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which the principal rules almost as czar, we atmosphere at home and at school that will be
turn them out to enter the world of business in harmony with the conditions of life in later
and society and perform duties in a democ- years.
racy of which they know practically little or The school is the first place where the child
nothing “The school in which children are comes in contact with institutions—the ma-
treated as unfit to partake at least in some chinery with which modern civilization regu-
degree in the work of government, and have lates the relations of man to his fellow man.
no voice whatever in the making of the rules In this, one of the greatest institutions of
and understanding the reasons for these rules, civilization, the school, he must learn his true
may fit its pupils for citizenship in Russia but relation to all other institutions, such as the
not in America."

church, the state, the city, and the nation.
Power of Self-Control to be Gained.

From the ideas that he gains of his duties and

relations to this first institution—the schoolThe development of power is the primary will come all his future ideas of his duties, end and aim of education--power of mind,

privileges and responsibilities to all other power of heart, power of self-reliance, self

social, political, or moral institutions, of control, power to perform the duties and call

which he must, in later years, become a part ings of life. To this end every activity of the

and have an influence upon. school should be directed; courses of study, methods of instruction and government, and the

Wrong Ideals Implanted in Schools. personal association of teachers and pupils Now let us look at some of the things that with each other should be employed solely are taught our children by our present way of with this aim in view. To the layman" the governing and conducting schools. The little maintenance of order in a school may seem child comes to us ready to learn to “do by only a matter of lesser importance, the com- doing.” He finds he must give up some of the munication of knowledge being the funda- liberties he has hitherto enjoyed-he must sit mental aim of the school. Fortunately, this still, refrain from talking, stand, walk, or do idea of the mission of the school is fast dis- this or that at the dictates of a monarch called appearing, and the fact is recognized that it is a teacher. He will learn later that he has to give by means of their government that schools up some of his liberties for the common good can most effectively train their pupils in morals of all. He abruptly learns that he is not and teach them their true relation to society. “monarch of all he surveys," as he may have Mere intellectual instruction," says Prof. been at home, but that he is constantly in Charles W. French, “will never develop the contact with the rights of others, and is diwill power or teach the child to guide his ac- rectly affected himself by their conduct, either tions by correct ethical principles. Informa- as individuals or as a school. He naturally tion alone will not control conduct, nor is wants to participate in regulating the conduct knowledge power, except as it enters into the of others, as it affects him. His natural inlife of the child and becomes an instrumen- stincts are to do right and to have others about tality in educating and developing his will him do right. power.

It is therefore incumbent upon the The teacher, however, promptly tells him school not only to impart information, but that what others do is no concern of his. He also to develop the power of self-control in its should do right himself, but not concern himpupils. The child who is compelled during self about what his neighbor does. He soon his school career to bow to an arbitrary au- learns that it is the teacher's business to reguthority, and who learns to submit his actions late the school, not his. He must not even to the test of a body of rules rather than to report it; this would be tattling," the capithat of right or wrong, will gain false ideals tal sin in school life; so the teacher teaches of life, and will find himself at a loss for a and the pupil believes. Soon he learns that proper standard of conduct when he goes out there is no one responsible for good conduct into the world, where the petty rules and and order but the teacher. He soon learns regulations under which he has been accus- that he need fear no exposure of wrong acts tomed to live are no longer in force.”

from his fellow school-mates. They hide his The child must learn to understand and misdeeds, and he must hide theirs. The bear the responsibilities which society im- teacher is the only one to be feared when misposes upon its members, and he must be- conduct takes place. All learn to keep their come an intelligent factor in making and put- own counsel, hide and endure the misdeeds ting into effect the laws under which he lives. and impositions of their fellow schoolmates, These duties must be learned gradually from and let the teacher govern the school the best childhood up through living and working in an

way he can.


The good boy in this little monarchy must English common law, and the statute law of simply be a passive subject of the monarch this state make it a duty of every citizen to over him. He is neither asked nor allowed to testify when called upon, and that hiding a help that monarch in the government, as he crime makes him a party to it. He has, thereshould be.

fore, no right to set these principles aside in Later, in the higher grades, he sees dishon- school life, either because of his own wishes or esty in examinations and other irregularities the false idea of his teacher. He should be of conduct, but it does not disturb his mind taught to see clearly that the restrictions or conscience. His lesson of minding his own placed upon his actions in school are due chiefly business and letting those in authority find to the abuse of liberties by a few of his schoolthese things out has been well learned. It mates, and he should, therefore, be directly will not only stay with him through the high interested in the conduct of these schoolmates. school, but through life. He will not, as a He should be taught to feel that the rightly pupil or a citizen, do wrong himself, but he disposed boys should assert themselves as posihas no duty now to the teacher, or later to tively and persistently for good conduct as the civic authority, to expose or suppress the mis- careless or indifferent boys do for evil. He conduct of others. It is none of my business should be made to feel that it is a duty to himwhat my neighbor does,” says the self-satisfied self and to his school to assist in every way in citizen who is the product of this training in the securing of right conduct as faithfully as his school days. His civic conscience is dulled does his teacher. and warped in his school training. It never

Good Citizenship the Result of Good Habits at School. rights itself in after life.

These habits in school life can be secured Can any one doubt for a moment that the man in after life gets his ideas of his duty to

only by enlisting the pupils from the first year the community and to those in authority from

of school in taking an interest in the active the ideas taught him of his duty in the school

government and control of the general conduct community and to the teacher representing of his schoolmates in their common intercourse. authority?

The pupils should assist in the making and enWill not the boy who cheats in examination forcing of all rules about the school that affect make the man who will cheat the city on a

the social life and individual relations of its street contract? Will not the boy who scorred

members. The majority of every school should to cheat in an examination himself, but sat by be actively enlisted on the side of the teachers content to have his classmate cheat, develop in serving the best interests of the school cominto the self-righteous “good citizen” who

munity. takes no interest in having honest city officers,

In other words, the teacher must secure the and who laughs at the sharp city official who

government of the pupils by the pupils, for can fill his pockets dishonestly? Will not the

the pupils," if he would teach them practical boy who openly does wrong before his class- good citizenship. mates, expecting them to suppress it, make

The undemocratic idea that now prevails, of the brazen law-breaker who defies public opin

a government of the teacher by the teacher ion and the law alike?

for the pupils, which is a relic of monarchical Will not the young man who thinks it right forms, must give way to "citizen pupil,” who not to tell on his schoolmates, and who is al

will develop into the ideal American citizen. lowed to believe so, make the future alderman

Some Results thus far Secured. who thinks it dishonorable to expose the briber In several cities, of late, different plans have who offered him a thousand dollars for his

been adopted to accomplish the results aimed vote? In short, will not the man be what the at in the preceding paragraphs. Whether the boy was taught to be? Can the impure spring plan attempted in the Twenty-first District have flowing from it anything but an impure school is the best for the purpose cannot now stream? As the child's community life is in be ascertained. All of these are at best, only school, so will his civic life be in after years. in the experimental stage, but enough good

has been accomplished, with but little friction, The School Should Stand for Right Habits of Civic Conduct.

to guarantee the success of the experiment in What should school life teach the boy? It this school. Among the most noticeable reshould teach him that he is a part of the school sults thus far accomplished by this plan are community, responsible for its acts, and affected the following: by every act of his schoolmates. He should, 1. Children have become interested in the therefore, be interested in every act. He

nature of city government in detail, even in should be taught that the Mosiac law, the the lower grades.


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2. The foundation for a thorough knowledge intelligently in the government of which they of the government of the city, state, and na- shall soon form a part and do their duty as tion, of the making of laws, of representative patriotic citizens—alert in every way for the law-making bodies, powers and duties of exec- general welfare of the community in which they utive administration and judicial officers, etc., live. They cannot be indifferent as men and has been made through performing the func- women and permit corruption in public office tions of these various officers.

by allowing unworthy representatives to gov3. In the common council meeting methods ern the people in city, state, or national affairs. of conducting deliberative bodies and drill in parliamentary practice have been secured, and respects for rights of others at such assem

CHILD-STUDY SECTION. blages taught. 4. In the courts of justice careful inquiry

THE PROVINCE AND LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC AND into both sides of a case and love of justice,

PRACTICAL CHILD-STUDY. spect for the representatives of law and order, Child-study is often designated as a “fad," and the relative degrees of misconduct have but it conforms to none of the definitions of been taught most impressively.

a "fad.” It is not a triling pursuit but the 5. Through some failure to elect good offi- noblest endeavor of all who deserve the name cials, the consequences of such carelessness of teacher or parent. Child-study is almost shown in the injury to the school city have as broad as education, and certainly no one been felt to such a degree as to teach valuable will decry education as a fad. Many of the lessons to voters. Subsequent elections have means of education often take the direction of proved how effectively these lessons have fads, i. e. become hobbies or become trifling been taught, for personal favoritism has been in nature, but education is the most serious sacrificed in order to secure the best persons question, the most significant question that for positions of responsibility in the govern- has ever occupied, or ever will occupy the ment.

minds of intelligent humanity. Certain meth6. The order in the corridors, play grounds, ods of child-study, such as the questionaire play rooms, and other places under the juris- method, the anthropometric method, etc., diction of the government has been improved. may develop into fads, but the study of

7. The conduct of the pupils shows greater children must enter into the consideration of respect for the rights and feelings of others, every educational question. This is true as and greater courtesy in their actions.

regards both means and methods. Education 8. The relation between teachers and pu- may be reduced to two ultimate questions: pils, especially in the higher grades, has grown (a) What shall the child learn and (b) what more cordial and helpful.

are the best means for attaining the desired 9. Many petty troubles which before kept ends? And we must look to the child in anteachers and principal busy in disciplinary swering either.

. work have been settled satisfactorily by the Child-study, unfortunately, has come into pupils themselves.

disrepute largely because so many dilettantes 10. Having discovered the effect of wrong- without scientific training or insight are cardoing upon themselves and the school as a rying out so-called investigations in the name whole, the pupils have become convinced that of science, and publishing to the world the manly exposure of wrong is not idle tattling, worthless results of their puerile efforts. Many but an honorable means of preventing the of this type of investigator, hunt only for spreading of evil, and for the general good. abnormalities, or unusual sayings and doings

II. They have learned that laws are not of children, with no other end in view than made to prevent freedom, but to protect rights; the hope of contributing an article on some that officers representing the government are new and startling topic. Then many others to be respected and obeyed, in order that the with perfectly good intentions, through imitageneral welfare of the community may be se- tion, pursue similar methods in the belief that cured, even when these officers are their class- they are aiding the cause of science. The mates.

results of such misdirected efforts are pub12. There has been no occasion for corporal lished and people rightly denominate it "stuff punishment for actions done within the juris- and nonsense,” but also wrongly denounce all diction of the school city government, since child-study as worthless and the outcome of a an entirely different incentive from fear of cor- fad. Often much valuable time is worse than poral punishment has actuated the pupils in wasted in the attempt to produce something their conduct at school.

new. To quote Prof. Nicholas Murray Butler, 13. Finally, they have learned how to share "much of modern so-called scientific work is really unscientific. It has no beginning and as such studies can throw any light upon the no end, and is, so far, just as wasteful and en- present psychical life of man. ervating as would be the attempt to count the Thus we see that child-study in a wide leaves of the trees of Maine or the sands of sense gathers a great deal of data secured the desert of Sahara. -Hundreds of so-called from biology, embryology, anthropology, investigators all over the world are frittering medicine, sociology, religion, and ethics, as away their time and wasting private and pub- well as that from physiology, psychology, and lic funds in their incessant desire to do some- pedagogy. To illustrate the broad scope of thing that means nothing.”Ed. Rev., Oct., the subject I may instance the work done at 1898, 283. But the foregoing does not apply Clark University, which is generally supposed to child-study and education alone. It is to stand for child-study. . The work is carequally applicable to the investigations in any ried on with this broader conception, every other branch of knowledge. Just as abortive student in the philosophical department being attempts may be cited from researches in his- required to do work in biology, anthropology, tory, geology, philology, chemistry and other psychology, and philosophy, no matter what sciences. But we hear little just now of any his course may be. Unfortunately the entire fads except from the child-study side. I work is often judged (misjudged) by the sylwonder whether the decrying of child-study labi that emanate from there. The syllabi has not also become a fad? The main reason show neither the beginning nor the end, and why so much is heard about fads in education are only incidental features which it is hoped is because no other subject comes so close to will contribute something to the topic under the intelligence and interests of so large a consideration. Sometimes they do, somemass of humanity. Education concerns not times they do not. As in all scientific reonly the teacher, but the child, the adolescent, search there is fruitful and fruitless work. the parent, the family, the community-so- Unfortunately for the science, the entire work ciety. It is more vitally connected with the is usually judged by these incidental features present and future welfare of mankind than


This is pardonable because those who any other phase of human endeavor.

do so are usually those without scientific trainAnother reason why child-study has been ing and insight, and they are not willing to so much derided is because people have ex- wait. They do not understand the vast pected more from it than it was able to give amount of detail and drudgery that must be or they had a right to expect. There has ever done in every department of scientific rebeere too little discrimination between the search. The layman is looking for practical work attempted by the specialist and that by results and we cannot blame him, but we may the novice. But a few cynics in high places, offer by way of explanation that the practical who ought to discriminate better, have taken results do not necessarily form an integral the disappointing or worthless results as a cue part of the scientist's work. If he happens for the epithets and anathemas that they de- upon some practical applications and chooses light in hurling at the whole subject. Unin- to give them to the world, it is well, but if formed persons take up the cry and denounce not it indicates no lack of science. Science it without investigation. Thus, the study is means organized knowledge, but before any deprived of many practical workers who science is established it must collect-collectmight materially aid the cause in a practical and the process is sometimes interminable. way.

Darwin collected material for thirty years beFrom the scientific standpoint child-study fore he was ready to give the world any genis almost synonomous with genetic psychology. eralized results, We must remember that It includes an examination of all processes of pyschology itself is a comparatively new scichange or metamorphosis through which the ence, and we must not expect too great imvarious mental powers have passed in reaching mediate results. If you will notice, you will the status they possess in the normal indi- find that it is the dilletante in child-study who vidual of civilized races. It seeks not only is most ready to give you generalizations. The knowledge of the various intellectual, emo- more scientific exhibit greater caution and tional and volitional phenomena, but it also less dogmatism. seeks the genesis of these in the human race. From the practical side child-study ought With this view child psychology requires for to be concerned with the recognition and apits complete understanding, not only the study plication of all principles relating to the care of the characteristics of children, but also a and training of children. These principles study of adolescent, adult and senescent life; may have been gleaned from child psycholnot only man but the lower animals, in so far ogy, from general psychology, from medicine,

or any other science, or they may have been more erroneous. Just as vain would be the reached by purely empirical methods. But it expectation that from the formulation of every must be remembered that child-study in the physical law a new machine could be conschool or in the home is concerned with the structed, or from every chemical reaction a practical way of dealing with children and not new medicine or lotion could be compounded, with the advancement of science, as such. or from every historical fact a new rule of acThe study is primarily for the sake of the tion could be formulated for every-day conchild, secondarily for the sake of the teacher, duct. and incidentally for the sake of science.

We have no right to expect so much. The From the teacher's standpoint I believe that words of Prof. Sully concerning psychology the details of the scientific side of child-study are here applicable. In the preface to his Outform little or no part of his work. The dom- lines of Psychology, he says: inant interest of the teacher is not in the the- "If a teacher approaches the study of menoretical consideration of the science, but in tal science with the supposition that it is gothe practical application that can be made ing to open up to him a short and easy road of the well-formulated principles in teaching. to his professional goal, he will be disappointed. The schoolroom is not the place for the scien- Such an expectation would show that his mind tific experimentation on children, and the had not clearly seized the relation between teacher not essentially an experimenter. It science and art, theoretic and practical science. is well if the teacher has had scientific train- The first condition of such a theory is a mass ing in this line and gained scientific insight, of traditional knowledge gained by experience but the schoolroom is essentially a place for or trial and observation. This empirical carrying into execution well formulated prin- knowledge is all that the practitioner (physiciples.

cian, teacher, etc.) has in the early stages of The sooner that teachers and parents learn his art. And with respect to the practical dethat the function of child-study in the home tails of the art it must always continue to be is primarily for the good of the child, second- the main sources of guidance. The best arily for the good of the teacher or parent in method of bandaging a limb, and the best way increasing insight and sympathy, and only in- to teach Latin are largely matters to be decidentally for the science, the better it will be termined by experience. The function of scifor schools and homes, and for the reputation entific truth in relation to art or practice is of the science.

briefly to give us a deeper insight into the naThe rank and file of teachers and parents ture of our work and the conditions under ought not to expect to add much to science which it is necessarily carried on. Thus menby their observations of children. The results tal science enlarges the teacher's notion of edthat properly accrue from such observation ucation by showing him what a complex thing ought to be attended with a greater interest a human mind is, in how many ways it may in children, a more intelligent understanding grow, how influences must combine for its full of them, and better methods of dealing with exercise, and how variously determined in its them, but to expect anything of scientific value growth by individual nature. It further furis delusive; and leaders in the movement ought nishes him with wide principles or maxims, not to hold out such expectations as an in- which, though of less immediate practical ducement.

value than the narrower rules gained by exIn physics we need men of science to formu- perience, are a necessary supplement to these. late theories concerning light, sound, etc., By connecting the empirical rule with one of but there is no less a demand for skilled opera- these scientific principles, he is in a position tors of the telegraph, the telephone, and the to understand it, to know why it succeeds in electric lighting plants. Both classes are certain cases and fails in others.” necessary, but the work of the two though re- I believe, however, that child psychology lated are entirely distinct. Analogically the has proven its right to exist. The results same is true of child psychology or any other though not all that have been expected from psychology. The scientist views the subject some quarters are still of sufficient importance from the standpoint of science alone.

to justify its study with greater diligence than He studies the phenomena as they are and ever. The results are undoubtedly far greater not with reference to the use they may sub- than its opponents would be willing to admit. serve. However, since education looks to I shall not attempt a summary of all the benpsychology for its laws, the teacher expects eficial results but shall mention briefly a few that every psychological law must yield a cor- of the more significant and well demonstrated responding pedagogical principle. Nothing is



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