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The following species are common to Madeira, and Scandinavia.

ACEPHALA LAMELLI

Pecten pusio

,, opercularis maximus Anomia ephippium

Saxicava arctica

Neœra cuspidata

costellata

99

Lyonsia Norvegica

Thracia phaseolina
Solecurtus coarctatus
Venus casina
Cardium Norvegicum
echinatum

BRANCHIATA.

19

Lucina spinifera

Arca tetragona
Lima hians

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BRANCHIATA.

23

Tellina incarnata

donacina
balaustina

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Being of the Madeira species

Acephala lamellibranchiata...... Acephala palliobranchiata Pteropoda Gasteropoda prosobranchiata Gasteropoda opisthobranchiata Total 34 in 156, or 21 per cent. of Madeira species common to Scandinavia.

Madeira possesses, in common with the British seas—

ACEPHALA LAMELLI

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Cardium Norvegicum
Lucina spinifera

,, divaricata
Diplodonta rotundata
Kellia rubra

Arca tetragona

Pectunculus glycimeris

Avicula Tarentina
Lima hians

Pecten maximus

pusio

similis

opercularis ?

16 in 54, or 30 per cent.

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6, 50

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PTEROPODA.

Hyaloa trispinosa

BRANCHIATA.

Chiton fascicularis
Calyptroa Sinensis
Fissurella reticulata

GASTEROPODA PROSO

Chemnitzia rufa
Eulimella Scilla
Lamellaria perspicua
Murex erinaceus

Nassa incrassata
Mangelia teres

nebula

linearis

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GASTEROPODA OPISTHO.

BRANCHIATA.

Cylichna cylindracea
Amphispira hyalina
Philine aperta

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99

Janthina communis

pallida exigua Phasianella pullus Rissoa crenulata

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granulatus
striatus

99

Cerithium reticulatum

adversum

"2

Scalaria Turtonis
Eulima subulata

nitida
distorta

Chemnitzia rufa
Eulimella Scillo
Lamelleria perspicua
Murex corallinus

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Gasteropoda prosobranchiata
Gasteropoda opisthobranchiata..

Cytheria

Cardium papillosum

Cardita calyculata
Lucina pecten
Diplodonta apicalis
Pectunculus Siculus

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Pinna squamosa
Lima squamosa
Pecten polymorphus
pes felis

gibbus

Mangelia linearis

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gracilis Lachesis minima

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BRANCHIATA.

Argyope decollata

PTEROPODA.

Hyaloa tridentata

vaginella

ACEPHALA PALLIO

Total of Madeira species common to the British seas, 69 in 156, or 44 per cent.

All the species common to Madeira and Britain are likewise to be found in the Mediterranean and Lusitanian district, with addition of the following:

ACEPHALA LAMELLI

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BRANCHIATA.

Patella Gussonii
Dentalium dentalis
Trochus crenulatus

conulus

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GASTEROPODA PROSO

99

Turbo rugosus

Rissoa purpurea
Cerithium angustinum

Mesalia striata

Neritina viridis

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GASTEROPODA OPISTHO

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BRANCHIATA.

Cylichna cylindracea
Amphispira hyalina
Philine aperta

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Making of Madeira species common to the Mediterranean and Peninsula;

Acephala lamellibranchiata
Acephala palliobranchiata
Pteropoda
Gasteropoda prosobranchiata
Gasteropoda opisthobranchiata

Total 110 in 156, or 70 per cent.

All the Madeira species were obtained in the Canary Islands, except the following:-

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47 in 54, or 87 per cent.

1

1, 100

GASTEROPODA OPISTHO

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Cylichna

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BRANCHIATA.

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90,
6,

61
67

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Cardium Suecicum, Irish Sea

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Panopoa Norvegica, North Sea
Tellina proxima,

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Astarte elliptica, Clyde and North Sea

arctica, Zetland

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Consequently the Madeira species common to the Canaries are—
Acephala lamellibranchiata ...... 46 in 54, or 85 per cent.
Acephala palliobranchiata......... 1 1, 100
Pteropoda .....
Gasteropoda prosobranchiata
Gasteropoda opisthobranchiata... 6, 6. 100

3

60

***......

5,
73 90, „

81

99

Total, 129 in 156, or 83 per cent.

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Risson

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Turritella? (Aclis ?)

Mesalia striata
Scalaria Turtonis

Murex erinaceus
Mangelia variegata
,, secalina
Amphispira hy alina

From the foregoing statements it will appear that several species and forms typical of the Arctic fauna range far to the southward, whil scarcely one of those characteristic of warm latitudes extends into hig northern regions. This would appear in a still greater degree, were th more southern districts as thoroughly explored as have been the coasts of Britain, and the fact that such has not been the case should always be borne in mind when drawing a comparison between the Mollusca of Britain and of foreign countries. It will also be seen that the Acephala, animals gifted with smaller power of locomotion, are more widely distributed than the Gasteropoda.

I now proceed to give the result of my observations regarding the particular points at which certain species and forms reach the extreme limit of their range, northward or southward.

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Although, as already remarked, the transition from one fauna to another is effected gradually, yet there are certain geographical points at which a considerable change is observed to take place. The following northern species reach their most southern habitat about the northern and central parts of the British seas, though a few of them re-appear on the Nymph bank, a kind of Arctic outpost off the south of Ireland.

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99

Thracia villosciuscula
Cochlodesma prætenue

Tellina pygmœa
Cyprina Islandica

Astarte compressa
Modiola modiolus
Leda caudata

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cancellatus

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The following are northern species, extending only to the British Channel, or but little to the south of it.

Xylophaga dorsalis
Mya truncata

arenaria

Megathyris cistellula

Chiton ruber

Lacuna pallidula

vincta

crassior

99

Rissoa Zetlandica

Skenia planorbis
Scalaria Trevilliana

Aclis nitidissima
Eulima bilineata

99

99

Trophon clathratus, Irish Sea
Barvicensis, North Sea

33

Mangelia Trevilliana,

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nana, Orkney

33

Philine quadrata, North Sea

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Natica Montagui

Buccinum undatum

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Humphreysianum

95

,, antiquus

Mangelia rufa

Crenella discors, I have never met with south of the British seas, and suspect that when reported from the south of Europe, it has been confounded with Crenella marmorata, and Crenella costulata. Philippi's description evidently applies to the former.

The following find their southern limit in the neighbourhood of Vigo.

Mactra solida
Pecten tigrinus?
Crania anomala
Chiton asellus

Emarginula rosea?
Trochus tumidus
Lacuna puteolus
Rissoa vitrea

striata

turricula

Rissoa cingillus
Natica monilifera
Velutina lævigata
Purpura lapillus

Littorina littoralis, and Littorina rudis are met with in Lisbon.

I refer to lists already given for northern species, which are to be found in the Mediterranean, and the Canaries, most of which probably do not extend far to the south of these districts. Ceratisolen legumen, Venus striatula, Patella pellucida, Acmora virginea, and Trochus cinerarius? appear to reach their extreme southward limit about Mogador.

Proceeding from the south northward, we find the following species

of tropical type to be recorded from the Canary Islands, but not to have

been met with in a more northern locality :

Crassatella divaricata
Cardium costulatum

Lucina Adansoni
Cerithium nodulosum
Murex saxatilis

Solecurtus strigillatus
Solemya Mediterranea
Psammobia costata
Tellina Costo

planata

pulchella
punicea

Cymba proboscidalis
Conus betulinus

Promethens
Guinaicus
papilionaceus

Marginella glabella and a few other species, probably belonging to tropical Africa, reach as far north as Mogador.

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Scrobicularia Cotardi

Ervilia

The coast from Cadiz to Cape St. Vincent appears to mark the northern limit of various members of the Mediterranean fauna. The following species, inhabitants of the south coast of Spain and Portugal, and of the Atlantic, are not recorded to have been obtained further north than Cape St. Vincent :

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Ranella laevigata
Cassis flammea

testiculus

95

Cymba Neptuni

", porcina

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Risson acuta

fanulum
canalyculatus

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crenata Vermetus, all the species Natica Guillemini

macilenta

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