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TEE-OL'OGY (Gr. theos, God, and logos, | TRENCH, RICHARD CHEVENIX, formerly pro

discourse), the science of God and divine fessor of Divinity in King's College, LOD

THE-O-RETICAL (Gr. thecreo, I behold, con- Shortsightedness of Man, 113.

tem'plate), speculative, not practical. On the Study of Words, 119.
Theory is a doctrine or scheme of things, Triton, in mythology, a fabled sea demi-
without reference to practice.

god, supposed to be the trumpeter of Nep
THER-MOP'Y-LÆ, a narrow defile in Greece, tune.

celebrated for a desperate resistance TriCM'VIRATE (Lat. tres, three, vir, a mar
against the Persian army, made by three a union of three men.

hundred Spartans, under Le-on'idas. TROPE (Gr. trepo, I turn), in Rhetoric, &
THIBET or Tibet, à country of Asia, the word or expression turned from its pri.

most lofty part of the continent. The mary and proper meaning.
Himalaya Mountains, the highest in the TROYES (pronounced trwa, the a as in
world, rise here. The name given to the water), an old city of France.
region by the natives means “the north- TU'BER, in Botany, a kind of fleshly stem,
ern land of snow."

formed under ground, and filled with
Thomson, JAMES, one of the most eminent starch.

of British poets, was born in Scotland in | TUESDAY, the third day of the week ; named
1700, died 1748. His “Seasons" and after Tuisco, the Saxon god of war.
“Castle of Indolence” justify his claim to Tully, the Anglicized name for Tullius, be-
the celebrity which he enjoyed while in longing to Cicero, whose entire name was
this world.

Marcus Tullius Cicero.
Extracts from “The Seasons," 177, TUMBLER, a clown ; one who plays tricks of
298, 337.

Extracts from “Castle of Indolence,” TU'MULT (Lat. tumeo, I swell), a noisy ris.
114, 128.

ing ; a commotion.

THRALDOM (thrawldum), a Saxon word, TY'RO (Lat. tiro, a raw soldier), a beginner
meaning a state of bondage.

in learning.
THURSDAY. This day derives its name from TYR'RHENE SEA, the ancient name of that

Thor, the old Scandinavian god of thun- portion of the Mediterranean south-west

from Tuscany.
Tide, to work in or out of a river by favor
of the tide.

ULYSSES, one of the principal Greek heroes
Titillation (Lat. titillo, I tickle), a tick- in the Trojan war, celebrated by Homer.
ling, or being tickled.

He is also the hero of the Od'yssey,
Titus VESPANJA'NTS, a Roman emperor, b. Odysseus being merely another name

A. D. 40. He took Jerusalem (A. D. 70) for the hero. The story, p. 100, is told by
after a terrible siege.

To. The pronunciation of this word, UM'PIRE. This word, according to Brande,

whether to or too, depends much on its appears to be derived from the Fr. im.
application and emphasis. In such pair, uneven in number ; an umpire
phrases as go to, heave to, where to is being a third party, to whom a dispute is

used adverbially, it is pronounced too. referred.

U'Sury, the taking of interest for money,
Tobin, John, author of " The Honey-Moon," from the Lat. word usu'ra, which is from

b. in England 1770, d. 1804. Quoted, utor, I use.

Toulon (Too-long'), a seaport of France. VADUTZ (pronounced Vah-dootz), a town
Tour (toor), a journey in a circuit.

Germany on the Rhine, In the German
TOWARD or TOWARDS ; pronounced tö'ardz ; phrase (p. 181, last line but 2), a is pro

sometimes towrdz, as if in one syllable. nounced like a in father ; e like e in pen,
As used p. 295, line 8, it is in two sylla- ie like ee in meet; au like ou in house.
bles, and an adverb meaning near at VAG'ABOND (Lat. vagor, I wander), a va

grant; one having no certain dwelling.
TRADE-WINDS. Explained, p. 209.

VALENCE (pronounced va-langse', the a as in
TRADITION (Lat. trado, I give up, deliver father), a town of France on the Rhone.

down), doctrines or facts transmitted by VALISE. Pronounced va-lees'.
word of mouth from age to age.

VANE, SIR HENRY, the younger, an English
TKAC'EDY. The word is said by late Ger- statesman, b. 1612. He was the fourth

mua criting to be derived from tragos, governor of the colony of Massachusetts
an old Greek word, signifying melan- in 1636; returning to England, he opposed
choly: In tragic compositions, the dic- the royal government, and afterwards
tior must be elevated and the ca-tas'tro- the sovereignty of Cromwell ; and, through
phe melancholy.

the perfidy of King Charles II., was
TRANSPORT (Lat. tians, over, and porto, I finally beheaded for high treason in 1662,

carry), the being carried beyond one's self ; meeting his fate with Christian heroismo
rapture, ecstasy.

and composure. Mention of, p. 283.
TRANSVERSE' (Lat. trans, over, and versus, Venice, a town of Italy, built on 138 islande
turned), lying in a cross direction.

joined together by 450 bridges, at the head

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of the Gulf of Venice ; once a rich and which a Mexican army were repulsed by
powerful city, but which lost its commerce a greatly inferior American force, ander
in 1495, through the Portuguese discovery Gen. Taylor. The Spanish words Bueng
of the way by sea to the E. Indies.

Vista signify good view.
VENTILATION (Lat. venius, wind, whence VIZIER (viz yer), a Turkish minister of state.

ventilatio). See Remarks on, 362. VOLCA'No, à mountain having an internal
VENTS DE MEDICI (pronounced Ve'nus deh fire, and at times emitting fire, smoke, and

Med'e-che, the ch as in chill), a cele- lava. The word is derived from Vulcan,
brated ancient statue of Venus, which re- the Roman name of the imaginary god
ceives its name from having been placed who presided over the forge and the
in the gallery of the Medici family at working of metals.
Florence, after its discovery at Tivoli, Voli'tion (Lat. volo, I will), the act of will-
Italy, in 1695. It is of pure white marble, ing ; power of willing.
four feet eleven inches in height. The VOLTA'C. The Voltaic Pile or Battery
sculptor's name is unknown, but he is was discovered by Volta, a native of
supposed to have flourished before the Pavia, in Italy, about the year 1801. By
Christian era.

its means the phenomena resulting from
VERDICT (Lat. rerum, true, dictum, say- the accumulation of the electric fluid, and
ing), true declaration.

from the evolution of electricity by chemi-
VERSE. The Latin verb verto, I turn, and cal action, were manifested in a novel and

its derivative verrus, gave origin to this surprising manner.
word. The Roman farmers described the VOLUNTEER' (Lat. volun'tas, will), one
swinging round of the plough at the end who enters into military or other service
of a furrow for the purpose of commencing of his own free will ; a voluntary fighter
a new one by the word versus, a turning. VOWEL SOUNDS. See pp. 16, 17.
Then the furrow itself, or the line of earth
ploughed up, was called versus. Subsе- Wars'scot, in architecture, the framed lin
quently, a written line, whether in prose ing in panels wherewith a wall is faced
or verse, received this name. Then it the timber lining or covering of a room.
was confined to a line of poetry ; and WALLENSTEIN (pronounced in German Vol'
modern usage has enlarged the meaning lenstin), Duke of Friedland, a celebrated
of the word so that it may apply to a German general, b. in Bohemia 1583; as-
stanza or to several lines of a poem or sassinated 1634. On the incidents of his

career Schiller has founded a noble
VERTICAL (Lat. vertex, the top), placed or drama, an extract from which see on p.

being in the zenith, or perpendicularly 343.
over the head.

War, Barbarism of, 303. See also pp. 271,
VER'TI-Go (Lat. verto, I turn), giddiness, or 326, 313, 410.
swimming of the head.

Ward, WARDER. The primary meaning of
VESUVICS, MOUNT, a volcano near Naples, in the verb to ward is to look at or after,

Italy, is three thousand nine hundred and and consequentially, to defend, to protect
thirty-two feet high. See Volcano.

A ward of a lock is that which guards of
Vi's (Lat. a way), via Liverpool, by the secures it; in other words, that pan
way of Liverpool.

which corresponds to its proper key.
VIL LICLE (Lat. villus, hair), in anatomy, WARE, WM., Vesuvius, by, 251.

one of the minute fibrils of those internal WASHINGTON, GEORGE, the “first in war,
surfaces, which, minutely examined, look as well as "in peace," among the Ameri.
like the pile or nap of velvet.

cans, was born Feb. 22, 1732, near th:
VINCENNES (pronounced vang-senz'), a town banks of the Potomac, in the county of

of France, about three miles east of Paris. Westmoreland, Va. That he was diligent
Vi'OLET. Some philologists derive this word and studious in his youth his writings in

from the Latin via, because of the violet's mature years abundantly testified. Не
flourishing by the way-side ; whence an entered the military service of the colony in
English poet has called it way-ling, the 1751; was in Braddock's expedition against

postfix ling in Saxon meaning offspring. Fort du Quesne (pronounced Käne) in
VIRGIL. Publius Virgilius Maro, the most 1755, and had two horses shot under him ;

distinguished epic poet of ancient Rome, was appointed commander-in-chief of the
was b. near Mantua, 70 B. C., and d. 19 American army in 1775 ; was elected
B. C. Ilis supposed tomb is still shown president of the Convention for forming
at Naples.

the Constitution in 1787; was elected
Virgin'ils, a centurion (military officer com- President of the United States in 1789,
manding a hundred men) of ancient again in 1793, and died in 1799.

“ Great
Rome, whose daughter Virginia being he was," says Lord Brougham, “pre-
claimed as a slave by Appius Claudius, ëminently great ; a perfect, just man, with
the father, to save her from dishoror, a thoroughly firm resolution, never to be
6. abhed her with a knife snatched from a misled by others, any more than to be by
butcher's stall.

others overawed. To his latest breath
Vista. Biena Vista (pronounced boo-e'na- did this great patriot maintain the noble
vis'ta), a town of Mexico, thirty-two miles character of a captain the patron of peace,
set2th o Tampico, was the scene of an ac and a statesman the friend of justice.
tion, on the 22 and 230 Feb., 1847, in Dying, he bequeathed to his heirs the

p. 172.

sword which he had worn in the war for country. (See Philology.)

In England
liberty, and charged them “Never to take his innovations have not been generally
it from the scabbard but in self-defence, adopted. In the United States some of
or in defence of their country and her the principal printing-oflices have ad
freedom.' Until time shall be no more, mitted them ; so that considerable con
will a test of the progress which our race fusion in the spelling of various words ex-
has made in wisdom and in virtue be de- ists in American publications. Of the
rived from the veneration paid to the im- propriety of several of his innovations
mortal name of Washington."

there seems to be little question. That in
Eulogized by Webster, 147.

regard to doubling the last consonant
The Youth of, by Everett, 249.

before ed or ing in words of more than
Our Political System, by, 287.

one syllable, not accented on the last syl-
Religion Essential, by, 313.

lable, was recommended, though not
WATERLOO. The village of Waterloo, noted always adopted, by Lowth, Walker, and

for the great battle fought on the 18th of Perry. The arbitrary deviations from the
June, 1815, between Napoleon and the usual rule, in such words as travelled,
allied forces, is in Belgium, about ten travelling, worshipped, equalled, jew
miles southward from Brussels.

elled, libelled, modelled, &c., were reject-

ed by Webster, who spells these words
WATER-WRAITH (p. 276). Wraith is a Scot- traveled, traveling, worshiped, &c.; and

tish word, signifying a spirit or appari- public usage begins to favor this reform,

not only in this country but in England.
WAYLAND, REV. FRANCIS, President of As a defining dictionary of the English

Brown University, R.I., and distinguished language, Webster's is probably the best
as a theologian and a writer on Moral in existence.
Science and Political Economy, was born WEDNESDAY (wenz'da) is so named from the
in N. Y. March 11, 1796. His writings Scandinavian deity Woden. His functions
are much esteemed. Quoted, 288, 369. corresponded to those of Mercury in the
TEBER, CHARLES MARIA Von, an eminent Greek and Roman mythology.
musical composer, born in Holstein, a de- WEL'KIN, the visible regions of the air ; the
pendency of Denmark, in 1786 ; died 1826. vault of heaven. It is from the Saxon
He composed the celebrated opera of Der

welk, to roll.
Freischutz (the Free-shooter). Mentioned WESTMINSTER, a city of England, now so

united with London that they form one
WEBSTER, DANIEL, highly distinguished as city, and, in ordinary speech, are men.

a lawyer, orator, and statesman, was born tioned as one, though they have separato
in Salisbury, N. H., Jan. 18, 1782 ; died jurisdictions.
at his residence in Marshfield, Mass., Oct. What a Common Man may say, 293.
24th, 1852. His parents were poor ; but WHALE, CAPTURE OF A, 400.
he was enabled to enter Dartmouth Col- WHEN Í AM OLD, 238.
lege in 1797. He first practised law in his WHEREFORE (composed of where and for).
native state, and was in Congress in 1812. Both Walker and Webster pronounce this
He removed to Boston in 1816, was sent word hwär'-för. Sheridan pronounces it
to Congress from that city in 1822, and hwěr-för.
from that time up to the period of his WHEWELL (pronounced Hu'el), WM., an
death was in public life, distinguishing eminent English theologian and writer.
himself by many remarkable efforts of Quoted, 407.
eloquence, which place him in the front WHITTIER, JOAN G., an American poet and
rank of great orators, with Demosthenes, prose writer, born 1808. Quoted, 178,
Chatham, Mirabeau, and Patrick Henry. 297.
On his death-bed, he prepared an inscrip- WIFE. This familiar word is from “to
tion for his tomb stone, in which he says weave; " wife and woof are of one origin.
that his heart has always assured and It is a title tsays Trench) given to her
reässured” him “that the Gospel of Jesus who is engaged at the web and works
Christ must be a divine reality.”

these having been the most ordinary
Character of Washington, 147.

branches of wifely employment when the
Education in the United States, 184. language was forming. See Husband.
On Early Rising, 226.

Wild. See p. 125.
The American Union, 271.

WILLIS, NATHANIEL P., a popular Ameri-
Love of Home, 368.

can poet and essayist, b. 1807.
Peculiarities of our Liberty, 424

The New Year, by, 434.
WEBSTER, Noah, was born in West Hart- Wilna, the name of a city and river of
ford, Connecticut, in 1758, died 1843. He West or Polish Russia. The city is two
is principally known for his elaborate hundred and fifty miles north-east of
English dictionary. Into this work he Warsaw, has considerable trade, and is
introduced many innovations in orthog- noted for several remarkable churches,
raphy, which are still a subject of con- for its literary, institutions and medical
troversy among authors and publishers, academy.
and many of which are repudiated by Wilson, John, eminent as a poet and critic,
philological scholars in England and this was b. in Paisley, Scotland, in 1788. Ho


“ Night

editeri Blackwood's Magazine, and was The Moral Law, 114.
professor of Moral Philosophy in the Uni- Essential Knowledge, 177.
versity of Edinburgh. Died 1854.

Address to Duty, 178.
The Ship, by, 2:28.

Heroism of Grace Darling, 201.
This Life and the Next. 314.

The Old Man by the Brouk, 257.
Assurance of an Il reafter, 315. WOUND. The preferred pronunciation of

Walker and Worcester is woond, of
A Wished-for Retreat, by, 334.

Webster, wound, rhyming with sound.

WRACK, synon'ymous with wreck, and an
the point from which the wind ancient form of that word.

YANG-TSE-KIANG', a large river of China
WINTHROP, JOHN, b. in England, in 1587; Its total course is about 2500 miles.

governor of Massachusetts in 1630 ; d. in Y-CLEPED (e-klept'), called, termed. It is

the perfect participle of the Saxon word
WINTHROP, ROBERT C., of the family of ge-clypian, to call.

John, was born about 1808. Quoted pp. YEA. Both Walker and Webster prefer to
275, 333.

pronounce this word like the pronoun
WIRT, W., an eloquent lawyer and grace- ye; Worcester, Sheridan, and others,

ful writer, was b. in Maryland, in 1772 ; pronounce it ya.
d. 1835. Quoted, 288, 332, 431.


author of
WISE, a manner, mode, fashion. It is Thoughts," was b. in Hants, England, in

often compounded in such words as 1681, d. 1755. It is impossible to open
lengthwise, breadthwise, &c., incor- any page of his “Night Thoughts” with-
rectly written lengthways, &c.

· out finding something grand, true, and
WOLSEY, THOMAS, Cardinal, an eminent striking.

English prelate, was the son of a butcher, Trust in God, 256.
and was b. 1471 ; d. 1530. He rose to Death, 309.
great power under Henry VIII. ; but Defiance, from “Zanga,” 102.
that treacherous king finally worked his
ruin. See p. 421.

ZEAL. The Greek is zélos, which is from
Woman's Mission, 359.

ZENITH (from the Arabic). In Astronomy,
The Permanence of, 160.

the top of the heaven, or vertical point ;
WORDSWORTH, WM., a great and good Eng- the point directly overhead.

lish poet, b. April 7th, 1770, d. 1850, llis Zi'on or Sion, the name of one of the moun
claims to a rank among the greatest poets tains on which Jerusalem was built. It
of England were long contested, but at was sometimes called “the city of Da-
length very generally admitted by those vid ;” also “the holy hill.”
whose verdict is fame. He had a lofty ZONE (Gr. zoně, a girdle). In Geography
sense of the worth of his art, and, in him, the terrestrial zones are the five broad
poetry, which is but another name for spaces or belts into which the surface of
the reverent study of nature, embraces the earth is divided by the two tropics
all knowledge, all sanctity, all truth and and the two polar circles.
is ever made subservient to the doctrines ZSCHOKKE, HENRY, a prolifie: German writer,
of Christian revelation. In 1843 he suc- b. at Magdeburg, in Prussia, 1771, d.
ceeded, Southey as poet-laureate. Quoted, 1848. He commenced life as a strolling

player, but afterwards studied divinits,
The Daffodils, by, 70.

and became a teacher of youth.
The Blind Street-Fiddler, 93.

The Snow of Winter, by, 90.
Affectionate Remembrance, 102. ZUTPHEN (Zoot'phen), a town of the Neth
Priendship, 118.

erlands, with a population of 11,000.

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