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287(a) of the Act to execute a search warrant:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph, and

(iv) Immigration officers who need the authority to execute search warrants under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner with the approval of the Deputy Attorney General.

(2) Issuance of arrest warrants for immigration violations. A warrant of arrest may be issued only by the following immigration officers:

(i) District directors (except foreign);

(ii) Deputy district directors (except foreign);

(iii) Assistant district directors for investigations;

(iv) Deputy assistant district directors for investigations;

(v) Assistant district directors for deportation;

(vi) Deputy assistant district directors for deportation;

(vii) Assistant district directors for examinations;

(viii) Deputy assistant district directors for examinations;

(ix) Officers in charge (except foreign);

(x) Assistant officers in charge (except foreign);

(xi) Chief patrol agents;
(xii) Deputy chief patrol agents;
(xiii) Associate chief patrol agents;
(xiv) Assistant chief patrol agents;
(xv) Patrol agents in charge;

(xvi) The Assistant Commissioner, Investigations;

(xvii) Institutional Hearing Program directors;

(xviii) Area port directors;
(xix) Port directors; or
(xx) Deputy port directors.

(3) Service of warrant of arrests for immigration violations. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power pursuant to section 287(a) of the

Act to execute warrants of arrest for administrative immigration violations issued under section 236 of the Act or to execute warrants of criminal arrest issued under the authority of the United States:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;
(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Detention enforcement officers (warrants of arrest for administrative immigration violations only);

(v) Immigration inspectors;

(vi) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(vii) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(viii) Immigration officers who need the authority to execute arrest warrants for immigration violations under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner, for warrants of arrest for administrative immigration violations, and with the approval of the Deputy Attorney General, for warrants of criminal arrest.

(4) Service of warrant of arrests for nonimmigration violations. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power to execute warrants of criminal arrest for non-immigration violations issued under the authority of the United States:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;
(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(v) Immigration officers who need the authority to execute warrants of arrest for non-immigration violations under section 287(a) of the Act in order

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to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who

designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner with the approval of the Deputy Attorney General.

(f) Power and authority to carry firearms. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to carry firearms provided that they are individually qualified by training and experience to handle and safely operate the firearms they are permitted to carry, maintain proficiency in the use of such firearms, and adhere to the provisions of the enforcement standard governing the use of force in $287.8(a):

(1) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(2) Special agents;
(3) Deportation officers;
(4) Detention enforcement officers;
(5) Immigration inspectors;

(6) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(7) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(8) Immigration officers who need the authority to carry firearms under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner with the approval of the Deputy Attorney General. (59 FR 42415, Aug. 17, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 10390, Mar. 6, 1997)

purpose, shall be evidenced by an official publication thereof, or by a copy attested by an officer so authorized. This attested copy in turn may but need not be certified by any authorized foreign officer both as to the genuineness of the signature of the attesting officer and as to his/her official position. The signature and official position of this certifying foreign officer may then likewise be certified by any other foreign officer so authorized, thereby creating a chain of certificates.

(2) The attested copy, with the additional foreign certificates if any, must be certified by an officer in the Foreign Service of the United States, stationed in the foreign country where the record is kept. This officer must certify the genuineness of the signature and the official position either of (i) the attesting officer; or (ii) any foreign officer whose certification of genuineness of signature and official position relates directly to the attestation or is in a chain of certificates of genuineness of signature and official position relating to the attestation.

(c) Foreign: Countries Signatory to Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legislation for Foreign Public Document. (1) In any proceeding under this chapter, a public document or entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, may be evidenced by an official publication, or by a copy properly certified under the Convention. To be properly certified, the copy must be accompanied by a certificate in the form dictated by the Convention. This certificate must be signed by a foreign officer so authorized by the signatory country, and it must certify (i) the authenticity of the signature of the person signing the document; (ii) the capacity in which that person acted, and (iii) where appropriate, the identity of the seal or stamp which the document bears.

(2) No certification is needed from an officer in the Foreign Service of public documents.

(3) In accordance with the Convention, the following are deemed to be public documents:

(i) Documents emanating from an authority or an official connected with

8 287.6 Proof of official records.

(a) Domestic. In any proceeding under this chapter, an official record or entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, shall be evidenced by an official publication thereof, or by a copy attested by the official having legal custody of the record or by an authorized deputy.

(b) Foreign: Countries not Signatories to Convention. (1) In any proceeding under this chapter, an official record or entry therein, when admissible for any

the courts of tribunals of the state, including those emanating from a public prosecutor, a clerk of a court or a process server;

(ii) Administrative documents; (iii) Notarial acts; and

(iv) Official certificates which are placed on documents signed by persons in their private capacity, such as official certificates recording the registration of a document or the fact that it was in existence on a certain date, and official and notarial authentication of signatures.

(4) In accordance with the Convention, the following are deemed not to be public documents, and thus are subject to the more stringent requirements of $ 287.6(b) above:

(i) Documents executed by diplomatic or consular agents; and

(ii) Administrative documents dealing directly with commercial or customs operations.

(d) Canada. In any proceedings under this chapter, an official record or entry therein, issued by a Canadian governmental entity within the geographical boundaries of Canada, when admissible for any purpose, shall be evidenced by a certified copy of the original record attested by the official having legal custody of the record or by an authorized deputy. (50 FR 37834, Sept. 18, 1985, as amended at 54 FR 39337, Sept. 26, 1989; 54 FR 48851, Nov. 28, 1989)

(b) Authority to issue detainers. The following officers are authorized to issue detainers:

(1) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(2) Special agents;
(3) Deportation officers;
(4) Immigration inspectors;
(5) Adjudications officers;

(6) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(7) Immigration officers who need the authority to issue detainers under section 287(d)(3) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated individually or as a class, by the Commissioner.

(c) Availability of records. In order for the Service to accurately determine the propriety of issuing a detainer, serving a notice to appear, or taking custody of an alien in accordance with this section, the criminal justice agency requesting such action or informing the Service of a conviction or act that renders an alien inadmissible or removable under any provision of law shall provide the Service with all documentary records and information available from the agency that reasonably relates to the alien's status in the United States, or that may have an impact on conditions of release.

(d) Temporary detention at Service request. Upon a determination by the Service to issue a detainer for an alien not otherwise detained by a criminal justice agency, such agency shall maintain custody of the alien for a period not to exceed 48 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays in order to permit assumption of custody by the Service.

(e) Financial responsibility for detention. No detainer issued as a result of a determination made under this chapter shall incur any fiscal obligation on the part of the Service, until actual assumption of custody by the Service, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.

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$287.7 Detainer provisions under sec

tion 287(d)(3) of the Act. (a) Detainers in general. Detainers are issued pursuant to sections 236 and 287 of the Act and this chapter. Any authorized Service official may at any time issue a Form I-247, Immigration Detainer-Notice of Action, to any other Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency. A detainer serves to advise another law enforcement agency that the Service seeks custody of an alien presently in the custody of that agency, for the purpose of arresting and removing the alien. The detainer is a request that such agency advise the Service, prior to release of the alien, in order for the Service to arrange to assume custody, in situations when gaining immediate physical custody is either impracticable or impossible.

[62 FR 10392, Mar. 6, 1997)

8 287.8 Standards for enforcement ac

tivities. The following standards for enforcement activities contained in this section must be adhered to by every immigration officer involved in enforcement activities. Any violation of this section shall be reported pursuant to $287.10.

(a) Use of force-(1) Non-deadly force. (i) Non-deadly force is any use of force other than that which is considered deadly force as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) Non-deadly force may be used only when a designated immigration officer, as listed in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section, has reasonable grounds to believe that such force is necessary.

(iii) A designated immigration officer shall always use the minimum nondeadly force necessary to accomplish the officer's mission and shall escalate to a higher level of non-deadly force only when such higher level of force is warranted by the actions, apparent intentions, and apparent capabilities of the suspect, prisoner, or assailant.

(iv) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to use nondeadly force should circumstances warrant it:

(A) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(B) Special agents;
(C) Deportation officers;
(D) Detention enforcement officers;
(E) Immigration inspectors;

(F) Immigration examiners when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(G) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed above; and

(H) Immigration officers who need the authority to use non-deadly force under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who

designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner.

(2) Deadly force. (i) Deadly force is any use of force that is likely to cause death or serious bodily harm.

(ii) Deadly force may be used only when a designated immigration officer, as listed in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, has reasonable grounds to believe that such force is necessary to protect the designated immigration officer or other persons from the present danger of death or serious bodily harm.

(iii) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to use deadly force should circumstances warrant it:

(A) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(B) Special agents;
(C) Deportation officers;
(D) Detention enforcement officers;
(E) Immigration inspectors;

(F) Immigration examiners when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(G) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed above; and

(H) Immigration officers who need the authority to use deadly force under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner with the approval of the Deputy Attorney General.

(b) Interrogation and detention not amounting to arrest. (1) Integration is questioning designed to elicit specific information. An immigration officer, like any other person, has the right to ask questions of anyone as long as the immigration officer does not restrain the freedom of an individual, not under arrest, to walk away.

(2) If the immigration officer has a reasonable suspicion, based on specific articulable facts, that the person being questioned is, or is attempting to be, engaged in an offense against the United States or is an alien illegally in

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the United States, the immigration officer may briefly detain the person for questioning

(3) Information obtained from this questioning may provide the basis for a subsequent arrest, which must be effected only by a designated immigration officer, as listed in $287.5(c). The conduct of arrests is specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Conduct of arrests—(1) Authority. Only designated immigration officers are authorized to make an arrest. The list of designated immigration officers varies depending on the type of arrest as listed in 8 287.5(c)(1) through (c)(5).

(2) General procedures. (i) An arrest shall be made only when the designated immigration officer has reason to believe that the person to be arrested has committed offense against the United States or is an alien illegally in the United States.

(ii) A warrant of arrest shall be obtained whenever possible prior to the arrest.

(iii) At the time of the arrest, the designated immigration officer shall, as soon as it is practical and safe to do

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priate Service forms and made a part of the arrest record. (vi) Every person

arrested and charged with a criminal violation of the laws of the United States shall be brought without unnecessary delay before a United States magistrate judge, a United States district judge or, if necessary, a judicial officer empowered in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 3041 to commit persons charged with such crimes. Accordingly, the immigration officer shall contact

Assistant United States Attorney to arrange for an initial appearance.

(vii) The use of threats, coercion, or physical abuse by the designated immigration officer to induce a suspect to waive his or her rights or to make a statement is prohibited.

(d) Transportation_(1) Vehicle transportation. All persons will be transported in a manner that ensures the safety of the persons being transported. When persons arrested or detained are being transported by vehicle, each person will be searched as thoroughly as circumstances permit before being placed in the vehicle. The person being transported shall not be handcuffed to the frame or any part of the moving vehicle or an object in the moving vehicle. The person being transported shall not be left unattended during transport unless the immigration officer needs to perform a law enforcement function.

(2) Airline transportation. The escorting officer(s) must abide by all Federal Aviation Administration and airline carrier rules and regulations pertaining to weapons and the transportation of prisoners.

(e) Vehicular pursuit. (1) A vehicular pursuit is an active attempt by a designated immigration officer, as listed in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, in a designated pursuit vehicle to apprehend fleeing suspects who are attempting to avoid apprehension. A designated pursuit vehicle is defined as a vehicle equipped with emergency lights and siren, placed in or on the vehicle, that emit audible and visual signals in order to warn others that emergency law enforcement activities

in progress.

(2) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement

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(A) Identify himself or herself as an immigration officer who is authorized to execute an arrest; and

(B) State that the person is under arrest and the reason for the arrest.

(iv) With respect to an alien arrested and administratively charged with being in the United States in violation of law, the arresting officer shall adhere to the procedures set forth in $287.3 if the arrest is made without a warrant, and to the procedures set forth in $242.2(c)(2) of this chapter if the arrest is made with a warrant.

(v) With respect to a person arrested and charged with a criminal violation of the laws of the United States, the arresting officer shall advise the person of the appropriated rights as required by law at the time of the arrest, or as soon thereafter as practicable. It is the duty of the immigration officer to assure that the warnings are given in a language the subject understands, and that the subject acknowledges that the warnings are understood. The fact that a person has been advised of his or her rights shall be documented on appro

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