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Copyright, 1883.

Errata and Explanations.

Chapter I, page 25, "My Contemporaries," was written by the author at various times during his professional life, and contains his opinions and estimates of the men at the time he wrote.

Page 4, 11th line, after Nathaniel Green Foster, read "the Madison District."

Page 53, 10th line, "James I. Gresham" should be "John J. Gresham."

Page 52, 16th line, " Barney" should be "Burney." Page 53, 4th line from bottom, "H. S. M' Kay" should be "H. K. McCay."

Page 115, 11th line, "correction" should be "conviction."

Page 156, 20th line, the year" 1875" should be " 1785." Page 283, 7th line from bottom, after words "habeas corpus," insert "generally throughout the realm."

Page 432, 3d line from bottom, "John Pope" should be "Meade."

Page 456, 11th line from bottom, "Garrett" should be "Garnett."

INTRODUCTION.

DESCRIPTION OF GEORGIA IN 1880.

This State, in extent of area, geological formation, and diversity of mineral resources; in abundance and variety of timber; in water and water-power; diversity and fertility of soil; capabilities of immense and varied vegetable productions; in climate, adapted to the comfort and health of a multitudinous population; in adaptation to manufactures, to rail, river, canal, and ocean carriage and transportation; its facilities for the growth as well as maintenance of a numerous, powerful, great, and happy population,-in everything except the present possession of enough of people and money, and aside from all political considerations, is an empire within itself.

If she were a separate body, standing on two pillars of land and water, the Atlantic coast and the "Land of Flowers" indicative of her varied capabilities, we could easily point out, to the enquiring beholder, the peculiar facilities of the belts that form the surface from base to summit.

At the broad bottom, we have her level low lands, where the accumulated columns of her rivers move slowly to the Gulf and Ocean, and where their tributaries are skirted with green hammocks and dark loam, the region dotted with open ponds, and those of deposit and thick growth, the main picture being the green carpet, with its floral decorations, perfumed by fragrant odors. This

level belt has its inexhaustible wealth of timber, abounds with self-sustaining cattle, sheep and hogs. The people are plain, frugally clad, honest, hospitable and brave, producing support with but little labor and exertion. It would be difficult to draw a statistical account of the capabilities of this belt alone, if it were only settled by a population sufficiently dense, permeated by railroads, and spotted over with diversified manufactoriesits cotton, wool, and silk; its cane and melons; its grapes and cereals; its peas, roots, timber, and oils; its animals of burden and food; its vegetable and medicinal productions, and the magnificence of its floral beauty.

Higher up, the broad belt occupied, before their emancipation, in great part by slaves, and their owners and managers, and since by a population which in some districts is composed of a majority of colored free people. This is the region that, from its early settlement, was in great part devoted to the growth of cotton; and from which, annually, has been brought to market so much of that leading staple which has swelled the aggregate exportable value of American products. But, withal, a vast region not surpassed in the aggregate by any of equal extent in natural fertility and adaptation to the majority of agricultural and horticultural products that are needed for the necessary use, the comfort, and even luxury of mankind.

Higher still, we have the belt of middle Georgia, a general term that describes a section in some parts level, in others broken and undulating, vast in extent, diversified in soil, and of capabilities that are immense. Here are numerous springs, rills, rivulets, branches, and creeks. The rivers flow rapidly over granite and pebbly beds, leaping from higher to lower surface, as if to supply

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