an alien who fails to appear for the hearing shall be denied. The denial of asylum and withholding of removal for failure to appear may be reopened only upon a motion filed with the immigration judge with jurisdiction over the case. Only one motion to reopen may be filed, and it must be filed within 90 days, unless the alien establishes that he or she did not receive notice of the hearing date or was in Federal or State custody on the date directed to appear. The motion must include documentary evidence which demonstrates that:

(A) The alien did not receive the notice;

(B) The alien was in Federal or State custody and the failure to appear was through no fault of the alien; or

(C) “Exceptional circumstances,” defined in section 240(e)(1) of the Act, caused the failure to appear.

(iii) Relief. The filing of a motion to reopen shall not stay removal of the alien unless the immigration judge grants a written request for a stay pending disposition of the motion. An alien who fails to appear for a proceeding under this section shall not be eligible for relief under section 208, 212(h), 212(i), 240A, 240B, 245, 248, or 249 for a period of 10 years after the date of the denial.

(3) Other aliens. Immigration judges shall have exclusive jurisdiction over asylum applications filed by an alien who has been served Form I-221, Order to Show Cause; Form I-122, Notice to Applicant for Admission Detained for a Hearing before an Immigration Judge; or Form I-862, Notice to Appear, after a copy of the charging document has been filed with the Immigration Court. Immigration judges shall also have jurisdiction over any asylum applications filed prior to April 1, 1997, by alien crewmembers who have remained in the United States longer than authorized, by applicants for admission under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program, and by aliens who have been admitted to the United States under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program. Immigration judges shall also have the authority to review reasonable fear determinations referred to the Executive Office for Immigration Review under $ 208.31. (62 FR 10337, Mar. 6, 1997; 62 FR 15362, Apr. 1, 1997, as amended at 64 FR 8487, Feb. 19, 1999)

8208.3 Form of application.

An ylum applicant must file Form 1–589, Application for Asylum or Withholding of Removal, together with any additional supporting evidence in accordance with the instructions on the form. The applicant's spouse and children shall be listed on the application and may be included in the request for asylum if they are in the United States. One additional copy of the principal applicant's Form 1-589 must be submitted for each dependent included in the principal's application.

(b) An asylum application shall be deemed to constitute at the same time an application for withholding of removal, unless adjudicated in deportation or exclusion proceedings commenced prior to April 1, 1997. In such instances, the asylum application shall

as

the application to criminal penalties under title 18 of the United States Code and to civil penalties under section 2740 of the Act; and

(5) Knowingly filing a frivolous application on or after April 1, 1997, so long as the applicant has received the notice required by section 208(d)(4) of the Act, shall render the applicant permanently ineligible for any benefits under the Act pursuant to $ 208.18.

as

or

be deemed to constitute an application for withholding of deportation under section 243(h) of the Act, as that section existed prior to April 1, 1997. Where a determination is made that an applicant is ineligible to apply for asylum under section 208(a)(2) of the Act, an asylum application shall be construed an application for withholding of removal.

(c) Form 1-589 shall be filed under the following conditions and shall have the following consequences:

(1) If the application was filed on or after January 4, 1995, information provided in the application may be used as a basis for the initiation of removal proceedings, or to satisfy any burden of proof in exclusion, deportation, or removal proceedings;

(2) The applicant and anyone other than a spouse, parent, son, or daughter of the applicant who assists the applicant in preparing the application must sign the application under penalty of perjury. The applicant's signature establishes a presumption that the applicant is aware of the contents of the application. A person other than a relative specified in this paragraph who assists the applicant in preparing the application also must provide his or her full mailing address;

(3) An asylum application that does not include a response to each of the questions contained in the Form I-589, is unsigned, or is unaccompanied by the required materials specified in paragraph (a) of this section is incomplete. The filing of an incomplete application shall not commence the 150day period after which the applicant may file an application for employment authorization in accordance with $ 208.7. An application that is incomplete shall be returned by mail to the applicant within 30 days of the receipt of the application by the Service. If the Service has not mailed the incomplete application back to the applicant within 30 days, it shall be deemed complete. An application returned to the applicant as incomplete shall be resubmitted by the applicant with the additional information if he or she wishes to have the application considered;

(4) Knowing placement of false information on the application may subject the person placing that information on

8 208.4 Filing the application.

Except as prohibited in paragraph (a) of this section, asylum applications shall be filed in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(a) Prohibitions on filing. Section 208(a)(2) of the Act prohibits certain aliens from filing for asylum on after April 1, 1997, unless the alien can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that one of the exceptions in section 208(a)(2)(D) of the Act applies. Such prohibition applies only to asylum applications under section 208 of the Act and not to applications for withholding of removal under $ 208.16 of this part. If an applicant submits an asylum application and it appears that one or more of the prohibitions contained in section 208(a)(2) of the Act apply, an asylum officer or an immigration judge shall review the application to determine if the application should be rejected or denied. For the purpose of making determinations under section 208(a)(2) of the Act, the following rules shall apply:

(1) Authority. Only an asylum officer, an immigration judge, or the Board of Immigration Appeals is authorized to make determinations regarding the prohibitions contained in section 208(a)(2)(B) or (C) of the Act;

(2) One-year filing deadline. (i) For purposes of section 208(a)(2)(B) of the Act, an applicant has the burden of proving

(A) By clear and convincing evidence that he or she applied within one year of the alien's arrival in the United States or

(B) To the satisfaction of the asylum officer, immigration judge, or Board of Immigration Appeals that he or she qualifies for an exception to the oneyear deadline.

(ii) The one-year period shall be calculated from the date of the alien's last arrival in the United States or April 1, 1997, whichever is later. In the case of an application that appears to have been filed more than a year after the applicant arrived in the United States, an asylum officer or immigration judge will determine whether the applicant qualifies under one of the exceptions to the deadline;

(3) Prior denial of application. For purposes of section 208(a)(2)(C) of the Act, an asylum application has not been denied unless denied by an immigration judge or the Board of Immigration Appeals;

(4) Changed circumstances. (i) The term “changed circumstances” in section 208(a)(2)(D) of the Act shall refer to circumstances materially affecting the applicant's eligibility for asylum. They may include:

(A) Changes in conditions in the applicant's country of nationality or, if the person is stateless, country of last habitual residence or

(B) Changes in objective circumstances relating to the applicant in the United States, including changes in applicable U.S. law, that create a reasonable possibility that applicant may qualify for asylum.

(ii) The applicant shall apply for asylum within a reasonable period given those “changed circumstances.” (5)

The term extraordinary circumstances in section 208(a)(2)(D) of the Act shall refer to events or factors beyond the alien's control that caused the failure to meet the 1-year deadline. Such circumstances shall excuse the failure to file within the 1-year period so long as the alien filed the application within a reasonable period given those circumstances. The burden of proof is on the applicant to establish to the satisfaction of the asylum officer or immigration judge that the circumstances were both beyond his or her control and that, but for those circumstances, he or she would have filed within the 1-year period. These circumstances may include:

(i) Serious illness or mental or physical disability of significant duration, including any effects of persecution or violent harm suffered in the past, during the 1-year period after arrival;

(ii) Legal disability (e.g., the applicant was an unaccompanied minor or suffered from a mental impairment) during the first year after arrival;

(iii) Ineffective assistance of counsel, provided that:

(A) The alien files an aff vit setting forth in detail the agreement that was entered into with counsel with respect to the actions to be taken and what representations counsel did or did not make to the respondent in this regard;

(B) The counsel whose integrity or competence is being impugned has been informed of the allegations leveled against him or her and given an opportunity to respond; and

(C) The alien indicates whether a complaint has been filed with appropriate disciplinary authorities with respect to any violation of counsel's ethical or legal responsibilities, and if not, why not;

(iv) The applicant maintained Temporary Protected Status until a reasonable period before the filing of the asylum application; and

(v) The applicant submitted an asylum application prior to the expiration of the 1-year deadline, but that application was rejected by the Service as not properly filed, was returned to the applicant for corrections, and was refiled within a reasonable period thereafter.

(b) Filing location—(1) With the service center by mail. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3), (b)(4) and (b)(5) of this section, asylum applications shall be filed directly by mail with the service center servicing the asylum office with jurisdiction over the place of the applicant's residence or, in the case of an alien without a United States residence, the applicant's current lodging

the land border port-of-entry through which the alien seeks admission to the United States.

(2) With the asylum office. Asylum applications shall be filed directly with the asylum office having jurisdiction over the matter in the case of an alien who has received the express consent of the Director of Asylum to do so.

(3) With the immigration judge. Asylum applications shall be filed directly with the Immigration Court having jurisdiction over the case in the following circumstances:

or

(i) During exclusion, deportation, or removal proceedings, with the Immigration Court having jurisdiction over the port, district office, or sector after service and filing of the appropriate charging document.

(ii) After completion of exclusion, deportation, or removal proceedings, and in conjunction with a motion to reopen pursuant to 8 CFR part 3 where applicable, with the Immigration Court having jurisdiction over the prior proceeding. Any such motion must reasonably explain the failure to request asylum prior to the completion of the proceedings.

(iii) In asylum proceedings pursuant to $ 208.2(b)(1) and after the Notice of Referral to Immigration Judge has been served on the alien and filed with the Immigration Court having jurisdiction over the case.

(4) With the Board of Immigration Appeals. In conjunction with a motion to remand or reopen pursuant to $83.2 and 3.8 of this chapter where applicable, an initial asylum application shall be filed with the Board of Immigration Appeals if jurisdiction over the proceedings is vested in the Board of Immigration Appeals under 8 CFR part 3. Any such motion must reasonably explain the failure to request asylum prior to the completion of the proceedings. (5) With the district director. In the

of any alien described $ 208.2(b)(1) and prior to the service on the alien of Form I-863, any asylum application shall be submitted to the district director having jurisdiction pursuant to 8 CFR part 103. The district director shall forward such asylum application to the appropriate Immigration Court with the Form I-863 being filed with that Immigration Court.

(c) Amending an application after filing. Upon request of the alien and as a matter of discretion, the asylum officer or immigration judge having jurisdiction may permit an asylum applicant to amend or supplement the application, but any delay caused by such request shall extend the period within which the applicant may not apply for employment authorization in accordance with 8 208.7(a). (62 FR 10337, Mar. 6, 1997, as amended at 64 FR 8488, Feb. 19, 1999; 64 FR 13881, Mar. 23, 1999)

8 208.5 Special duties toward aliens in

custody of the Service. (a) General. When an alien in the custody of the Service requests asylum or withholding of removal or expresses a fear of persecution or harm upon return to his or her country of origin or to agents thereof, the Service shall make available the appropriate application forms and shall provide the applicant with the information required by section 208(d)(4) of the Act, except in the case of an alien who is in custody pending a credible fear of persecution determination under section 235(b)(1)(B) of the Act. Where possible, expedited consideration shall be given to applications of detained aliens. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, such alien shall not be excluded, deported, or removed before a decision is rendered on his or her asylum application.

(b) Certain aliens aboard vessels. (1) If an alien crewmember or alien stowaway on board a vessel or other conveyance alleges, claims, or otherwise makes known to an immigration inspector or other official making an examination on the conveyance that he or she is unable or unwilling to return to his or her country of nationality or last habitual residence (if not a national of any country) because of persecution or a fear of persecution in that country on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or if the alien expresses a fear of torture upon return to that country, the alien shall be promptly removed from the conveyance. If the alien makes such fear known to an official while off such conveyance, the alien shall not be returned to the conveyance but shall be retained in or transferred to the custody of the Service.

(i) An alien stowaway will be referred to an asylum officer for a credible fear determination under $ 208.30.

(ii) An alien crewmember shall be provided the appropriate application forms and information required by section 208(d)(4) of the Act and may then have 10 days within which to submit an asylum application to the district director having jurisdiction over the port of entry. The district director, pursuant to § 208.4(b), shall serve Form I-863

case

in

on the alien and immediately forward any such application to the appropriate Immigration Court with a copy of the Form 1–863 being filed with that court.

(2) Pending adjudication of the application, and, in the case of a stowaway the credible fear determination and any review thereof, the alien may be detained by the Service or otherwise paroled in accordance with $212.5 of this chapter. However, pending the credible fear determination, parole of an alien stowaway may be permitted only when the Attorney General determines, in the exercise of discretion, that parole is required to meet a medical emergency or is necessary for a legitimate law enforcement objective.

(c) Exception to prohibition on removal. A motion to reopen or an order to remand accompanied by an asylum application pursuant to $208.4(b)(3)(iii) shall not stay execution of a final exclusion, deportation, or removal order unless such stay is specifically granted by the Board of Immigration Appeals or the immigration judge having jurisdiction over the motion.

[62 FR 10337, Mar. 6, 1997, as amended at 64 FR 8488, Feb. 19, 1999)

ure to adjudicate the asylum application;

(iii) The defense of any legal action of which the asylum application is a part; or

(iv) Any United States Government investigation concerning any criminal or civil matter; or

(2) Any Federal, state, or local court in the United States considering any legal action:

(i) Arising from the adjudication of or failure to adjudicate the asylum application; or

(ii) Arising from the proceedings of which the asylum application is a part. 8 208.7 Employ nent authorization.

(a) Application and approval. (1) Subject to the restrictions contained in sections 208(d) and 236(a) of the Act, an applicant for asylum who is not an aggravated felon shall be eligible pursuant to $8274a.12(c)(8) and 274a.13(a) of this chapter to submit a Form I-765, Application for Employment Authorization. Except in the case of an alien whose asylum application has been recommended for approval, or in the case of an alien who filed an asylum application prior to January 4, 1995, the application shall be submitted no earlier than 150 days after the date on which a complete asylum application submitted in accordance with $8 208.3 and 208.4 has been received. In the case of an applicant whose asylum application has been recommended for approval, the applicant may apply for employment authorization when he or she receives notice of the recommended approval. If an asylum application has been returned as incomplete in accordance with $ 208.3(c)(3), the 150-day period will commence upon receipt by the Service of a complete asylum application. An applicant whose asylum application has been denied by an asylum officer or by an immigration judge within the 150-day period shall not be eligible to apply for employment authorization. If an asylum application is denied prior to a decision on the application for employment authorization, the application for employment authorization shall be denied. If the asylum application is not so denied, the Service shall have 30 days from the date of filing of the Form I-765 to grant

8 208.6 Disclosure to third parties.

(a) Information contained in or pertaining to any asylum application shall not be disclosed without the written consent of the applicant, except as permitted by this section or at the discretion of the Attorney General.

(b) The confidentiality of other records kept by the Service that indicate that a specific alien has applied for asylum shall also be protected from disclosure. The Service will coordinate with the Department of State to ensure that the confidentiality of these records is maintained if they are transmitted to Department of State offices in other countries.

(c) This section shall not apply to any disclosure to:

(1) Any United States Government official or contractor having a need to examine information in connection with:

(i) The adjudication of asylum applications;

(ii) The defense of any legal action arising from the adjudication of or fail

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