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In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths;
Our bruised arms hung up for monuments;
Our stern alarums chang'd to merry meetings,
Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.
Grim-visag'd war hath smooth'd his wrinkled front;
And now,--instead of mounting barbed steeds *,

3 Now are our brows bound with vicTORIOUS WREATHS : OUR BRUISED ARMS, &c.] So, in The Rape of Lucrece:

Made glorious by his manly chivalry,

“ With bruised arms and wreaths of victory." MALONE. 4 Our stern alarums chang’d to merry meetings,

Our dreadful marches to delightful MEASURES.
Grim-visag'd war hath smooth'd his wrinkled front;

And now, instead of mounting BARBED STEEDS, &c.] So, in The Tragical Life and Death of King Richard the Third, which is one of the metrical monologues in a collection entitled, The Mirrour of Magistrates. The first edition of it appeared in 1559, but the lines quoted on the present as well as future occasions throughout this play, are not found in any copy before that of 1610, so that the author was more probably indebted to Shakspeare, than Shakspeare to him:

the battles fought in field before
"Were turn’d to meetings of sweet amitie ;

“ The war-god's thund'ring cannons' dreadful rore,
" And rattling drum-sounds' warlike harmonie,
“ To sweet-tun'd noise of pleasing minstrelsie.

“ God Mars laid by his launce, and tooke his lute,
And turn'd his rugged frownes to smiling lookes ;

Instead of crimson fields, warre's fatal fruit,
“ He bath'd his limbes in Cypris warbling brookes,
And set'his thoughts upon her wanton lookes.".

STEEVENS. Shakspeare seems to have had the following passage from Lyly's Alexander and Campaspe, 1584, before him, when he wrote these lines : “ Is the warlike sound of drum and trump turn'd to the soft noise of lyre and lute? The neighing of barbed steeds, whose loudness filled the air with terror, and whose breaths dimned the sun with smoak, converted to delicate tunes and amorous glances ? ”

&c. REED. delightful measures.A measure was, strictly speaking, a court dance of a stately turn, though the word is sometimes employed to express dances in general.

So, in Romeo and Juliet, vol. vi. p. 43 :

To fright the souls of fearful adversaries,
He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber,
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute.
But I,—that am not shap'd for sportive tricks,
Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass;
I, that am rudely stamp'd, and want love's majesty,
To strut before a wanton ambling nymph;
I, that am curtail'd of this fair proportion,
Cheated of feature by dissembling nature

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“ We'll measure them a measure, and be gone." See vol. iv. p. 414, n. 3. Malone. - barbed steeds, i. e. steeds caparisoned in a warlike

I. Haywarde, in his Life and Raigne of King Henry IV. 1599, says,

“ The duke of Hereford, came to the barriers, mounted upon a white courser, barbed with blew and green velvet," &c.

Again, in Jarvis Markham's English Arcadia, 1607: “_armed in a black armour, curiously damask'd with interwinding wreaths of cypress and ewe, his barbe upon his horse, all of black abrosetta, cut in broken hoopes upon curled cypress.”

Again, in The Second Part of King Edward IV. by Heywood, 1626 :

• With barbed horse, and valiant armed foot.” Barbed, however, may be no more than a corruption of barded. Equus bardatus, in the Latin of the middle ages, was a horse adorned with military trappings. I have met with the word barded

many

times in our ancient chronicles and romances. An instance or two may suffice. “ They mounted him surely upon a good and mighty courser, well barded," &c.

Hist. of Helyas Knight of the Swanne, bl. 1. no date. Again, in Barrett's Alrearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580 : Bardes or trappers of horses." Phalere, Lat.

Again, Holinshed speaking of the preparations for the battle of Agincourt : “ – to the intent that if the barded horses ran fiercely upon them,” &c. Again, from p. 802, we learn, that bards and trappers had the same meaning. Steevens.

See “A Barbed horse,” and “ Bardes,” in Minsheu's Dict. 1617, the latter of which he defineshorse-trappings."

Malone. s He capers-] War capers. This is 'poetical, though a little harsh; if it be York that capers, the antecedent is at such a distance, that it is almost forgotten. Johnson.

6 Cheated of feature by DISSEMBLING nature,] By dissembling is not meant hypocritical nature, that pretends one thing and does

Deform'd, unfinish'd, sent before my time
Into this breathing world, scarce half made up,
And that so lamely and unfashionable,
That dogs bark at me, as I halt by them;-
Why I, in this weak piping time of peace,
Have no delight to pass away the time;
Unless to spy my shadow in the sun,
And descant on mine own deformity" ;
And therefore,- since I cannot prove a lovers,

another : but nature that puts together things of a dissimilar kind, as a brave soul and a deformed body. WARBURTON. Dissembling is here put very licentiously for fraudful, deceitful.

Johnson. Dr. Johnson hath certainly mistaken, and Dr. Warburton rightly explained the word dissembling ; as is evident from the following extract: “Whyle thinges stoode in this case, and that the manner of addyng was sometime too short and sometime too long, els dissembled and let slip together.” Arthur Golding's translation of Julius Solinus, 1587. Henley.

I once thought that Dr. Johnson's interpretation was the true one. Dissimulation necessarily includes fraud, and this might have been sufficient to induce Shakspeare to use the two words as synonymous, though fraud certainly may exist without dissimulation. But the following lines in the old King John, 1591, which our author must have carefully read, were perhaps in his thoughts, and seem rather in favour of Dr. Warburton's interpretation :

“ Can nature so dissemble in her frame,
“ To make the one so like as like may be,
“ And in the other print no character

To challenge any mark of true descent? Feature is used here, as in other pieces of the same age, for beauty in general. See note on Antony and Cleopatra, vol. xii. p. 253, n. 9. MALONE.

7 And DESCANT on mine own deformity;] Descant is a term in musick, signifying in general that kind of harmony wherein one part is broken and formed into a kind of paraphrase on the other. The propriety and elegance of the above figure, without such an idea of the nature of descant, could not be discerned.

SIR J. HAWKINS. That this is the original meaning of the term, is certain. But I believe the word is here used in its secondary and colloquial sense, without any reference to musick. Malone.

8 And therefore,-since I cannot prove a lover,] Shakspeare very diligently inculcates, that the wickedness of Richard pro

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To entertain these fair well-spoken days ', -
I am determined to prove a villain,
And hate the idle pleasures of these days.
Plots have I laid, inductions dangerous ?,
By drunken prophecies, libels, and dreams,
To set my brother Clarence, and the king,
In deadly hate the one against the other:
And, if king Edward be as true and justo,
As I am subtle, false, and treacherous,
This day should Clarence closely be mew'd up;
About a prophecy, which says—that G
Of Edward's heirs the murderer shall be.

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ceeded from his deformity, from the envy that rose at the comparison of his own person with others, and which incited him to disturb the pleasures that he could not partake. Johnson.

9 To entertain these fair well-spoken Days,] I am strongly inclined to think that the poet wrote" these fair well-spoken dames," and that the word days was caught by the compositor's eye glancing on a subsequent line. So, in the quarto copy of this play, printed in 1612, signat. I. : * I, my lord, but I had rather kill two deep enemies.

King. Why, there thou hast it ; two deep enemies." In the original copy, printed in 1597, the first line is right : kill two enemies."

MALONE. Mr. Malone's objection to the old reading was principally upon a notion that the epithets fair and well-spoken could not, with propriety, be applied to days. But surely there is nothing very uncommon in such phraseology. In Twelfth-Night we have brisk and giddy-paced times. In Timon of Athens the poet speaks of " strange times, that weep with laughing, not with weeping ; and in Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour we have the very phrase in the text, “ignorant well-spoken days." Boswell. * And HATE the idle pleasures-] Perhaps we might read :

“ And bate the idle pleasures--," JOHNSON.

INDUCTIONS dangerous,] Preparations for mischief. The induction is preparatory to the action of the play. JOHNSON.

Marston has put this line, with little variation, into the mouth of Fame: “ Plots ha'

you

laid ? inductions dangerous ?" Steevens. 3 Edward be as TRUE AND JUST,] The meaning is, if Edward keeps his word. Johnson.

May not this mean-If Edward hold his natural disposition and be true to that? M. MASON.

2

Dive, thoughts, down to my soul ! here Clarence

comes.

Enter CLARENCE, guarded, and BRAKENBURY. Brother, good day: What means this armed guard, That waits upon your grace ? CLAR.

His majesty,
Tendering my person's safety, hath appointed
This conduct to convey me to the Tower.

Glo. Upon what cause ?
CLAR.

Because my name is-George.
Gło. Alack, my lord, that fault is none of yours;
He should, for that, commit your godfathers :-
O, belike, his majesty hath some intent,
That you shall be new christen'd in the Tower.
But what's the matter, Clarence ? may I know?
CLAR. Yea, Richard, when I know; for, I pro-

test,
As yet I do not: But, as I can learn,
He hearkens after prophecies, and dreams“;
And from the cross-row plucks the letter G,
And says-a wizard told him, that by G
His issue disinherited should be ;
And, for my name of George begins with G",
It follows in his thought, that I am he.

4 He hearkens after prophecies, and dreams ;] From Holinshed: “Some have reported that the cause of this nobleman's death rose of a foolish prophecie, which was, that after king. Edward should raign one whose first letter of his name should be a G; wherewith the king and the queene were sore troubled, and began to conceive a grievous grudge against this duke, and could not be in quiet till they had brought him to his end." Philip de Comines, a contemporary historian, says that the English at that time were never unfurnished with some prophecy or other, by which they accounted for every event. MALONE.

5 And, for my name of George begins with G, &c.] So, in Niccols's Tragical Life and Death of Richard III. :

• By that blind riddle of the letter G,
George lost his life; it took effect in me.” STEEVENS.

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