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to request all whom it may concern, to permit the said
In faith, etc.
Foreigners traveling in the United States were to foreigners sometimes given special passports describing their statsmited purpose, as is shown by the two following:
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
To all whom it may concern The Bearer hereof, Don Manuel Simon de Escudero, a native of Chihuahua in the Republic of Mexico, being desirous of visiting the United States on lawful business.
These are therefore, to request all whom it may concern to permit the said Don Manuel Simon Escudero, to pass wherever his lawful pursuits may call him, freely without let or molestation, in coming to the United States aforesaid, and to give him all friendly aid and protection.
In testimony, etc.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
To all whom it may concern: General D. M. Teran, being appointed by the Government of Mexico to perform various scientific operations and surveys for the satisfaction and information of that Government: these are, therefore, to signify to all whom it may concern, that the said Teran and Suite, composed of the following persons: Lieuten' Col. D. C. Tarnaba, Lieuten' Col. D. S. Batres Sub-Lieuten' of Artillery,
D. P. M.Sanchez D. R. Chovel Mineralogist, D. Luis Ber-
In testimony, etc.
Secretary of State.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Wash", 3 Feby: 1829.
I, Henry Clay, Secretary of State of the l'nited States
Under date of February 5, 1835, is recorded the To free perfirst special passport to a free person of color:
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Special Passports, vol. I,
To all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting.
I, the undersigned Secretary of State of the United States of America, hereby request all whom it may concern to permit safely and freely to pass John Browne, a free person of colour, born in the United States, and in case of need to give him all lawful aid and Protection.
Given under my hand and the seal of the Department of State, at the City of Washington, this 5th day of February, A. D. 1835 in the 59th year of the Independence of the United States. [SEAL.]
Age, 26 years.
For several years following, passports of this Evidence character were issued frequently and were then discontinued. Before they were granted, the Department required satisfactory evidence that the applicant was a freeman. The following certificate
is an illustration. The passport was issued to the person it describes :
Special Passports, vol. 1, P. 268.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
COUNTY OF WASHINGTON,
I William Brent Clerk of the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia for the County of Washington do hereby certify that the bearer hereof, Alfred Keighler, a bright mulatto man, about thirty nine years of age, five feet eight and a half inches high, apparently straight and well proportioned, high-round forehead hazel eyes rather large nose, and small mouth, a small mole on the right side of the forehead a scar on the end of the forefinger of the left hand, no other scars or marks about him, full face large features and good countenance is a free man, as appears by a dead of manumission from James Long to him filed and recorded this day in my office, which said Alfred Keighler is identified to me by Richard Wallach Esq' to be the same Alfred Keighler mentioned in the aforesaid Deed of Manumission.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of the said Circuit Court of this 3rd day of June, A. D. 1847
In another case two informal letters constituted the evidence on which the passport was issued :
Special Pass- DEAR CLAYTON,
The bearer is a free colored man named Louis Thomp
I have known him well in years past—He used to wait on Senator Mangum, and at Mangum's instance, perhaps, you once when Secretary, gave him a passportHe lost it and wants another, a note from you to Marcy
will no doubt procure it—Louis is a clever fellow,
J. J. CRITTENDEN.
Jany 4th 1856.
JANY 5, 1856. DEAR SIR:
The bearer Louis Thompson a free colored man wants a protection. Please see that one is granted to him. I would write to the Secretary about it, but know he has little time to attend to such little matters as reading letters about protections & passports. Do you apply to the Secretary. — Very respectfully yours,
John M. CLAYTON. PASSPORT CLERK OF STATE DEPARTMENT,
Another similar case is as follows:
WASHINGTON, Dec. 5, 1856. Special Pass
ports, vol. 1, The bearer of this paper Walker also called Walker P. 283. Lewis is well known to me and has been so known for many years. I know that he was reared the slave of my connection the late Judge Philip Norborne Nicholas of Richmond Virginia: that after the death of Judge Nicholas, upon the division of his estate Walker became the property of Miss Jane Hollins Nicholas the daughter of Judge Nicholas who emancipated both Walker and his wife and children. I have examined the instruments by which such emancipation was accomplished am well acquainted with the transaction & the parties thereto.