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permanent injury to the eyes or lungs from the inhaling or contact with the various alkalies or acids.

This is, I believe, worse in the older and smaller plants. Some say they cannot maintain healthier conditions because financial difficulties will not permit it.

I now refer you to section 19 on page 22 of the bill which regards hours of labor. The employers will probably argue that this set-up is unworkable in the rayon industry. I say it is workable whether for day workers or shift workers. În regard to paragraph (e) under this section and the first part of section 27 on page 33, which regards the paying of double time on Sundays and holidays and the paying of a 5-percent bonus to employees in plants operating on three shifts, employers will say this is uncalled for and they cannot afford it. In our plant we get time and one-half for Sunday work and for time put in on the Fourth of July and Christmas. The union obtained the holiday concession. The company installed the Sunday concession when the plant started and they admittedly say it was done because they knew it would be bad to get workers on Sunday and that Sunday work is most undesirable.

I notice none of the executives spend much time in a plant on Sunday; but most of them do not want to pay those who have to work on Sunday any premium for it.

If other branches of the industry can do it and some plants in our industry can do it, and some admittedly can, it is only fair to employers in other branches and in all rayon plants that all should be used alike. The 5 percent premium for night work is plenty small enough for the inconvenience, health-breaking conditions connected with night work.

The continuous changing of hours affects anyone's digestion, sleep, and general health. It is a well-known fact that a person's vitality is lowest in the early morning hours, yet the worker must keep up the pace set by day workers. I say this premium is plenty small and should be paid. The employers have the advantage of continuous operation over other branches, but labor so far gets none of the benefits or profits derived from it.

As far as the rayon industry is concerned, according to all available reports, every plant gets at least some of its raw material from some other State or section of the country. They likewise ship at least some of their production to some other State or section of the country.

After an analysis of the bill I can find no provision as to wages, hours of work, classification of jobs, production control, or any other provision which is not needed nor which is not applicable to the rayonproducing industry. No provision would incur any noticeable detriment upon any company. All the provisions are needed to help stabilize the industry and its labor conditions.

Mr. GORMAN. Mr. Chairman, we have four workers who merely want to be placed on the record as favoring this legislation. They are Paul E. Dean, W. D. Smith, Lindsey Smith, and Findley Garrett.

STATEMENT OF PAUL E. DEAN Mr. DEAN. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, my name is Paul E. Dean. My address is Clinton, S. C.

Brother Frier and the other brothers have covered all of the points that I had intended to bring out. This particular mill that I will mention we have had considerable trouble. We have had this mill cited before the different boards, and we have a case pending now before the National Labor Relations Board as to discrimination against employees.

I am here now asking you to make a favorable report, if you possibly can, giving us the privilege of exercising our rights.

Mr. GORMAN. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Dean wishes to place this information in the record that he has on this paper here.

Mr. KELLER. He may do so.
Mr. DEAN. Yes; I would like to have this in.
(The documents referred to are as follows:)
Copies of evidence.

Cloth shipped April 2, 1935, to Windsor Print Works, North Adams, Mass., in car box no. 2545, initials, C. N. & L., manufactured by the Clinton Cotton Mills, Clinton, S. C., manufacturing of convertible cotton goods. Witness: Ben Morris, Jefferson Street, Clinton, S. C., John W. Davis, Clinton, S. C.; and Paul E. Dean, 116 North Sloan Street, Clinton, S. C. (style C, bale no. 5586, yards, 2,806; style C, bale no. 5290, yards 2,772).

CLINTON FRIENDSHIP ASSOCIATION

Charter being used for other purposes than represented, the overseers and assistant overseers or second hands forcing the employees of the plant in this association by threats of loosing their jobs.

NOTE.-The vice president, Mr. Roy Holtzclaw, assistant overseer in spinning department, having power to hire and discharge help. To whom this may concern:

Mr. Sam FOSTER, second hand in spinning no. 2 evening shift stated, if my son would join the Friendship Association, Mr. Foster would give my son, Arthur Smith, a regular job.

(Signed) Mrs. EMMA SMITH,

Lee Street, Clinton, S. C. To whom this may concern:

(1) Arthur Smith swears, Mr. Sam Foster, second hand or assistant overseer in spinning no. 2, evening shift stated in person he (Sam Foster) would give me (Arthur Smith) a regular job if I would join the Friendship Association, but after I refused to join the association, I have not received any work.

(Signed) ARTHUR Smith,

Lee Street, Clinton, S. C. NOTE.-Clinton Friendship Association anyone living in the city of Clinton, S. C., being eligible for membership in this association, the overseers of the Clinton Cotton Mills attend these meetings regular and take an active part in the association affairs.

Taking dues out at office, 40 cents a month

NOTICE

Pursuant to a contract this day entered into by and between the Clinton Cotton Mills and the Clinton Friendship Association, only members of the Clinton Friendship Association will be employed in said Clinton Cotton Mills after this date, August 24, 1935.

All seeking employment in said mills will be required to exhibit membership cards in said association. Unless he or she shall exhibit a power of attorney authorizing said association to represent him or her in all matters pertaining to collective bargaining

J. P. TERRY,

President.
Roy HOLTZCLAW,

Vice President.
ALFRED ASHLING,

Secretary,
C. W. WINDSOR,

Treasurer,
Executive Committeemen.

(Copy of power of attorney)
CLINTON FRIENDSHIP ASSOCIATION,

Clinton, S. C. STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,

County of Laurens: I (or we) hereby authorize Clinton Friendship Association as organization for mutual aid and protection of the employees of the Clinton Cotton Mill, to represent me (or us) in dealing with the Clinton Cotton Mill our employer at Clinton, S. C.

This is to give said association full power and authority to cast a vote for me (or us) and to represent me (or us) generally in any matters of collective bargaining or other activities arising between the Clinton Cotton Mill and the above labor organization.

I (or we) hereby especially give said labor organization power of attorney to represent me (or us) under the National Labor Relations Act.

Witness our hands and seal this day of August 1935.

STATEMENT

On August 23, 1935, Mr. Clarence Oakley, who is a second hand in the spooling department of the Clinton Cotton Mills, and under whom I have been working told me that the mill would open up on Monday morning, and told me that no one would be allowed to work unless they belong to the Good-will Association or sign a paper giving authority to the association to represent them.

He then gave me a typewritten form written on Clinton Friendship Association stationery, and a copy of this is attached to this statement. He said that I would have to sign a statement like this or I could not work on Monday. And asked me if I decided not to sign it to return it to him. Mr. Oakley is a second hand and he employs and discharges help.

He has been at the Clinton Mill for about (4) four years.
Dated August 24, 1935.

(Signed) Mrs. EDNA KING.

INFORMATION On September 12, Mr. Jason Davis, outside overseer called at the homes of (58 or 60 families, and stated Mr. Claude Trammell, paymaster for the Clinton Cotton Mills, told him to come around to notify all who wasn't back at work on or before the 1st of October 1935 house rent would start Monday, September 16, 1935, at the rate of $1 a room a week. (Present rent rate a week, 50 cents & room.)

If for any reason these parties not back at work by the 1st of October 1935, their furniture would be attached, and sold for rent.

Clinton, S. C., January 14, 1936. Names below, and address of employees ordered reinstated at their former positions in the Clinton Cotton Mills, Clinton, S. C., instead they having been

evicted." The National Labor Relations Board, Washington, D. C., ordered reinstatement.

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Mr. Sisk. Mr. Chairman, I would like to say one word in regard to corporations receiving loans from the R. F. C.

In the mill where I work we came out on strike. The Saxon Mill, at Spartanburg, John A. Law, president, received a loan of $275,000, after which he put on a third shift in the Chesnee Mill, of which is he president. The personnel director of the Saxon Mill took money and hired people to leave the picket line and pay their expenses to go to the other mill. Under those conditions I do not think any corporation ought to be able to borrow any money,

Mr. Wood. There is a strike on at this mill, is there?
Mr. Sisk. Yes, sir; since July 30.
Mr. Wood. Did he get the loan after the strike was called?

Mr. Sisk. It was afterwards; yes, sir. I think we should have some
legislation to protect the worker in the cotton mill.
Mr. Wood. What was the reason for this strike?
Mr. Sisk. Cutting wages, stretch-out, and speeding up.
Mr. Wood. Resistance to cutting wages and stretch-out?

Mr. Sisk. Yes, sir; a $3.50 reduction in wages in some parts. It was about $3.50 in some parts of the card room.

Mr. Wood. It was $3.50 per what?

Mr. Sisk. It was $3.50 per week. When the N. R. A. went into effect they had 75 frames in one part of that mill which had been speeded up and headed up until now they have only 39. That has automatically cut about 22 employees out of the card room alone in that one mill. I can say frankly, as representing the workers of that mill, that they asked me to insist upon this committee's making a favorable report, if possible, in connection with the passage of this legislation which is now pending Mr. Wood. How long have you been on strike down there? Mr. Sisk. Since July 30. Mr. Wood. You have been on strike since July 30 of last year? Mr. Sisk. Yes, sir; we have.

Mr. Wood. Did they receive this loan recently?

Mr. Sisk. I don't know, but I think probably it was about a month after the strike.

Mr. Wood. It helped them to keep the strike going, didn't it?
Mr. Sisk. I think it did pretty well.

Mr. GORMAN. Mr. Chairman, that is all we have. I would, however, like to ask permission to be heard myself after the other side has submitted their testimony Mr. KELLER. That has been arranged already. Does this end your evidence? Mr. GORMAN. With the request, Mr. Chairman, that we be heard when the other side has finished.

Mr. KELLER. I want to say that there is no disposition on the part of this subcommittee, I know, to the presentation of testimony on the part of anybody. We are going to stick as long as necessary. After each side has been heard if somebody wants to answer something that was said, we are going to permit that, because we believe it ought to be done. We are trying to get all of the facts, not one side of the facts, but all of them on both sides or on as many sides as there may be.

We will return at 2:30, at which time the other side will begin its presentation.

(Whereupon, at 1:15 p. m., the committee recessed until 2:30 p. m. of the same day.)

AFTER RECESS

The subcommittee convened after recess at 2 p. m., Hon. Kent E. Keller presiding.

Mr. KELLER. The committee will come to order, please. Who is the first witness on the other side?

STATEMENT OF ARTHUR BESSE, PRESIDENT, NATIONAL ASSO

CIATION OF WOOL MANUFACTURERS Mr. KELLER. Will you give your name, please?

Mr. BESSE. Arthur Besse, National Association of Wool Manufacturers.

Mr. KELLER. Where is your home?
Mr. BESSE. Scarsdale, N. Y.

I am here representing the wool textile industry. After careful and detailed examination of the bill here under consideration, as applied to our industry, I can only conclude that in its entirety it is unwise and unworkable and, if enacted, would hinder and not help its avowed objective of promoting interstate commerce in textile products and improving labor conditions in the industry.

I do not propose to argue the constitutionality of the bill. I am sure the committee will be grateful for that. While it is difficult for members of our industry to understand, in view of recent decisions of the Supreme Court, how it is possible for the Federal Government to exercise the degree of supervision of our industry contemplated by this bill, I do not feel competent to debate the point and prefer to devote myself to the practical aspects of the proposals made in this so-called national textile bill.

The basic objections to the bill, on which I shall enlarge by reference to its specific provisions, seem to me to be the following:

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