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Article 8

Law enforcement officials shall respect the law and the present Code. They shall also, to the best of their capability, prevent and rigorously oppose any violations of them.

Law enforcement officials who have reason to believe that a violation of the present Code has occurred or is about to occur shall report the matter to their superior authorities and, where necessary, to other appropriate authorities or organs vested with reviewing or remedial power.

Commentary:

(a) This Code shall be observed whenever it has been incorporated into national legislation or practice. If legislation or practice contains stricter provisions than those of the present Code, those stricter provisions shall be observed.

(b) The article seeks to preserve the balance between the need for internal discipline of the agency on which public safety is largely dependent, on the one hand, and the need for dealing with violations of basic human rights, on the other. Law enforcement officials shall report violations within the chain of command and take other lawful action outside the chain of command only when no other remedies are available or effective. It is understood that law enforcement officials shall not suffer administrative or other penalties because they have reported that a violation of this Code has occurred or is about to

occur.

(c) The term 'appropriate authorities or organs vested with reviewing or remedial power" refers to any authority or organ existing under national law, whether internal to the law enforcement agency or independent thereof, with statutory, customary or other power to review grievances and complaints arising out of violations within the purview of this Code.

(a) In some countries, the mass media may be regarded as performing complaint review functions similar to those described in subparagraph (c) above. Law enforcement officials may, therefore, te justified if, as a last resort and in accordance with the laws and customs of their own countries and with the provisions of article 4 of the present Code, they bring violations to the attention of public opinion through the mass media.

(e) Law enforcement officials who comply with the provisions of this Code deserve the respect, the full support and the co-operation of the community and of the law enforcement agency in which they serve, as well as the law enforcement profession.

APPENDIX 3

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly
37/194 (18 Dec. 1982)

Principles of Medical Ethics

Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

The General Assembly,

Recalling the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 3452 (XXX) of 9 December 1975,

Bearing in mind article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 2/

Recalling further its resolutions 32/62 of 8 December 1977, in which it requested the Commission on Human Rights to draw up a draft convention on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in the light of the principles embodied in the Declaration, and 32/63 of 8 December 1977,

Recalling that, in its resolution 11 of 5 September 1980, the Sixth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders expressed the belief that the draft convention should be finalized at the earliest possible time,

Considering that it was not found possible to complete the work on the draft convention during the thirty-eighth session of the Commission on Human Rights,

1. Welcomes Economic and Social Council resolution 1982/38 of 7 May 1982, by which the Council authorized a meeting of an open-ended working group of the Commission on Human Rights for a period of one week prior to the thirty-ninth session of the Commission to complete the work on a draft convention;

2.

Requests the Commission on Human Rights to complete as a matter of highest priority, at its thirty-ninth session, the drafting of a convention on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, with a view to submitting a draft, including provisions for the effective implementation of the future convention, to the General Assembly at its thirty-eighth session;

3. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its thirty-eighth session the item entitled "Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment".

The General Assembly,

Principles of Medical Ethics

Recalling its resolution 31/85 of 13 December 1976, in which it invited the World Health Organization to prepare a draft Code of Medical Ethics relevant to the protection of persons subjected to any form of detention or imprisonment against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,

2/ Resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.

Expressing once again its appreciation to the Executive Board of the World Health Organization which, as its sixty-third session in January 1979, decided, to endorse the principles set forth in a report entitled "Development of codes of medical ethics" containing, in an annex, a draft body of principles prepared by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and entitled "Principles of medical ethics relevant to the role of health personnel in the protection of persons against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment",

Bearing in mind Economic and Social Council resolution 1981/27 of 6 May 1981, in which the Council recommended that the General Assembly should take measures to finalize the draft Principles of Medical Ethics at its thirty-sixth session,

Recalling its resolution 36/61 of 25 November 1981, in which it decided to consider the draft Principles of Medical Ethics at its thirty-seventh session with a view to adopting them,

Alarmed that not infrequently members of the medical profession or other health personnel are engaged in activities which are difficult to reconcile with medical ethics,

Recognizing that throughout the world significant medical activities are increasingly being performed by health personnel not licensed or trained as physicians, such as physician-assistants, paramedics, physical therapists and nurse practitioners,

Taking note with appreciation of the "Guidelines for Medical Doctors concerning Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in relation to Detention and Imprisonment", as adopted by the twenty-ninth World Medical Assembly, held in Tokyo in October 1975,

Noting that in accordance with the Declaration of Tokyo measures should be taken by States and by professional associations and other bodies, as appropriate, against any attempt to subject health personnel or members of their families to threats or reprisals resulting from a refusal by such personnel to condone the use of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment,

Reaffirming the Declaration on the Protection of all Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as unanimously adopted in its resolution 3452 (XXX) of 9 December 1975, in which it declared any act of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment an offence to human dignity, a denial of the purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and a violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

Recalling that, in accordance with article 7 of the Declaration adopted under resolution 3452 (XXX), each State shall ensure that the commission of all acts of torture, as defined in article 1 of that Declaration, or participation in, complicity in, incitement to and attempt to commit torture, are offences under its criminal law,

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Convinced that under no circumstances a person shall be punished for carrying out medical activities compatible with medical ethics regardless of the person benefiting therefrom, or shall be compelled to perform acts or to carry out work in contravention of medical ethics, but that at the same time, contravention of medical ethics for which health personnel, particularly physicians, can be held responsible should entail accountability,

Desirous to set further standards in this field which ought to be implemented by health personnel, particularly physicians, and by Government officials:

1. Adopts the "Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the role of health personnel, particularly physicians, in the protection of prisoners and detainees against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment c: punishment" annexed to the present resolutions;

2. Calls upon all Governments to give the Principles of Medical Ethics, together with the present resolution, the widest possible distribution, in particular among medical and paramedical associations, and institutions of detention or imprisonment in an official language of the State;

3. Invites all relevant intergovernmental organizations, in particular the World Health Organization, and non-governmental organizations concerned to bring the Principles of Medical Ethics to the attention of the widest possible group of individuals, especially those active in the medical and paramedical field;

ANNEX

Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the role of health
personnel, particularly physicians, in the protection of
prisoners and detainees against torture, and other cruel,
inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

Principle

Health personnel, particularly physicians, charged with the medical care of prisoners and detainees, have a duty to provide them with protection of their physical and mental health and treatment of disease of the same quality and standard as is afforded to those who are not imprisoned or detained.

Principle 2

It is a gross contravention of medical ethics, as well as an offence under applicable international instruments, for health personnel, particularly physicians, to engage, actively or passively, in acts which constitute

participation in, complicity in, incitement to or attempts to commit torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 3/

Principle 3

It is a contravention of medical ethics for health personnel, particularly physicians, to be involved in any professional relationship with prisoners or detainees the purpose of which is not solely to evaluate, protect or improve their physical and mental health.

Principle 4

It is a contravention of medical ethics for health personnel, particularly physicians:

(a) To apply their knowledge and skills in order to assist in the interrogation of prisoners and detainees in a manner that may adversely affect the

3/ See General Assembly resolution 3452 (XXX): Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Article 1 of the Declaration states:

"1. For the purpose of this Declaration, torture means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted by or at the instigation of a public official on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or confession, punishing him for an act he has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating him or other persons. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions to the extent consistent with the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

"2.

Torture constitutes an aggravated and deliberate form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.'

Article 7 of the Declaration states:

"Each State shall ensure that all acts of torture as defined in article 1 are offences under its criminal law. The same shall apply in regard to acts which constitute participation in, complicity in, incitement to or an attempt to commit torture."

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