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length of the line s v; and the means of determining it and such results. Perhaps the idea may better be are as follow. Place the drawing horizontally before a caught by selecting a mechanical form of trying the window; take a slip of card, and rest its lower edge on experiment, a form, indeed, which may in many cases the line s 1, the card being accurately vertical; pierce a be the most easy to a young experimentalist. Having small hole in the card vertically over the point v, and selected a design on paper, pierce it by means of a at a height from it equal to the length of the line s v; needle or pin with a number of small holes, at the printhen, with the eye placed immediately behind the card, cipal points of its circumference and interior details. look through the orifice at the anamorphosis. It will be Then, holding this drawing in a vertical position over found that, as soon as the eye has become accustomed to a flat sheet of paper and placing a candle at a the novelty of the experiment, the anamorphorsis will lose short distance behind it, the rays of light which pass its distortion, and appear almost exactly like the symme- through the holes will fall upon the surface which is to trical figure.
receive the anamorphosis, and will there mark certain Fig. 1.
points of the device, which may be afterwards filled up by the pencil. Then, the eye being
placed at the point previously occupied by the flame of the candle, we shall see this figure under a very regular form, although it would appear grotesque and misshapen to an eye placed anywhere else.
This last-mentioned mode of performing the experiment is very
instructive, in reference to the cause of the deception. We have supposed the design to be vertical, the anamorphosis horizontal, and both to be formed of plane flat surfaces. The candle, too, we have supposed to be placed near the design, and elevated a little above it. But all these conditions may be varied ad libitum. The
design may be either vertical or inclined; the paper on It would be extremely difficult, and would require horizontal or inclined; the surface of the paper may be
which the anamorphosis is to be formed may be either geometrical reasoning of a lengthened kind, to shew why either plane or curved; the candle may be more or less this particular form of construction should lead to such eievated above the design, and more or less distant from Fig. 2.
it. All these variations in the conditions of the experi a 1 2 3 4 6
ment produce variations in the appearance of the ana morphosis; and yet all suffice to give to the an morphosis a regular form, when the eye is placed in the position previously occupied by the flame of the candle. This is in fact the distinguishing principle of the experiment.
In general, such subjects are chosen, and the degree of distortion is such, as will produce a figure utterly unintelligible when seen in the common way by a person unused to the experiment. Some artists have even succeeded in giving to the anamorphosis an appearance of an image which becomes changed into another totally different when seen from a particular point of view. Thus Niceron made a drawing which, when viewed in the customary manner, represented a rural landscape; but when viewed from a particular point of sight, it totally changed its character, and gave a representation of two men upon the walls of a cloister.
There is a kind of anamorphosis sometimes found at the opticians, which, though nothing more than a toy, is very curious in reference to our present subject. conical mirror is placed upon its base on a sheet of paper, which is marked with certain confused lines. When the eye is placed in one definite spot, and views this design as reflected in the surface of the mirror, the confused lines become combined or congregated so as to form a regular figure. The construction of such an anamor
phosis is a very ingenious application of the optical law, d
that in reflected light the "angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflexion;" and although we cannot here follow out the method to its minute details, we may offer a few explanations. In the first place, a design is prepared on a piece of paper, and is inclosed in a circular boundary. The circle is then divided into equal segments by radii proceeding from the centre to the circumference; and these segments are further divided by concentric circles, drawn equidistant one within another. The surface of the design is thus divided into several curved portions; and the more numerous these portions are, the more correctly can the anamorphosis be made. This design, thus divided, forms the pattern from which the drawing of the anamorphosis is to be effected; but before this can be done, a sheet of paper must be marked with lines in a peculiar manner.
This is an intricate part of the business; for the object is, to arrange
cireles and lines in such a manner, that when a conical his efforts were of no avail with a people stupefied by the immirror is placed on the paper, and the eye placed above
moderate use of ardent spirits. He resolved therefore to attack it, in the prolongation of the axis, the reflexion of all
the main evil, and after having carefully considered the attempts
that have been made in England and America, for rescuing the these lines shall together form a figure similar to that of unfortunate victims of drunkenness from ruin, he wrote the the circles and radii of the original design. A great Brandy Pest, and had it distributed widely among the poor, many circumstances have to be taken into account here; with a view not only of opening the eyes of the blind and ignosuch as the diameter of the cone; the proportion between
rant, but also of stimulating all good Christians to assist in the its diameter and its height; the obliquity of its sides ; The tale produced the intended effect. The sensation it created
eradication of a wide-spread disease. the height of the eye above the apex. All these matters was extraordinary. The advice given in it was widely adopted; are to be expressed geometrically on paper, and the re- and Zschokke has been amply rewarded by witnessing the quisite lines and circles deduced from them. The ana- gradual moral improvement of thousands, arising from the formorphosis, or rather the chart on which it is to be formed,
mation of temperance societies, and the zealous assistance of consists of concentric circles and radii, as in the original Although in this country much has been done to eradicate the
many clergymen, magistrates, and other benevolent men. pattern, though of different proportions; and the experi- the evil of drunkenness, yet the following little tale will be menter then proceeds to work in the design. This is found neither superfluous nor unworthy of the attention of all task of some difficulty; for that portion of the device
classes, as it is intended “to instruct and warn the rich and which was represented in the centre of the pattern, must
the poor, the old and the young," of this country as well as of
that for which it is especially written. The character, talents, be placed at the outer circumference of the anamorpho
rank, and almost European name of its author, as well as the sis: while the exterior portions of the device in the circumstance of its being entirely free from party spirit, will pattern are copied in or rather near the central part of doubtless justify the present translation. the anamorphosis. A space is left in the middle, on
With regard to the title, it must be borne in mind that in Swit
zerland brandy is the cheapest spirit, and consequently that which the base of the conical mirror is to be placed; and
liquor of which there is the greatest consumption. It is in the eye being then held in a given position above the fact the gin of the Swiss. The corresponding English title or aper of the cone, sees a regular and symmetrical figure the little book would therefore be, The Gin Pest. But having reflected from the surface of the mirror. In order to
no wish to alter anything in the locality of the tale, nor to prevent the eye from wandering to an unsuitable position,
modify it so as to represent the state of drunkenness in this it is desirable to view the mirror through a perforated
country, the translator has kept strictly to the subject-matter
of the original, and retained even the peculiarly simple concard, held horizontally at the proper distance above the struction of the sentences; preserving thus a true an faithful apex of the cone.
picture of a Swiss story as related by Henry Zschokke. These optical illusions greatly surprise those who arc
The translation of this tale is certainly little calculated to display
the great skill and talent which Zschokke possesses as one of Dot familiar with their nature and causes, on account of
Germany's best novel-writers, and to induce the English to the want of resemblance between the anamorphosis, and make themselves more acquainted with his works; but if the the figure represented. A still more remarkable effect author of Waverley is not less great because he wrote the Tales is produced when the mirror is pyramidal instead of of a Grandfather, Zschokke's reputation may not be injured by
his Brandy Pest and Village of the Gold-makers; works which conical, for in that case only a portion of the device
he wrote, not to increase his fame as a novelist, but to condrawn on the sheet of paper can be reflected to an eye tribute to the happiness of mankind. above the apex. All those rays which fall on the angles of the pyramid, or on any of the sides in other than verti
The Fellor Traceller. cal planes, are not reflected to the eye, and do not form On my journey homeward from England, I made tho part of the compounded image. Consequently, we may acquaintance of a gentleman whom I met with at an inn. fill up these portions of the sheet of paper with any He was handsome in his personal appearance, and refined in grotesque device we please, provided correct drawing be
his manners, but he was evidently depressed in spirits, and bestowed on those parts which are reflected to the eye,
he spoke but little. When, however, he learned that I was and the anamorphosis is then such as to baffle all the
a native of Switzerland, he took me warmly by the hand,
called me his fellow-countryman, and offered me a seat in his speculations of an uninitiated spectator.
carriage for the remainder of the journey. I accepted his In these optical illusions, if the devices be coloured, offer with pleasure. as they ought to be to produce the most striking effect, He informed me that his name was Fridolin Walter, and some tact is required in proportioning the depth of tint, that he was a physician. He had, during the last four so that the reflected tints, whether coming from a near or years, been travelling with a rich nobleman through the a remote part of the drawing, may have a due intensity greater part of Europe, and the good lord had conferred on
him a handsome pension for life, in acknowledgment of
his skill and attention during an alarming illness in a THE BRANDY PEST,
foreign country, to which under Providence his lordship A TALE; TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF HENRY
attributed not only his own but his daughter’s recovery. ZSCHOKKE, BY L. GANTNER.
“As you succeeded so well in these cases, doctor,'' said I,
“you can perhaps give me some good advice, for I suffer The following tale is from the pen of a writer who has devoted dreadfully from indigestion and violent pains in the stomach.”
bis whole life to the welfare of his fellow creatures. HENRY Zschokke is not only acknowledged as one of the most distin
Looking at me firmly for a while, as if he would pierce me guished novelists and historians of Germany, but also as one
through with his black eyes, he said drily, of her most active statesmen and philanthropists.
become much worse, friend.” “ You alarm me," I ex
Almost all his writings tend to improve the moral condition of claimed; “I know not the cause of my complaint.” the people. He thinks it not degrading to address even the
“But I have discovered it,” he answered, “ during the lowest classes, in that simple and unaffected style, which alone few days that we have travelled together. The spirits ean speak to their hearts and awaken in them those higher which you take are the cause of it, although you do not mental feelings, which but too commonly are kept down by drink what you call much; that is to say, you take in the their miserable condition. Even in his most classical works, such morning before breakfast a glass of rum, after dinner a glass as his famous History of Switzerland, which has been trans- of cherry-brandy with your coffee, and in the evening lated into several languages, he keeps the people constantly in another for your sleeping-draught.”. view. Possessing not only a high reputation as a classical
"Oh, you are joking, doctor," replied I; "a glass of good writer, but also great power as a statesman, he stands in a
spirits, now and then, can do me no harm, for I am accusposition in which his Christian philanthropy finds full scope for
tomed to live simply. It gives me ease, strengthens and aetivity. Watching for half a century the evils that have crept upon society, he could not but see that their main source was
warms my stomach, excites my spirits, and everything goes drunkenness. In vain had he endeavoured to improve the moral
on ten times better, after I have taken it. I declare to you, character of the Swiss, which has been of late much degraded the
whole earth looks much merrier after a moderate dram through the increasing intercourse with foreigners, by holding than before.” before them the high examples of their sober, brave, and vir- “ You are quite right," answered the doctor, “such are tuous forefathers, or by showing, as he had done in a popular always the first effects of spirits, and that is why people are little work called The Village of the Gold-makers, (translated 80 fond of dram-drinking; the second effect, however, is not so
and some years ago into English,) how to obtain real prosperity. But good. It makes you afterwards sleepy, weak, nervous;
" You may
it decomposes the blood; the body becomes more susceptible , this every day; Drink no spirits; whatever be their name, of fever and epidemic diseases; and when you have any all are artificial, not natural drinks. I promise you, friend, slight attack even of cold, you are exposed to greater in six months, you will have again a healthy stomach, and digers than persons who never take inflammatory bever you will feel the best effects arise from this liabit. I entreat ages.'
you to follow my advice. Our ancestors were stronger "Oh, oh, doctor! you must not exaggerate," said I; people than we are; they did not drink brandy, for they “ what you have stated may be the case witn drunkards.” were not acquainted with it. In the apothecary's shop it
“ I do not exaggerate, friend,” replied he, “it is already was found under the name of aqua vito, that is, water of your case. May it in mercy happen, that the cholera come life. It was used as a cordial. The savages in America call not near you, for you would in all probability fall a victim it mad water, and the savages are right!" to it. In London seven-eighths of the cholera patients died, I paid attention to what Doctor Walter truly said; and all of whom,-in the higher as well as in the lower classes, for the encouragement of all the thousands who complain of were in the habit of drinking intoxicating liquors. You diseases like mine, I add, that from that day I followed the may be sure, for experience has proved it, that out of ten doctor's advice, took every morning and every evening two young men who, from their twentieth to their thirtieth glasses of fresh water, and only at dinner a little beer or wine. year, drank every day no more than one or two glasses of In six months' time I felt, to my great delight, the good špirits, more than half died at the end of ten years, and the effect of this upon my health; have since banished spirits others impaired their health before the expiration of that from my house, and entirely avoided them, and during time.”
the three years following wanted no doctor. But, dear doctor,” said I, “there are not only drinkers, but even drunkards, who become old and gray, in spite of
Tuo Sad Letters. their drinking.” “True,” replied the impenetrable doctor, “but how often other on our journey. He was a very good-hearted fellow;
FRIDOLIN and I became daily more familiar with each do we see those old transgressors, who have lost not only His sadness, however, remained unchanged; nothing could their best bodily strength, but also their intellectual powers. Observe their confused, staring look, and the trembling of
remove it, though he appeared to me too virtuous to be the their hands! Such persons may form an exception from those acquired, in the fulness of health and the freshness of life,
viction of a guilty conscience. With the wealth he had who die early, but no exception from the consequences of what could weigh so heavily upon his heart? No doubt, their vice. Their children, even, pay the penalty from which thought I, as I had already learned that he was unmarried, the drunken
father perhaps escapes. Observe the drunkards he has met with some disappointment in love in England. children! They are weak, pale, and paralytic; they are
One day, as we sat together in the carriage, and traversed affected with glandular swellings, and have other bodily infirmities. They imitate their fathers in brandy-drinking, manner for his melancholy,
a very beautiful country, I reproached him in a friendly
“You ought to be the happiest and die even on the very verge of manhood. “ Yes, yes,” said I, “ you are certainly right, I know such perhaps I may in turn become your physician.”
man beneath the sun,” said I; "open your heart to me, persons; you must distinguish between use and abuse." “ Certainly, friend,” answered he ; " the use of spirits is sigh. “ I am unhappy! nobody can cure me. But I can
“ That you never will," answered he, with a suppressed more frequent than what you are pleased to call the abuse; make you acquainted with the cause of my grief. Perhaps nevertheless, both exercise their noxious effect on the it will relieve me, at least, to speak of misfortunes to a symhuman body, as you may observe already with yourself; pathizing friend.' There, read for yourself the circumstances Brandy is poison under any circumstances! Remember that!) that call me home so quickly.” Me took out a pocket-book It is no beverage for quenching, but, on the contrary, increases thirst. It affords no nourishment, for it possesses
and gave me two papers from it. One of them was a letter no nutritious qualities; but, on the contrary, it weakens the
from his mother, in the following words: stomach. Therefore, brandy, which is of no use for preserv- will know that I am a bereaved widow. Come back, dear
“ When you receive this letter, my dear Fridolin, you ing health, always undermines it. The faces everi of the brandy-drinkers betray their habit. Those of the lower son, to be the support of your unhappy mother. 'Your
father is no more. À fit of apoplexy has snatched him away classes, who drink nothing but brandy made from corn,
from this earth. He had been attacked previously, in the potatoes, or rice, have a pale, disagreeable, weak countenance. "Wealthier persons, who use cherry brandy, French about it, lest you might be in anxiety.. In vain the physi
autumn of last year, but I did not write to you anything brandy, foreign liquors, strong wines, and spirits, have a reddish, swollen, copper-coloured face. God marks the tunately he had addicted himself too much to the drinking
cian recommended to him moderation in drinking. Unforsinners!” “ Doctor," said I, “you put me in pain. I think it is God's will be done! I have had great domestic troubles
It became his and our bane. But
of wine and spirits. only the abuse of wine and spirits which is hurtful.” whatever may be the disguise in which it is conveyed into mortgaged; probably nothing can be saved except my * Sir,” exclaimed the doctor, “ alcohol is a slow poison, these two years, for I have seen how our fortune has been
Our small property is deeply may kill a healthy man, who has never tasted spirits in his dowry. I fear our house must be sold. Therefore, come life. Mixed with other ingredients, the alcohol produces
back immediately; you are my only consolation.
“ Prepare yourself for another hard stroke of fate. A diseases in the body. Wine and beer, drunk moderately, dreadful event took place six weeks ago in the house of our are less hurtful than brandy, because they contain less alcohol. In a hundred gallons of beer there are only one
neighbour Thaly-more dreadful even than our own mis
His daughter Justine, whom or two gallons of alcohol; in a hundred gallons of the fortune. Thaly is no more. common fruit-wines, there are from four to eight yallons of you loved so much, has disappeared; nubody knows whither alcohol; in good French wines, from ten to nineteen; in
she has gone. All inquiries have been fruitless. Old Thaly Spanish and Portuguese, from nineteen to twenty-five ; in
has acted shamefully; he has deceived many people—-ourbrandy, cherry-brandy, and rum, there are from twenty
selves among the number. His property is not sufficient to four to fifty-three gallons of alcohol! Such is the difference." pay his debts. I pity the poor giri
. Dear Fridolin, come “You really believe then, doctor, the alcohol to be the immediately; leave everything in order to comfort
“Your much afflicted MOTHER.” mischievous thing, the poison? But is it not used as a medicine?"
The other letter was also written in a female hand, but “ Certainly; and so are mineral poisons; they are used without date and place. The contents of it were as follow: as medicines, but not as nourishment, not for daily use, “ Be not frightened, my ever-beloved Fridolin, if I tell Alcohol is, and remains poison, like mercury; and is repelled you, that this is the last letter you will receive from me. It and rejected from all the interior parts, which it affects like is true, I am still attached to you with all my heart, but I mercury.”
can never be your bride, though it will break my heart to “Don't tell me of alcohol and mercury,” exclaimed I; lose you. I am glad that your parents opposed our union what do you advise me to do for my health? I must for I have experienced the most horrible blow that can be drink something; will you preseribe something for me.". conceived: I cannot write it to you. You will learn it bu
“Nothing,” said the unmerciful doctor;“ you may drink too soon. Forget me! I discharge you froin all your pro wine and beer in moderation, but good pure water will be mises. I shall return into the hand of your mother thi better for you. In order to establish your health, take ring you gave me.
Give it to some happier being whi every morning before breakfast two glasses of fresh water, is more worthy of you. I live and suffer, far from your an and as much in the evening before you go to bed, and do my home. Brought up in wealth, I am now a servant
For me the world has no more joy-all is gloom and death of Ceylon and the Maldive Isıands are made from the for me.
fibrous husk of the cocoa-nut; the Manilla "Farewell, dear, beloved Fridolin! forget me! I have
from now accomplished the most difficult thing, I have now bid by other Eastern nations are made from the fibres
the fibres of a species of the wild banana; ropes used you farewell for ever and ever. inquire for my residence. I have a great desire to die; of the Crotolaria juncea. But of all the various kinds perhaps death may soon relieve me. Farewell! Farewell! of vegetable fibre employed for this purpose, none are
Justine.” so important as the Cannabis sativa, or cultivated An Unhappy Man.
hemp, and the Linum usitatissimum, or flax. We shall When I had read these letters, I was for a long time in
devote the present article to a notice of hemp and its great emotion. I felt deeply that two such communications cultivation; the next to a similar notice of flax; and shall were sufficient to drive to madness a young man who had a
then describe the process of manufacturing the fibres heart like that of my friend. Now I understood his horror
thence obtained, into cordage. of strong liquors; they had killed his father, and ruined a The Cannabis sativa is a plant having a stem six or great part of his fortune. The letter of Justine Thaly, eight feet in height, upright, somewhat quadrangular, however, made the greatest impression on me; it indicated hairy at the surface. An oil is extracted from the seeds, a terrible secret, which the unhappy creature had not even and the seeds themselves are given to birds as food; the courage to avow. *Poor Fridolin!” said I, as I pressed his hand, "I can
but the fibrous substance of which the stem is comgive you no consolation in this matter. Only time and posed is that which renders the plant most valuable, as religion can heal such a wound.”
a material for ropes. The hemp plant was mentioned He wiped the tears from his eyes, pressed my hand con
by Herodotus as a native of Scythia. According to rulsively, and exclaimed, “ Oh!" I am made miserable for Linnæus it grows in the East Indies, Thunberg says many years, perhaps for ever! The sudden death of my father, the debts he has left behind him,-hard as all this Tartary; and Hennepin met with it among the Illinois,
it is occasionally found in Japan. Gmelin found it in is, I could bear it with manly courage. Death is the com- in North America. But wherever the plant was first mon lot of all men: nobody is immortal here below. The ruin of our fortune would not be a lasting grief for my
cultivated, it has become now one of the products of mother. She does not know that the liberal gratitude of
several European countries. my noble patron will relieve her from all cares for our sup
The soil best adapted for hemp crops is of a deep, port. But my poor mother! She writes that she has had | black, vegetable texture, in a low situation, and somedomestic troubles during several years. Sad forebodings what exposed to moisture. But a deep mellow, loamy, iorment me. Who occasioned these troubles to the good, or sandy soil will produce good hemp, though rather gentle woman? Alas! and the unhappy Justine! What has become of her? Why was she obliged to leave her home?
less in quantity. In preparing the ground, the plough Why does she renounce ine?"
and harrow are much in requisition, to bring it to a fine
Where Here he paused and sobbed violently. “ Friend,” said I, meilow condition, and to free it from weeds. either she is innocent of the unlucky affair; or
hempiinmediately succeeds a corn crop, there are “ Hush! no or," cried Fridolin. “She is innocent, she is usually three ploughings, and an equal number of harmatchless. I have known her from my earliest childhood. rowings; the first being performed as soon as possible We were neighbours, inseparable play-fellows. When I after the preceding crop is removed; the second as early returned from the university, we promised each other fidelity and love, although our fathers were always quarrelling before the seed is sowa. A large quantity of good
as it can be done in the spring; and the last, immediately and going to law, and threatened our union with their malediction. Trusting that time might make a favourable
manure or compost is added at the time of the last harchanges, and placing our hopes upon a kind Providence, I rowing. wcepted the nobleman's offer to accompany him for some
The seed is sown in quantities varying under different Fears in his travels: and now that no obstacles forbid our circumstances, and in two different manners. Some union, now, for some causes yet unknown to me, she cultivators adopt the broadcast mode, that is, disperse the renounces me! In the letter I received from her a few weeks seed over the surface of the prepared ground as evenly before this last terrible one, she entreated me still, with
as possible, and then cover it in by means of light harrowtender solicitation, to return soon to my home. She was always virtuous, faithful, full of courage and resolution, and
ing. Others effect it by drilling, or sowing the seed in now she sinks under her misfortunes. Why does she con
parallel drills or shallow trenches. The proper time for ceal froin me the dark secret, which severs us for ever? she
sowing is when the danger of early spring frosts is over, never before concealed anything from me. Oh! what has for instance, in the month of April; and the sooner it is become of the poor girl!".
effected after the commencement of favourable weather He spoke in this strain for a long time. I could not the better, as it gives a superior vigour to the early restrain my tears while listening to him. The contents of Jastine's letter were so mysterious and ambiguous, that all
growth, and enables the plant to stand better the subseour conjectures were fruitless.
quent operations. This is a kind of crop which is capable An unexpected accident interrupted our conversation.
of being grown after most other sorts, and even on land broken
from the state of sward. It has been grown
on the same spot of ground for a great number of years, ON ROPES AND ROPE-MAKING.
without the intervention of any other crop; indeed this has 1.
been the case in some parts of Suffolk for seventy succes
sive years, but with the almost constant use of manure to THE NATURE AND CULTIVATION OF Hemp.
prevent the exhaustion which would otherwise result. It ANONG the many useful forms which fibrous substances is necessary, when the seed of the hemp plant has been may be made to assume, few are more important than sown, to use much caution in keeping the birds from that of cordage. By this term we imply all the various the ground, as they otherwise soon devour a large prokinds of rope, string, line, twine, cord, &c., with which portion of the seed. every one is so familiar.
When the seed has once been deposited in the ground, The art of twisting into line and ropes various mate- a little attention from the cultivator is all that is neces. cials, such as thongs of animal hide, the hair of sary; the tall growth and thick shade of the plants, from animals, tough grasses, and vegetable fibres, is of the nature of the foliage, soon covering the surface, so Te note antiquity, and has existed even among the as to prevent the rising of every
field weed. radest people. The tarabila, or rope-bridge of the When the
crop has become perfectly ripe, which is Perusians, and the lasso of the Chilian hunter, are known by its assuming a whitish yellow colour, and by forded by twisting together thongs of ox-hide. the stems beginning to shed their leaves, it is ready to our own country, at the present time, ropes for parti- be pulled or taken up. The pulling is effected by cular purposes are made of horse-hair. The coir ropes forcing the plant up by the roots froin the ground in
in the crop.
small portions at a time, with the hand, shaking off the vessel being immediately covered, and the fire put out. mould from them before the parcels are deposited upon In the course of two hours' steeping under these circumthe surface. The business is commonly executed in a stances, the hemp is said to have attained the desired little more than three months from the time of putting state. The superiority of this method is supposed to
As soon as the labour of pulling is finished, consist in a great saving of time and expense, and in the the hemp is tied up into small bundles, or what are production of a larger quantity of tow from a given commonly termed barts.
amount of hemp: but from this calculation is to be After this process, the stems are prepared for the deducted the value of the fuel expended in heating the separation of the fibres, by an operation called retting, water. It would appear, that if this speedy method is of which there are two kinds, dew-retting and water really found so effective as is stated, it would promote the retting; both of which are effected more favourably cultivation of hemp crops, by the facility which it affords when the weather is rather showery.
to the subsequent processes, even in such situations as In dew-retting, the hemp stalks, immediately after are not contiguous to rivers, streams, or ponds, and would being pulled, are spread out in a thin, even, and regular also obviate any ill consequences that might originate way, so as to keep exact rows on a fine piece of close, from the putrid effluvia sent into the atmosphere, and old sward land, which is pretty even on the surface, for prevent the corruption of the waters which, during the the space of three, six, or even eight weeks, according steeping of the hemp, are known to destroy the fish conto circumstances, being turned as often as may be neces- tained in them, as well as to prove hurtful to cattle sary in the time. In showery seasons, this is mostly that drink therefrom. done three times a week. As soon as the rind or bark Among various improvements suggested in the mode of the hemp plant becomes easily separable from the of steeping hemp, one by Mr. Rainbeard has been re firm part of the stem; it is taken up from the ground, commended, as a means of effecting it without exposing and tied up into rather large bundles, in order to be car- the persons employed to be wetted. The pond is an old ried home and stalked up, or placed in some covered marl-pit, with a regular slope from one side, (where the building till it is wanted for being formed into hemp. hemp is prepared,) to the depth of eight feet on the This process requires great nicety and attention, in order other side. On the slope, above the water, the hemp to prevent the texture of the hemp from being deterio- is built into a square stack, upon a frame of timber of rated by too long a continuance on the sward; or by re- such a height as will float and bear a man without wetmoving it at too early a period, before the hempy sub- ting his feet. The frame, with its load of hemp, is slid stance has been rendered sufficiently separable.
down into the water, a person on the opposite bank In water-retting, which is much more common than drawing it forward. When the stack floats, the frame the method just described, the hemp, after being wholly is drawn away, and the load of hemp sinks to the bottom; taken up, and bound into rather small bundles, by means after which another load is lowered in a similar manner. of bands at each end, is carried to a pond or pit of There are a few details relating to the statistics of the standing water. It is there deposited, bundle upon Russian hemp trade, and the cultivation of the hemp bundle; and when it has been piled to such a thickness plant, in Russia, in our 308th number*. We shall not as the depth of the water will admit, usually about enter, therefore, into any further details in this place. five or six feet, the whole mass, now called a bed of herp, The subsequent processes, by which the fibres are is loaded with large pieces of heavy wood, until it is obtained from the stalks of hemp and prepared for the completely immersed. When it has remained in this use of the rope-maker, bear so close a resemblance to the state for five or six days, it is taken out and conve; ed analogous processes in the preparation of filax, that one to a piece of mown grass or other sward land, that is description will be found available for both. We shall perfectly clean and free from the access of animals. therefore, in the next paper, after giving a description There the bundles are untied, and the hemp stalks are of the flax plant and of its cultivation, briefly notice the spread out, one by one. While in this state, especially processes here alluded to, preparatory to a sketch of the in moist weather, it must be carefully turned every operations of rope-making. second day. It is continued in this way for five or six weeks; after which it is gathered up, tied in large bundles, and kept perfectly dry in a house or small stack, until wanted for usc.
In some parts of Scotland, after the hemp is pulled, and the leaves, seeds, and branches removed by means of an instrument called a ripple, it is formed into bundles of twelve handsfull each, and steeped in water for six or eight days. It is known when it has had sufficient steeping by the reed being readily capable of parting from the bark. The most slender hemp stands in need of the greatest amount of steeping. After being taken out of the water, the hemp is not spread out upon grass-ground in the manner spoken of above, but is dried as quickly as possible, by setting it in an inclined position against cords fastened up for the purpose, or in any other way that will afford it the full benefit of the air, until it is completely dry, and the bark blisters up from the reed.
A method was introduced into France some years ago, by M. Brealle, of steeping hemp and loosening the bark in a much shorter time than as commonly practised.
HEMP, (Cannabis sativa. I The process consists in heating water in a vessel or vat to the temperature of 73° or 74°, Reaumur, and dissolv
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. X., p. 145 ing in it a quantity of green soap, in the proportion of
LONDON: 1 to 48 of the hemp. "The quantity of water made use of in this process should be about forty times the weight PrBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE Panny, and IN MONTHLY
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. of the hemp. When the liquid is prepared, the hemp is thrown into it, and made to float on the surface, the
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