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necessary, or from a courtly, and not unusual, compliance with the prevalent vice or folly of the age. Under Paganism, Mahommedanism, and Christianity, wars and persecutions have flourished. When warriors have achieved success, then ministers of religion have vied with bards in pæans for the conqueror; hey have swelled his triumph and ministered to his glory; and, in order to make their efforts more complete, they have enlisted the fine arts to their aid. Acting thus in conjunction, the influence of religion and war has been unrivalled, and the successful prosecution of the arts of peace, by any nation, has usually depended on these influences, conjoint or separate: it was so in Egypt and Assyria, in Athens and in Rome. The merchant prince of Italy warring with territorial potentates; the grandee of Spain fighting with the Moslem; the burgher of Ghent waging war with his suzerain or the invader, the fugitives who founded Venice, and they who fled to the marshes of Holland; these, and their descendants, with the spoils of war, or the fruits of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, under the stimulus of a warlike era, enlarged and adorned their cities, indulged in luxurious palaces, paid tribute to religion, and commemorated their departed heroes. The rudest nations manifest their dawning love for art by decorating the weapons and person of the warrior chief. The most acceptable ornament of religious edifices has been the spoils of war, either as taken from the field of battle and hung up for trophies, or transmuted by affection and piety into decorative memorials of departed heroism, uttering through long years, to succeeding generations, the touching appeal, "Pray for his soul !"

But where a nation has been permitted to enjoy a long period of commercial prosperity, undisturbed by war of any kind, its encouragement of the fine arts, more especially, has been stinted and illiberal. I am not aware that those carriers of antiquity, the Phoenicians, have left any records of profuse patronage behind them; and certainly the two most commercial people of modern times have been singularly remiss; neither England nor America is noted for its encouragement of the fine arts. America, which has been less occupied by war, it might be expected would have earned a profusion of bays, had the highways of successful commerce been the highways of the peaceful arts. England has exerted most of her patronage during her periods of war; from the time of Alfred the Great to the peace of 1815, the eras of her poets, historians, and artists of every kind are coincident with her most warlike and successful monarchs. On the other hand, Mr. Fergusson, and other writers on India, inform us that whilst each of the other numerous dynasties who have conquered that

country has recorded its predominance in great works of public utility, such as improvements in irrigation, or in temples and palaces, the commercial government of commercial England has hitherto prepared no such records; and were her authority to be overthrown to-morrow, future antiquaries may search in vain for any memorial of her sway, other than traditions of the salt monopoly, that metempsychosis of the odious gabelle. Here, then, is a country in which numerous warlike nations hold successive sway, and are followed by a race of merchant princes. The warriors, each in turn, endeavour to develop the material resources of the country they have subdued, or to record their wealth and power. The merchant princes, under the influence of an unmitigated commercial spirit, grind from their conquest every advantage personal to themselves, and, until recently, have felt no compulsion to benefit the source of their own wealth and power by any reproductive works; and have deferred their patronage of the fine arts, whatever that may be, until they return home.

Then look at England's public monuments in St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey; exclude the warriors and the statesmen, and how many remain? Look at this town of Liverpool, the greatest commercial emporium of the country, and who are the men its people have delighted to honour? Of twenty-five docks, nine testify loyal attachment to the reigning family; they are the Clarence, Victoria, Prince's, George's, Albert, King's, Queen's, Coburg, and Brunswick; three commemorate former representatives in parliament, two of whom happened to be statesmen of eminence, they are the Canning, Huskisson, and Sandon docks; four have names of purely local signification, they are the Salthouse, Union, Harrington, and Toxteth docks; three are said to be grateful acknowledgments of services from peers and local landowners, they are the Egerton, Stanley, and Salisbury docks; one, the BramleyMoore dock, is a token of respect to a late chairman of the trust; and the names of the remainder, five in number, are the tribute paid by commerce to successful war; they are the Waterloo, the Trafalgar, the Wellington, the Nelson, and the Collingwood docks; not one commemorating a man of science or literature, a philanthropist, nor even maritime discoverer.

There are five public specimens of the sculptor's art in Liverpool; they are George III., Huskisson, Canning, Roscoe, and Nelson: one sovereign, three parliamentary representatives, and a naval hero. It does not appear to be the nature of ommerce to be grateful to her own heroes. Columbus may be sufficiently noted in the pages of history, though another name than his has been bestowed upon the new world,

which has yielded so much wealth to Liverpool; but had he, or Drake, Raleigh, Frobisher, or Cooke, been as distinguished in the annals of war, as they are in those of commerce, it may safely be presumed, that some town, or people, would have done honour to themselves by a grateful acknowledgment of the benefits derived from such daring enterprize. The ruling principle of commerce-the love of gain—of course ignores all such gratuitous appreciation of the services conferred upon her.

Turning from the past, is there no hope that in the future commerce may be more propitious to the arts than the records shew that she has been? Faint traces of a change may, I think, be discerned. It must be remembered, that, with the exception of the department of electricity, most of the mechanical improvements of the day, by which commerce is more directly benefitted, are but refinements upon inventions and machines originated during the war. The locomotives on railways, for example, were originally introduced by Trevithick, on a coal tram in South Wales, as far back as 1808. But I would fain hope that we may discern a growing desire to nurture a more kindly interest between the several classes of the community; to render less rigid and impassable the icy barriers that divide the employed and the employer, that they may cease to regard each other merely as instruments of personal advantage; and to unite all in bonds of friendship and good feeling. Now the peaceful arts, especially the fine arts, depend for their perfect development upon active sympathy; and it cannot be doubted that had more enlightened views prevailed, much greater progress in the arts would now be obtained. But commercial men have applied too often the test of pecuniary return; to have been betrayed into the unguarded patronage of objects which fill no line on the credit folio. The advancement of knowledge, the improvement of mankind, the encouragement of fine arts and poetry, or the study of abstract science, have usually been alien to the genius of commerce.

The suggestions of science have only been deemed worthy of adoption when they facilitate the acquisition of wealth, or the economy of expense. Frequently advantages of either kind have been neglected through ignorance: the test of pecuniary return having been applied to education, and occasioned a very imperfect acquisition of knowledge. There now appears to be a growing suspicion that the hitherto prevailing test is not altogether infallible; that there is much of value to which it cannot be applied; and that intellectual study and consideration for others should have their portion in every man's life, in order that he may worthily act his part as a citizen, without reference to higher

and more enduring relations. As the intellect and sympathies are allowed freer action, the sordid influence of commerce will be counteracted and refined; and knowledge and philanthropy, aiding genius, may civilize the world.

Very different has it been in times past! Very different is it now! The hardworking, toiling inventor, the ore of whose unmatured conception is rich with benefit to present and future generations, whose earnest study of his one idea has grown almost into a monomania with the unrequited toil of twenty years, how often must he faint in his iron task! how often require the kindly word and look, or the substantial assistance of enlightened and sympathising capitalists!

And he, perhaps, of finer mould, rich in the great gifts of imagination and study, who links in harmonious verse the noblest deeds or highest aspirations of our race, or his brother poet, who, on canvas or in marble, gives shape to the poet's dream, and records the hero's achievement, how often do these tire and faint in the turmoil of life's fierce fight, and sigh for the sustaining hand, or friendly glance, that shall nerve them to continued conflict! nay, how often are they utterly cast down and forsaken, because the unheeding votaries of commerce, wanting in the finer sensibilities, crushed out of them by ceaseless efforts to make a living or amass wealth, cannot understand the works submitted to their patronage, and "pass by on the other side!"

No! beautiful and attractive as is the dream that peace and successful commerce minister to the triumph of the peaceful arts, the most eloquent attempts to support such a conclusion from history will only half persuade, so long as the "merchant princes" of the "living present" give no general indication that their hearts are stirred within them by the graces of poetry and art; nor evidence the humanizing influence of commerce by grateful commemoration of those enterprising heroes "with souls thrice bound in brass," who dared so many dangers, endured so much hardship, and opened so many highways for the peaceful arts. Let us not have to wait until all those highways are profaned, even more than they are, by the tread of hideous war; let us not have to wait until they are paved with the slaughtered dead, nor until some other bloodstained, but magnanimous conqueror, shall again show that in the train of successful war is the triumph of the peaceful arts!

FOURTH MEETING.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, November 28, 1853.

J. B. YATES, Esq., F.S.A., VICE-PRESIDENT, in the chair. Mr. THOMAS CROXON ARCHER was ballotted for, and duly electe Ordinary Member.

Mr. J. B. YATES read extracts from a paper, on the "Palati Jurisdiction of the City of Chester," with a Memorial of the Life Character of Edward, third Earl of Derby.

Mr. J. T. TOWSON read the first part of a paper on "Great Ci Sailing."

FIFTH MEETING.

ROYAL INSTITUTION.-December 12, 1853.

J. B. YATES, Esq., F.S.A., VICE-PRESIDENT, in the Chair. The Rev. JAMES PORTER, B.A., Mr. THOMAS MCNICHOLL, JOSEPH GODDEN, and Mr. JOHN KEATES, were ballotted for, and du elected Ordinary Members.

Mr. J. T. Towson concluded his paper on

GREAT CIRCLE SAILING.

GREAT CIRCLE SAILING is the art of navigating a ship by the shorte possible route. A straight line is absolutely the shortest track betwee any two points; but a straight line cannot be projected on the surfac of a globe. It must either touch it at one point, passing off from th surface as a tangent; or, if two points on such a surface be united by straight line, it must be effected by tunnelling below the surface; the straight line in this last case being the chord of the arc between the two points. Since then we cannot sail over the surface of the ocean in a straight line, let us inquire what route is practicable, which differs less than any other from a straight line. This we shall find to be what we denominate the arc of a great circle. If we slightly bend a straight rod

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