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To bearer of dispatches.

this country, and during the civil war persons traveling between points which were under military occupation by the United States Army were given passports signed by the Secretary of State which really partook of the nature of military passes.*

The special passport, describing the rank or occupation of the holder, was probably issued from the very beginning of the Government under the Constitution. The first one recorded, however, is dated March 27, 1819, John Quincy Adams being Secretary of State, and is for a bearer of dispatches. It reads as follows:

Passports,

UNITED STATES.

No. 3.

To all whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

The Bearer hereof, John Henry Purviance, charged with Public Despatches to the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at Madrid upon the voyage—These are therefore to request all whom it may concern to permit the said John H. Purviance, to pass, without let or Molestation, in going, staying or returning; and to give to him all friendly aid and Protection, as these United States would do in like

cases.

Given, etc., March 27, 1819.

John Quincy ADAMS.

The following is of a kind which was rare at the time it was granted, but became more common during and after the administration of Hamilton Fish. It was given to a female, who necessarily did not enjoy any official rank, and who was granted a special passport by the Secretary of State in the exercise of his discretion.

To a female.

* The passport given to American vessels is yet another kind, the granting of which does not fall within the jurisdiction of the Department of State.

1

UNITED STATES.

Passports,

No. 3.

cerns.

To,all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting :

The Bearers hereof, Mrs. Elizabeth Patterson and her son, Citizens of the United States of America, having occasion to pass into foreign Countries about their lawful con

These are therefore to request all whom it may concern, to permit the said Elizabeth Patterson and her son, to pass freely without molestation in going, staying, or returning, and to give to them all friendly aid and protection, as these United States would do in like cases.

In faith whereof, etc.

Done, etc., sixteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord, 1819, etc.

John Quincy ADAMS,

Secretary of State.

can

An American minister about to proceed to his Team: Ameripost received the following:

UNITED STATES.

Passports,

No. 3.

To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

I certify that the bearer hereof, John Graham, a distinguished citizen of the United States of America, is proceeding to Rio Janeiro, in the character of Minister plenipotentiary of the United States to the Court of His Most Faithful Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves.

These are therefore to request all whom it may concern, to permit the said John Graham to pass wheresoever his lawful pursuits may call him, freely without molestation,

in going, staying, and returning; and to give to him all friendly aid and protection, as these United States would do in like cases.

In faith, etc.

Done, etc., Twentieth day of April in the year of our Lord 1819.

John QUINCY ADAMS,

Secretary of State.

To a private citizen.

A little later a passport, of which the following is a copy, was issued to a private citizen:

Passports,

No. 3.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

The Bearer hereof Luther Bradish, Esq., being about to visit different foreign Countries with the view of gratifying a commendable curiosity, and of obtaining useful information, These are therefore, in a special manner, to request all whom it may concern, particularly all foreign States, Powers, or Potentates, and their officers, to permit the said Luther Bradish, to pass freely without molestation, in going, staying, or returning, and to give to him all friendly aid and protection, as these United States would do in like cases.

In faith, etc.
Done, etc., 15th day of April, 1820.

J. Q. A.
Secretary of State.

To an explorer.

No. 4.

Under date of April 26, 1821, Adams still being Passports, Secretary of State, appears one for Peter Stephen

Chazotte, who is “about to visit and explore the southern parts of East Florida with a view to meritorious and laudable purposes,” and requests “all whom it may concern,” and “particularly all persons in authority under the United States," to let him pass and afford him aid, “without expense to the Government, towards facilitating the objects of his journey."

The Department sometimes made use of foreign To a foreign consuls as bearers of dispatches:

bearer of dispatchęs.

Passports,

UNITED STATES.

No. 4.

To all to whom these Presents shall come Greeting.

The Bearer hereof, Mr. H. D. Wichelhausen, Consul from the City of Bremen, at Baltimore, being charged with the Public Dispatches from this Department for some of the Ministers and Charges d'affaires, of the United States in Europe—These are therefore to request all whom it may concern, to permit the said H. D. Wichelhausen, to pass without let, or molestation; and to give to him all friendly aid and protection, as the United States would do in the like case.

In faith, etc.

Done, etc., this fourteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord 1820, etc.

Captains of vessels were occasionally used for the To captain same purpose :

of a vessel bearer of dispatches

No. 5.

To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting: Passports,

Captain Edward Griffith Master of the Brig Eliza, being charged with a Despatch from this Government to the Consul-General of the United States at Algiers, which he is instructed eventually to deliver, in Person, to the said Consul General. These are to request all whom it may concern to render to the said Captain and Vessel all the assistance and accommodation which may be useful to

the said Captain and Vessel in the Prosecution of his
voyage to Algiers and back again to the United States.

Done, etc., this 16th Dec., A. D. 1822.
In testimony, etc.,

J. Q. ADAMS,

Secretary of State.

To a foreign minister.

A foreign minister leaving this country received a passport in the following form:

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To all to whom these Presents shall come Greeting.

Whereas General Charles d'Alveer, Minister Plenipotentiary from the Republic of Buenos Ayres to the United States, has made known to this Government, that he is soon to return to Buenos Ayres upon a Leave of absence, These are therefore to request all Persons Citizens of the United States, especially officers Naval or Military, of the same, to permit him safely and freely to pass, and to give to him all lawful aid and protection, to which kindness, he is well entitled as the accredited agent of a friendly Government to the United States. Given, etc., 23d day of October 1824.

J. Q. A.

To one who had "de

.

An instance is found of one granted to a person intention" who had declared his intention of becoming a citi

zen of the United States, but had not yet been naturalized :

Passports,

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

No. 7.

To all whom it may concern: Manuel Cartazar, who has resided for several years in the United States, having declared with all due solemnities, his intention to become a Citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to all other foreign States or Governments, These are therefore

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