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The J. & P. Coats Co., Pawtucket, R. I., manufacture thread. They have made a wage cut of 10 percent and have increased the machine load. The hours were increased from 40 to 48.
The Paragon Mills, Providence, R. I., manufacture woolens. This company has had a 19.5 percent decrease in wages and an increase in machine load in some departments.
The Crown Worsted Co., Providence, R. I., manufacture worsted. They have increased the hours to 54, but recently they returned them to 40 hours.
The Riverside Mills, Providence, R. I., manufacture woolens. The weavers were forced to weave double cloth. This is an increase over the previous work load equivalent to from 6 to 12 looms.
The Esmond Mills, Esmond, R. I., manufacture cotton blankets. They have increased the hours to 54.
The National & Providence Mill, Providence, R. I., are manufacturers of woolens. They have increased the work load from four to six looms.
The Wanskuck Manufacturing Co. in Rhode Island manufacture worsteds. There was a wage reduction there in some departments. Sewers in the finishing department have been reduced approximately 25 percent.
The Berkshire Fine Spinning Co., at Warren, R. I., manufacture fine cotton goods. They have reduced wages 30 percent with an increase in machine load from 10 to 40 percent.
The Glenark Mill, Woonsocket, R. I., manufacture woolen and worsted goods. The finishing department workers were forced to work over 40 hours, but the number of hours that they were employed was not marked on their check, so the record does not show that they have been working over 40 hours. This is one of the Uxbridge mills.
Supplementing my previous statement, I desire to submit the following information which gives the names of the mills who have reduced wages and increased the work load and lengthened the working hours. The mills to which I have referred and which will now follow are in the States of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire. These reductions of wages applied by such a large number of mills surely does not help the limited purchasing power at the present time.
The increase in the work load adds to the millions that are already unemployed. The same is true of the increase in working hours.
The fundamental benefits which the United Textile Workers of America see in the National Textile Act are in that it would do just the opposite of what the manufacturers are practicing at present. It would increase wages and add to the purchasing power of the millions of workers employed in the industry, it would insure a limit of working hours to the basic rate of 35 hours per week per shift and would also have a tendency to lead toward a reduction in the work load. All of these combined would restore to employment a large number of unemployed textile workers.
In the State of Massachusetts there are the following mills to which I referred:
The Berkshire Fine Spinning Co., Fall River, Mass., manufacture cotton. They reduced wages from 7 to 30 percent and they are operating 472 automatic looms. They are running three shifts.
The Pepperell Manufacturing Co., Fall River, Mass., are manufacturers of cotton and rayon. They have reduced wages about 10 percent in the rayon division.
The Star Silk Mills, of Fall River, Mass., manufacture silk and rayon. They operate a single shift of 48 hours.
The Maverick Mill, East Boston, Mass., manufacture cotton and rayon. They have reduced wages on two different occasions since the N. R. A. was declared to be unconstitutional. They operate two shifts of 48 hours.
The Malden Finishing Co., at Malden, Mass., are manufacturers of woolens and worsteds. This company has increased the working hours for women from 40 to 45 hours, and for men from 40 to 50 hours, and they are paying the same wages weekly that the workers received for 40 hours.
The Duck Manufacturing Co., of Lawrence, Mass., manufacture cotton fabrics. They have increased the working hours in every department, ranging from 46, 48, 60, and 70 hours weekly, with a wholesale wage reduction that brought the low-paid workers down to a level of $5 and $6 a week.
The Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass., manufacture woolens, worsteds, rayon, and print cloth. In their worsted department they have dropped the minimum wage to $13. The menders and burlers are supposed to work 48 hours instead of 40 hours.
In their rayon department the weavers' work load has been increased from 12 to 20 looms, and without any additional wage.
The Seldon Worsted Co., Methuen, Mass., are manufacturers of worsteds. The menders and burlers are being forced to work 48 hours per week.
Cohen & Sons, Manchaug, Mass., have a rag mill. Their working hours have been increased to 48 hours. The wages have been cut below the minimum wage.
The Norfolk Co., West Medway, Mass., manufacture woolens. They have reduced the wages and increased the working hours to 48.
Schuster & Hayward Co., Manchaug, Mass., have a waste mill. They operate 48 hours, and they are paying less than the minimum wage.
The American Woolen Co., Webster, Mass., manufacture woolens. This mill is constantly increasing the work load. Not a month goes by but that some department is picked for an efficiency survey, and then the workers are forced to take an additional machine or two with a bonus of a few cents a week.
In the dye house, 5 men are now doing what 11 men previously did. Wages have been reduced, and the work load has been increased.
The Salter Mills, Webster, Mass., manufacture rayon cloth. The work load has been doubled in some instances. Cloth previously woven on 8 looms by one weaver is now woven on 15.
The David N. Taft Co., Oxford, Mass., manufactures woolens. They do not observe the 40-hour week. Many workers are called on to work 48 and, many times, 54 hours.
The Cummings Manufacturing Co., Cummingsville, Mass., are manufacturers of woolens. They do not observe the 40-hour work week. They insist that employees must work anywhere from 48 to 60 hours, at times.
The Leicester Knitting Co., Rochdale, Mass., manufacture fullfashioned hosiery: The prevailing wages are from $8 to $10 per week, and the working hours from 54 to 80 hours per week.
William Wright & Sons, West Warren, Mass., manufacture bias tape. They are paying their workers as low as $10 per week.
The Warren Fabrics Co., West Warren, Mass., are manufacturers or knitters of outerwear. They are paying their workers as low as $10 a week.
The Fitchburg Yarn Co., Fitchburg, Mass., manufacture cotton yarn.
wages are as low as $7 and $8 per week. The President Suspender Co., Shirley, Mass., manufacture elastic webbing. Their wages are down as low as $8 per week.
The Samson Cordage Co., Shirley, Mass., manufacture cordage. Their prevailing wages are from $8 to $9 and their working hours from 40 to 48.
The Warren Woolen Co., Warren, Mass., are manufacturers of woolens. The workers are forced to work over the 40-hour period weekly. No extra compensation is paid for the extra work. The workers are threatened with the loss of their jobs if they do not work overtime at the request of the company.
The Coe Woolen Co., Worcester, Mass., manufacture woolens. The machine load was increased and the workers forced to work more than 40 hours.
The Uxbridge Worsted Co., as well as the American Woolen Co., is installing the Bedaux system, or a similar plan, as fast as they can. By paying small bonuses and putting a premium on every last ounce of energy the work has to draw on, they succeed in getting some workers not only to double but triple their ordinary speed of work, resulting not only in throwing people on the street and burning out those who remain at work, but also in demoralization of the industry.
The Newmarket Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass., manufacture rayon. The weavers' work load has been increased from 8 to 15 looms, without any increase in wages. The loom-fixers' work load has been increased on a certain loom 20 percent. On what is known as the high-speed loom it has been increased 9 percent. This company has applied the stretchout system all through its mill since the termination of the N. R. A.
The United Elastic Webbing Co., Lowell, Mass., manufacture elastic webbing. They have increased the machine load on rubber covering from one to two machines, an increase of 100 percent, without any increase in the wages of the workers that remain on the job.
The Beaver Brook Mill, Dracut, Mass., which is a branch of the American Woolen Co., manufacture woolens. This company is discontinuing mule spinning and putting in frames instead. The mules were operated by men receiving approximately $30 a week for 40 hours. The frames are operated by women who receive the sum of $14. In the weaving department, this company has installed highspeed looms, and in addition to this increased the work load per weaver from four to six, and, in some cases, eight looms.
The United States Bunting Co., Lowell, Mass., is one of the chain of Stevens mills. They manufacture woolens. They have installed the high-speed warp dressing machines whereby one dresser and the girl attending on the back of the machine automatically take the place of four dressers. While this is not an unlawful act on the part of this company, if this condition is allowed to continue, there will not be anybody working in the mill after a wbile outside of the fellow that turns the switch on and off to start the mill. But the questio 1 is: Who is going to buy this cloth when everybody is out of work? When everybody's purchasing power is shut off, what is going to happen in the United States?
The Merrimac Woolen Co., Dracut, Mass., manufactures woolens. They reduced the wages of the spoolers 25 percent.
The Suffolk Knitting Co., Lowell, Mass., are manufacturers of knitted goods. Their minimum wage is down as low as $9 per week. When the code of fair competition went out of existence because the N. R. A. had been declared unconstitutional, the officials of this company said this was a mighty good thing for the employer and proceeded to slash the wages of the workers.
The Naumkeag Steam Cotton Co., Salem, Mass., manufacture cotton goods, sheets and pillow cases. They have reduced wages ranging from 11 to 18 percent.
I will now refer to the State of Maine.
The Lockwood Manufacturing Co., Waterville, Maine, manufacture cotton goods, sheets and pillow cases. This company reduced the wages in all departments of the mill. They have also increased the machine load and increased the working hours to 54.
The Old Town Woolen Co., with mills in Guilford and Old Town, Maine, manufacture woolens. They have reduced the wages below the minimum of $14 and are operating many of their departments on the basis of 54 hours.
The Daniel Cummings Co., Newport, Maine, are manufacturers of woolens. It is working some of the workers 60, 70, and we have known some of the workers to work as long as 100 hours in a week, since the N. R. A. has been declared unconstitutional. Even with those long hours, wages are below the minimum in many cases.
The Winthrop Woolen Co., Winthrop, Maine, manufacture automobile cloth and woolen shirting. They operate 54 hours in many departments.
The Wilton Woolen Co., Wilton, Maine, manufacture automobile cloth and woolen clothing. They operate the finishing department on 54 hours.
The Lancey-Millikan Co., Pittsfield, Maine, are manufacturers of woolens, and they are operating over 40 hours. Reports show they work 54 hours.
The Amos Abbott Co., Dexter, Maine, manufacture woolen goods. They are operating 54-hour shifts in most departments.
The Dumbarton Woolen Co., Dexter, Maine, manufacture woolen goods. They are operating 54-hour shifts in many departments.
The Bates Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Maine, manufacture cotton and rayon cloth and bedspreads. They are operating many departments on the 54-hour basis. Stretch-out is practiced from the picker room to the finishing room. Wages have been reduced to the form of a so-called adjustment.
The Hills Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Maine, manufacture cotton goods. They are operating 54-hour shifts in many departments. Wages have been reduced in the form of a so-called adjustment. Where wages have not been reduced the workers have been given a larger work load to carry.
The Androscoggin Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Maine, manufacture cotton and rayon. They operate some departments on a 54-hour shift. Wage reductions have been put into effect, or, where the wages of the workers have not been reduced, the work load has been increased.
The Libby Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Maine, manufacture blankets. They are operating 54-hour shifts in some of the departments, principally the finishing.
The Cowan Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Maine, are manufacturers of woolens, and they are operating certain departments, principally finishing, 54 hours.
In the State of New Hampshire there are the following:
The Elm Mills corporation, Tilton, N. H., controlled by the Goldstein interests, manufacture cheap woolens. This mill is paying workers as low as $8 per week for 40 hours.
The Cocheco Mill, East Rochester, N. H., manufactures woolens.
This company reduced wages of their workers to the extent of 20 percent, with the result that the workers went out on strike, and the strike has been in existence since. This mill is controlled by the Rindge interests. Fulton Rindge is the treasurer, and they are well known in New England for their ability to exploit their workers.
The Gonic Mill, Gonic, N. H., manufactures woolens.
This mill is also controlled by the same interests that control the Cocheco Mill. The stretch-out system is very prevalent, especially in the weaving department of their mill, where the work load of the weavers has been increased from four to six looms.
The Troy Blanket Mills, Troy, N. H., manufactures woolen blankets.
The New Hampshire Valley Mill, Marlboro, N. H., are manufacturers of woolen goods.
The L. M. Packard Mills, Ashland, N. H., manufacture woolen goods.
Mr. KELLER. I am going to suggest that when you make these statements as to the percentage of wage reductions and increases of load that you show what the real effect is of the wage reduction. For instance, if you double the amount of work you cut the wages in two.
Mr. RIVIERE. Not only where you double the amount of work do you cut the wages in two, Mr. Chairman, but you do it otherwise.
Mr. Wood. I think all of that should go into the record, Mr. Chairman. And I hope the gentleman will compile a brief of all of this information in all of those States where they have increased the load and decreased the wages.
Mr. RIVIERE. Where they double the load and in addition reduce the wages it does not mean only that the wage of one person has been reduced; it means that, in addition, one fellow is walking the street who formerly worked there. That is exactly what it means.
Of course, it may be contended by some that wages have not been reduced. But I have here a letter that was sent out to the manufacturers by Mr. Van Horn, and this letter admits many things, and among them he admits wage reductions in the silk industry. This has been given to me by a kind employer who received the letter. He says that he does not agree with wage reductions and if this can be