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by what follows; with whatever is relative to something expressed, or to be impl.ed; and with what is doubtful, interrogative or supplicatory.

132. The falling inflection, on the contrary, is invariably associated with what is complete and independent in sense, or intended to be received as such; with whatever is positive and exclusive; and with what is confidently assertive, dogmatical or mandatory.

133. The rising inflection is thus, also, the natural intonation of all attractive sentiments; of love, admiration, pity, &c.; as in the exclamations" Beautiful'! Alas! Poor thing!" The falling inflection is the tone of repulsion, anger, hatred and reproach, as in the exclamations, "Go! Fool! Malediction'!"

134. A great number of rules are given by Mr. Walker and his followers for the inflecting of sentences or parts of sentences. To these rules there are many exceptions not enumerated by their framers. The rules, if used at all, must therefore be used with extreme caution, or they will mislead; and the reader who undertakes to regulate his elocution by them will, in many instances, fall into error. We give below the rules that are least liable to exception; but even these must be received rather as hints to guide the reader, where he is in doubt, than rules to hold where his understanding dictates the intonation most in accordance with the sense and spirit of what he is reading. Marks of inflection, like marks of emphasis, may serve to illustrate a principle, as for instance the fact that there is a rising and falling inflection of the voice, and that the sense of a sentence often depends upon a correct emphasis and inflection. But the student who expects to attain a correct style of elocution by following inflection marks, rather than by studying the pith and catching the spirit of what he is to read, will be disappointed.

I. Where the sense is complete, whether at the termination of a sentence or of a part of a sentence, use the falling inflection.

II. When sentences are divisible into two parts, the commencing part is generally distinguished by the rising inflection.

III. Questions commencing with an adverb or pronoun, and which cannot be answered by a simple "yes" or "no," generally terminate with the falling inflection.

IV. Questions commencing with a verb, and which can be answered by a simple "yes" or "no," generally terminate with the rising inflection.

V. When two or more questions in succession, the first beginning with a verb, are separated by the disjunctive particle or, the last question requires the falling, and the preceding ones the rising inflection.

VI. The general rule for the parenthesis (a Greek word signifying an inser tion) is, that it must be pronounced in a lower tone and more rapidly than the rest of the sentence, and concluded with the inflection that immediately precedes it. A simile, being a species of parenthesis, follows the same rule.

VII. The title echo is adopted by Walker to express a repetition of a word or phrase. The echoing word is pronounced generally with the rising inflection, followed by something of a pause

VIII. The monotone, in which neither inflection of the voice is used, may be defined to be a continuation or sameness of sound upon certain syllables of a word or certain words, exactly like that produced by repeatedly striking a bell; such a stroke may be louder or softer, but continues exactly in the same pitch. To express this tone upon paper, a horizontal line is sometimes adopted, such as we use to designate a long vowel: thus (--). The monotone may be often appropriately employed in passages of solemnity and awe.


I. It is to the unaccountable oblivion of our mortality that the world owes all its fascination'.

Age, in a virtuous person, carries with it an authority, which makes it preferable to all the pleasures of youth.

II. Virtue were a kind of misery', if fame were all the garland that crowned her'.

Your enemies may be formidable by their numbers', and by their power'; but He who is with you is mightier than they'.

III. Who can look down upon the grave', even of an enemy', and not feel a compunctious throb' that he should ever have warred' with the poor handful of earth' that lies mouldering before him`?

How many men were in that army' at the time of the victory' ?

What can be worse',

Than to dwell here', driven out from bliss', condemned

In this abhorrëd deep to utter woe',

Where pain of unextinguishable fire

Must exercise us without hope of end'?

IV. Would a merciful Providence have given us talents', without designing that we should exert them' ?

Can such things be'—

And overcome us', like a summer cloud',

Without our special wonder'?

Can the soldier, when he girdeth on his armor, boast like him that putteth it off'? Can the merchant predict that the speculation, on which he has entered', will be infallibly crowned with success'?

Avārus has long been ardently endeavoring to fill his chest': and, lo! it is now full'. Is he happy? Does he use' it? Does he gratefully think of the Giver of all good things'? Does he distribute to the poor' ?

V. Does God, after having made his creatures, take no further care of them'? Has he left them to blind fate or undirected chance'? Has he forsaken the works of his own hands'? Or does he always graciously preserve, and keep, and guide them'?

Can honor's voice provoke the silent dust'?
Or flattery soothe the dull cold ear of death' ?

Do the perfections of the Almighty lie dormant', or are they not rather in continual exercise?

VI. Uprightness is a habit, and, like all other habits, gains strength by time and exercise. If, then, we exercise' upright principles (and we cannot have them unless we exercise' them), they must be perpetually on the increase.

Then went the captain with the officers, and brought them without violence (for they feared the people, lest they should have been stoned'); and when they had brought them, they set them before the council

Let us' (since life can little more supply
Than just to look about us, and to die'),
Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man.

Thou happy, happy elf! * (But stop-first let me kiss away that tear.) Thou tiny image of myself! (My love, he 's poking peas into his ear!) Thou merry, laughing sprite! with spirits feather-light, untouched by sorrow, and unsoiled by sin― (Good heavens! the child is swallowing a pin !)

Thou little tricksy Puck! with antic toys so funnily bestuck, light as the singing bird that wings the air (The door! the door! he 'll tumble down the stair!) Thou darling of thy sire! (Why, Jane, he 'll set his pinafore afire!) Thou imp of mirth and joy, in love's dear chain so strong and bright a link - thou idol of thy parents-(Hang the boy! There goes my ink !)

Thou cherub - but of earth; fit playfellow for fays by moonlight pale, in harmless sport and mirth - (That dog will bite him, if he pulls his tail!) Thou human humming-bee, extracting honey from every blossom in the world that blows, singing in youth's Elysium ever sunny-(Another tumble; that's his precious nose !) Thy father's pride and hope! (He 'll break the mirror with that skipping-rope !) With pure heart newly stamped from nature's mint-(Where did he learn that squint ?)

Thou young domestic dove! (He 'll have that jug off with another shove!) Dear nursling of the hymene'al nest! (Are those torn clothes his best ?) Little epitome of man! (He'll climb upon the table, that's his plan!) Touched with the beauteous tints of dawning life. (He's got a knife!) Thou enviable being! No storms, no clouds, in thy blue sky foreseeing, play on, play on, my elfin John!


Toss the light ball; bestride the stick (I knew so many cakes would make him sick!)—with fancies buoyant as the thistle-down, prompting the face grotesque and antic brisk, with many a lamb-like frisk - (He's got the scissors, snipping at your gown!) Thou pretty, opening rose' (Go to your mother, child, and wipe your nose!) Balmy, and breathing music like the south - (He really brings my heart into my mouth!) Fresh as the morn, and brilliant as its star- (I wish that window had an iron bar !) -bold as the hawk, yet gentle as the dove -- (I'll tell you what, my love, I oannot write, unless he's sent above!)


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* This humorous Ode, by Thomas Hood, addressed to his son," aged three years and five months," contains numerous examples of the parenthesis. The verses are printed above in the form of prose, that the reader may himself detect the metrical euphony without the assistance of lines indicating the measure to the eye.

VII. Newton was a Christian! Newton'! whose mind burst forth from the fetters cast by nature on our finite conceptions; - Newton'! whose science was truth, and the foundation of whose knowledge of it was philosophy; not those visionary and arrogant presumptions which too often usurp its name, but philosophy resting on the basis of mathematics, which, like figures, cannot lie; - Newton'. who carried the line and rule to the utmost barriers of creation, and explored the principles by which, no doubt, all created matter is held together and exists.

I must oppose the bill before us; a bill' in which such cruelties are proposed as are yet unknown among the most savage nations.

VIII. In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, fear came upon me and trembling, which made all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word

Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood,

Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their spheres,

Thy knotted and combined locks to part,

And each particular hair to stand on end,

Like quills upon the fretful porcupine.

QUESTIONS.125. What are the inflections of the voice? 126. How are they marked by Walker? 127. Illustrate the upward and downward slide of the voice. 128. When is the rising inflection used? When the falling? 129. What is the effect of the rising progression in a sentence? 130. The falling? 131. The rising indicates? 132. The falling? 134. What is said of the value of rules for inflecting sentences? When the sense is complete, you use? When it is incomplete? Questions commencing with an adverb or verb terminate with what? Questions commencing with a verb? What is Rule V.? What is the meaning of the word parenthesis? How ought a parenthesis to be read? What is understood by an echo in elocution? By a monotone ?



135. IN the following pieces, - the first by Sir Walter Scott, and the second and third from Ossian, - exercises in modulation for two and three voices, or sets of voices, are given. By separating an entire class, and allotting to each group its part for simultaneous utterance, a good effect, with a little drilling, may be produced. Pupils will readily perceive that where the sense is incomplete, and the voice is suspended, the rising inflection is naturally used:


(1st) Pibroch* of Donuil Dhu', (2d) pibroch of Donuil',
(1st) Wake thy wild voice anew', (2d) summon Clan-Conuil'.

* A pibroch (pronounced pi-brok) is, among the Highlanders, a martial air played with the bagpipe. The measure of the verse in this stanza requires that in the third line

(1st) Come away', come away', (2d) hark to the summons'! (1st) Come in your war array (2d) gentles and commons'.

(1st) Come from deep glen', (2d) and from mountain so rocky',
(1st) The war-pipe and pennon' (2d) are at Inverlochy';
(1st) Come every hill-plaid', (2d) and true heart that wears one',
(1st) Come every steel-blade', (2d) and strong hand that bears one'

(1st) Leave untended the herd', (2d) the flock without shelter'; (1st) Leave the corpse uninterred', (2d) the bride at the altar'; (1st) Leave the deer', (2d) leave the steer', (1st) leave nets and barges, (All) Come with your fighting gear', broadswords and targes'.

(1st) Come as the winds come', (2d) when forests are rended';
(1st) Come as the waves come', (2d) when navies are stranded':
(1st) Faster come', faster come', (2d) faster and faster',

(1st) Chief, (2d) vassal', (1st) page' and groom', (2d) tenant' and master.

(1st) Fast they come', fast they come; (2d) see how they gather ! (1st) Wide waves the eagle plume', (2d) blended with heather'. (1st) Cast your plaids', (2d) draw your blades', (All) forward each man set'! (All) Pibroch of Donuil Dhu', knell for the onset'!


(1st Voice) As Autumn's dark storm' ·(2d Voice)· ing hills (3d Voice) — echoing hills', (1st Voice)- so toward each other'.

(2d Voice) - toward each other apprcached'-(3d Voice) - approached the heroes'.

(1st Voice) As two dark streams' -(2d Voice)· dark streams from high rocks'-(3d Voice) - meet and mix, and roar on the plain', (1st Voice)-loud, rough, and dark' — (2d Voice) — dark in battle' Voice) - in battle met Lochlin and In'nisfail'.


(1st Voice) Chief mixed his blows with chief - (2d Voice) — and man with man' :-(3d Voice) steel clanging sounded on steel'.

(1st Voice) Helmets are cleft'-(2d Voice) — cleft on high' - (3d Voice) — Helmets are cleft on high'; blood bursts and smokes around'.

(1st Voice)-As the troubled noise of the ocean' (2d Voice) the ocean when roll the waves on high'; as the last peal of the thunder of heaven'(3d Voice) the thunder of heaven'; such is the noise of battle'. (1st Voice) The groan'-(2d Voice) — the groan of the people' — (3d Voice) the groan of the people spreads over the hills'. (1st Voice) It was like'-(2d Voice)-like the thunder.

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pours from the echo

·(3d Voice)

the exclamation "Come away" should be sounded as if it were a single word, having the accent on the first syllable, thus come away. So in the words hill'-plaid and steel'blade, in the 7th and 8th lines. The license of rhyme there requires that the ai in plaid should be pronounced long, as in mard. In the last line but one, the two words man set (meaning, man set in battle array) should be sounded as a single word of two syllables, having the accent on the first.

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