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Research in the use of nuclear fuels is constantly making technological breakthroughs by pushing back the economic barriers associated with the use of this energy source. In 1962, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company completed construction of a power reactor adjacent to Humboldt Bay in California. As Humboldt Bay is the major shellfish production area in California, it was essential that State control officials be aware of water conditions prior and subsequent to the operation of the unit in order to determine its influence on the shellfish growing waters. A reactor is also planned for construction on Oyster Creek in New Jersey. The location of this reactor correctly implies the interest of the Program as it is a shellfish producing rea.

The location of nuclear reactors on estuaries, or contributory watersheds thereto affecting shellfish populations, makes it essential that necessary monitoring be performed to insure the safety of the product. In addition, suitable communications should be established between shellfish control agencies and reactor management in order to reflect any necessary reclassification of any affected growing area in the event of operational mal function.

The use of nuclear fuels by naval vessels (and presumably by merchant shipping in the future) must also be considered. Occasionally, these vessels need replacement of the fuel elements and servicing of the power reactor apparatus. Although such operations are carefully handled, the operating procedures contain provisions for response to the possibility of accidental spills or mishaps. Where such servicing takes place approximate to estuaries, it is essential that control authorities be aware of such events and be prepared to execute necessary control action in the event of a mishap or accident which would influence the quality of shellfish areas.

While radioactive influences are a relatively recent factor in sanitary shell. fish control, it should be recognized that problems associated with the application and growth of nuclear technology will increase in magnitude. The application of this technology will require that shellfish control programs be responsive to its use and cognizant of its influence upon sanitary shellfish production.

Newsletter

At the last Workshop, it was suggested that consideration would be given to the establishment of a Public Health Service Shellfish Sanitation Newsletter.

We are pleased to report that the Shellfish Sanitation Branch Quarterly Newsletter was initiated in May of 1963 and five issues have been published and distributed since that time. The purpose of the Newsletter is to provide for an exchange of information of technical and general interest to all persons interested in shellfish sanitation.

The Newsletter has been favorably received during the short period it has been in existence and it appears to be an effective device for exchanging shellfish sanitation information. However, we are by no means satisfied with this specialty publication. We need items of technical and personal interest from the States and the industry. There is need for improvement, on our part, in technical reporting in abstract form in order to provide maximum information in minimum space. We are hopeful that significant improvement will be made in the quality of the Newsletter during the next two years.

Training

Training needs in shellfish sanitation have been reevaluated and substantial changes have been incorporated into this essential activity. In the past, shellfish training has been of a general nature, and was not responsive to specific needs. The training program has been reoriented to offer courses in specific areas of shellfish sanitation, generally corresponding to specific program elements, such as Sanitary Survey Procedures, Plant Sanitation, Growing Area Patrol, and others. For example, a course in Growing Area Patrol was held for patrol officials in August of 1964. This course was the first of its kind and was designed to meet the specific training needs of the related program element. While some of the courses mentioned have not been presented as yet, they are being prepared for the coming year. The courses will be brought into the field, to the States, and where possible, will be tailored to fit conditions peculiar to the area. It is hoped that this reorientation in training activities philosophy will help the States in training new employees in shellfish sanitation and by providing their professional staff with current information and techniques in sanitary shellfish control. We are hopeful that the shellfish

industry will assume an active role in the proposed training activities to provide the balance necessary to reflect the views and experience of this third partner of the Cooperative Program.

Congressional Hearings on Problems of the Shellfish Industry

In October of 1963, hearings on the subject ''Molluscan Shellfish" were held before the subcommittee on Fisheries and wildlife Conservation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, of the House of Representatives. Representatives of the shellfish industry, State health and conservation agencies, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Public Health Service, and other interested groups appeared before the subcommittee to testify on current problems facing the shellfish industry. Testimony was presented regarding current problems in shellfish culture and water pollution and their interrelationships. Of particular interest to this group was the testimony presented by the Conference of State Sanitary Engineers. The CSSE recommended in favor of the need for National shellfish legislation to provide a legal basis for the present certification program. Such legislation would probably be designed to prohibit the movement of non-certified shellfish. in interstate commerce, establish a matching grant program for State shellfish control agencies, prohibit importation of fresh or frozen shellfish into the United States without a permit by the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, and charge the Public Health Service with continued research and training efforts. Many of you will recall that the last Workshop recommended Federal action to clarify the situation with respect to shellfish imports.

Those of you who have not read the hearing proceedings are urged to do so, as it is an excellent review of some of the most pressing problems in shellfish production today.

Pollution Abatement Interests to Shellfish Control

Some of the problems in shellfish sanitation have been due to the rather negative philosophy of the Cooperative Program toward pollution abatement measures to the Program's attitude toward reactivation of closed areas, and to inadequate communication between shellfish program and pollution control interests. Subsequent to the Congressional hearings on shellfish problems, the Division of Environmental Engineer ing and Food Protection forwarded a report to the House Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation describing current problems in, and proposed corrective action for, the Program. One of the courses of proposed action directed toward strengthening the Program was to improve coordination of shellfish sanitation objectives with pollution prevention and abatement activities. Essentially, the proposal describes the need for the recognition of shellfish culture as a legitimate water use; that water quality objectives in pollution abatement programs be recognized and correctly interpreted as they relate to shellfish sanitation; and to provide for information feed-back to pollution abatement agencies at Federal and State levels of adverse pollution effects upon shellfish growing areas.

Such actions would reorient the program toward a positive approach toward resolving problems in estuarine pollution and translate shellfish sanitation interests into pollution program activities. Efforts have been made toward implementation of these elements through conferences with interested groups and by technical assistance from the Public Health Service in estuarine studies.

This concludes the report on the Program Status Report of the Public Health Service. While substantial progress has been made toward assuring national sanitary shellfish production, many problems remain to be resolved. Many of these problems will be discussed during the remainder of this workshop and we are hopeful that satisfactory solutions can be developed.

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100.0 100.0 92.8 91.0 94.0 83.5 87.0 98.1 94.0 77.0 89.1 97.0 98.0 87.2 92.5 94.5 93.5 66.0 89.8 86.4 93.0 83.1 60.0

N.A.
N.A.
N.E.

90.0
N.E.
85.3
76.0
85.7
74.9
73.2
84.2
69.5
62.0
88.2
71.5
68.3
61.7
N.A.
67.3
45.6
16.9
46.8
35.4

N.A.
N.A.
N.E.

90.0
N.E.
NA.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
N.A.
N.A.
84.6
38.4
N.A.
N.E.
N.A.
N.A.

98.3 N.A. 65.3

17.6 N.A,

95.0 94.0 97.0 85.0 98.0 97.0 80.0 100.0 81.7 98.0 N.A. 86.7 92.5 98.0 85.0 89.4

N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

97.7
N.A.
N.A.
N.E.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

N.A.
N.A.
95.0
99.0
94.2
96.0
100.0
N.E.

95.0
100.0
82.0
90.0
88.0
77.5

N.A. 100.0 87.5 87.5 N.E. 85.0 92.4 74.8 81.3 87.5 92.5 82.0 95.0 100.0

91.0 N.E.

59.0 N.A. 70.0 40.0 99.0 69.5 N.E.

100.0 97.7 92.5 94.7 N.E. 97.6 96.0 86.6 92.7 92.9 92.7 96.8 91.7 92.4 90.9 93.1 85.6 84.6 86.6 83.3 93.9 72.4 94.4

100.0 99.0 93.6 93.4 92.0 89.8 89.7 88.3 87.5 87.3 84.9 84.8** 82.9 82.0 81.4 73.5 72.9 72.2 72.0 60.2 59.1 57.5 54.4

N.E.

67.2

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*Evaluations were conducted on all coastal States in the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii. Evaluations were also performed on the interior States of

Kentucky and Pennsylvania.
**Median
N.E. Not Evaluated
N.A. Not Applicable

Table 2. Proyram Component Ratings by Range and Median Values

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Table 3. Observed Compliance of Program Element Compliance with 70% Rule

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