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Select Collections of Voyages and Travels. Dampier's Collection, 4 vols. 8vo. Harris' Collection, 2 wol fol. Mavor's Voyages and Travels, 28 vols. 18mo. from the discovery of America to the time of Lord Valentia ; -any volume of which may be had separately. Collection of Modern and Contemporary Voy. ages and Travelsga 1: vols, dyo, Pinkertog's General Collection of Voyages and Travels, 4to..will be the most, extensiye, when com. pleted.
Select Voyages to the South Pole and round the World. * Hawkesworth's Account of Voyages in the Southern Hemisphere, twith Cook's Voyages, and Parkinson's Journal, 10 vols. 4to. lor
Kippis' Life of Cook, 4to. an ahstract of the Voyages, and Burney's History of Discoveries in the Soyth Seas, 2 vols, 4to. Cook's Voy.' ages, 7 vols. 18mo, pripted verbatim from the 4to, edition, or abriąged by Mavor, 2 vols. Bligh's Voyage, 4to. Dixon's Voyage, 4to. Perouse's Voyage, 3 vols. 8vo. Vancouver's, 6 vols. 8yo. Missionary Yoyage, 4to.
CHAP. III.EUROPE. EUROPE is the smallest of the three divisions of the
old world; but it, is, the most populous, and opulent, as well as the most flourishing, in consequence of the genius hand industry of, its inhabitants. From the Portugueze
Cape (styled by our mariners the rock of Lisbon) in the -- West, to the Uralian Mountains in the east, it is about 3,300
British miles in length: and, from Cape Nord, (in Danish - Lapland), to Cape Matapan (the southern extremity of Greece,) its breadth may be about 2,350 miles. It is estimated by Mr. Pinkerton to contain about 2,500,000 square miles.
Boundaries.] On the north, Europe is bounded by the Frozen Ocean ;.,on the west, by the Atlantic Oceau; on the south, by the Mediterranean Sea; on the east by the continent of Asia.
Divisions.] Europe is divided into several, kingdoms and states, which may be thus arranged.
I. NORTHERN STATES. Russia, Sweden, Norway and Denmark.
II. CENTRAL STATES. Prussia, Poland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, France, Switzerland, Belgium, or the
United Provinces (as they were formerly called ';)" b
which, together with the Netherlands are now united * France ;' and the British Islands.
III. SOUTHERN STATES. Spain, Portugal, Italy, an Turkey (in Europe.) ..r -- Mountdins.] The principal mountains of Europe ar
the Krapac,' or Carpathian mountains between Poland an Hungary; the Alps, which separate France, Switzerland and Italy; the Appennines in Italy; the Pyrenees betwee France and Spain; and the extensive chain, called Daara field, or Dofre field, that separates Norway from Sweden
Peninsulas.] In the north are, Sweden and Norway 1, and part of Denmark, called Jutland. In the south, are * Spain and Portugal, Italy, and the Morea (antiently called
Pelopontesus); in the south of Greece: and in the east, the Crimea, which forms part of Little Tartary, : Capes.] The principal Capes of Europe are, Cape North, or the North of Lapland, ---Cape Finisterre, on the * north-west of Spain,--Cape St. Vincent, on the south-west of Portugal,--and Cape Matapan, on the south of the Morea.
Islands.] The principal Islands of Europe are, 40. 1. In the Atlantic Ocean, the British Isles; comprising 3 Great Britain and Ireland, the Western Islands which lie * on the west, and the Orkney Islands, which are situated on the north of Britain. To these may be added Iceland, which lies in the first meridian, and is almost under the polar circle.
2. In the Mediterranean Sea, Ivica, Majorca, and MinorCB, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Candia, and the islands of the 'Archipelagu.
Gulfs and Inland Seas.] In the NORTHERN PARTS of Europe we meet with the Icy Sea or Frozen Ocean, and with the White Sea, which last forms a gulf in the North of Russia; 4 the Baltic Sea between Sweden, 'Denmark, Russia and Prussia ;-the Bay of Biscay between France and Spaiu.
In the NORTH EASTERN PARTS of Europe are the Euxine or Black Sea, and the sea of Azof, between Europe and Asia ; and in the South of Europe the Mediterranean
Sea presents itself, forming numerous gulfs; as, the Gulf * of Venice, or Adriatic Sea, between Italy and Turkey; and
the Archipelago or Grecian Sea between Europe and Asia ; To these may be added the Sea of Marmora, between the Archipelago on the south east, and the Black Sea on the north-west.
Struits.] The principal straits are, the Sound between Denmark and Sweden, at the entrance of the Baltic Sea ;-St. George's Channel, between England and Ireland; the Straits of Dover, between England and France;-the Straits of Gibraltar, between Spain and Africa, at the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea;-the Straits of Sicily or the Faro of Messina, between Sicily and the extremity of Italy; the Strait, or Canal of Constantinople, which forms the communication between the Archipelago and the Sea of Marmora ;-and the Straits of Cattor between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof.
Lakes.] The chief Lakes of Europe are, Onega and Ladoga in Russia ;--the Lake of Geneva between Savoy and Switzerland;-the Lake of Constance, between Switzerland and Germany ;--Lake Maggiore, and some others, in the porth of Italy.
Rivers.] Europe is watered by numerous rivers, of which the following are the most remarkable, viz.
In England, the Thames and the Severn ;-in Scotland, the Tay;-in Ireland, the Shannon ; in France, the Seine, the Loire, the Rhone, and the Garonne ;--in Spain, the Ebro, the Tagus, and the Douro ;-in Portugal, the Guadiapa, and the Guadalquiver ;-in Germany, the Danube, the Rhine, the Oder, the Weser, the Elbe, and the Meuse ; -in Poland, the Vistula ; in Russia, the Volga, the Don, and the Deieper ;-and in Italy, the Tiber, and the Po.
Religion.] The Christian Religion is professed throughout every part of Europe, except in Turkey. It is divided into three principal denominations ; 1. The Greek, which prevails in Greece and Russia; 2. The Latin or Roman Catholic Faith, which is professed in France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Hungary, in many of the German States, and in the low countries or Netherlands. And 3. The Protestant or Reformed Religion, which is divided into Lutheranism and Calvinism, and is thus called from the two celebrated reformers, Martin Luther and John Calvm. The Protestant Religion is the f.revailing Religion in the British Dominions, the northeru parts of Germany, Ilol.
Jayd, Sweden, and Denmark. The Religion of the Turks is
The forms of Government, prevailing in this part of the jworld,
are, 1. Monarchical, in which one person only is vested wih the Sovereign Power. Such are the Governments of France and Russia.
2. In Republics, many persons are joined together in the Government of the State: if, the nobles preponderate, it u becomes au Aristocracy, and the Government is then 1 called Aristocratic. On the contrary, when the authority sis in the hands of the people, it is called a Democracy, and such Government is Democratic. The United Provinces, Switzerland, and Venice, presented instances of the Repub. slican form of Government before they were destroyed by 5the insatiable ambition of the Desolator of Europe.
3. Where the Sovereign power is counterbalanced by that of the laws and by the assembly of the States, it then becomes a mixed Government ;- such is the mild and equitable Government, by which Britain is ruled.
Select Voyages and Travels in Europe. 3. 1. Sweden, Denmark, Germany, 8c. Coxe's Travels in Russia,
Sweden, and Denmark, 5 vols. 8vo. Acerbis Travels in Sweden, Denmark, &c. 2 vols, 4to. Phipps?:Voyage to the North Pole, 4to. "Radcliffe's Tour through Germany and Holland, 4to. Townson's Tra: vels in Hungary, 4to. Landt's Feroe Islands, 8vo. Von Troil's Letters on Iceland, 8vo. Hooker's Iceland, 8vo. Mackenzie's Iceland, 4to.
%. The Netherlands, France, Switzerland, and Italy. Smithy's Tour on the Continent, 3 vols. 8vo. Moore's View of Society in France, Switzerland, &c. 4, vols. 8vo. Young's Tour in France, 4to. Gif
ford's Residence in France, 2 vols. 8vo. Forbes' Letters from • France, 2 vols. 810. Coxe's Travels in Switzerland, 3 vols. 8vo.
Addison's Remarks on Italy, 8vo. Barthelemy's Travels in Italy, 8vo. Aufrere's Travels, 8vo. Martyn's Tour in Italy, 8yo. Swinburne's Travels in the Sicilies, 4 vols. 8vo. Spallanzani's, 4 vols. 8vo." Galt's Travels in Sicily, &c. 4to.
3. Spain and Portugal. Townsend's Spain, 3 vols. 8vo. Swinburne's, 2 vols. 8vo. Bourgoing's, 4 vols. 8vo. or abridged by Ma. i vor in one volume. Semple's Two Journies in Spain, 3 vols. 12mo.
Jacob's Travels in Spain, 4to. Murphy's Travels in Portugal, 4to.
Tor Greece, &c. and the Russian Empire, &c." See the end tof next éhapter.
CHAP. IV.-ASIA. NEXT to America, Asia, is the largestjof the founidivisions of the world, its length, from the Hellespoutnto what is called the East Cape, is stated by Mr. Pinkerton
to be about 6500 geographical miles, wbich are equivalent #o, about 7583 English statute miles. The breadth, from the southern Cape of Malacea to Cape Ceyero Vestoobmoi on the Arctic Ocean, is about 4500 geographical,-on 6250 English smiles.
Beundaries..Qur.the snorth, Asia, is bounded by the Arctic- er Frozen Ocean ;, on the saith by the Indian Ocean ; po the west by Europe, (from which it is separated by the Uralian Mountains, and the little river Karposka) Fby the Black Sea, the Archipelago, the Mediterranean Sea, the istuusef Suez, and by the red Sea, and on the i east by Beriugs Strait which divides it from America, and by the North Pacific Ocean.
Mountains.] The principalchaįuis of Asiatic Mountains, beside the Uralian Chain, already mentioned, are sdhose.. of Armenia in the west (among a which Mount Ararat is particularly.distinguished ;)-The Mountains of Tihet in the north-east of India ; the eastern and western Gants of Hindustan, and the celebrated Causasian Chain between the Black or Euxine and the Caspiar Seas.
Cepes.] The principal Capes of hAsiqare, Cape Ras alHhad (usually called Rastal-gat), to the south-east of Arabia : Cape Comorin, on the south of the western peninsula of India, Cape Romaine, on the south of the peuiusala of Malaeea; and Cape Cevero:Vostochnoi, in the north kafeAsia, projecting into the Arctic or Frezen Ocean.
Seas:] The chief of these, beside those which have already been noticed among the boundaries of Asia, are, the Caspian Sea in the west, near the Euxine or Black Sea, the Sea or Lake Aral, about 100 miles to the east of the Caspian, and that called Baikal in Siberia or Asiatic Russia.
Islands.] In the Mediterranean Sea, Cyprus and Rhodes are the most conspicuous of the Islands wbieh are elas sed with Asia ; the Islands' of Sunda or the Sumatrar Chain, comprising Sumatra, Java, Balli, Lombok, Sumbava, Flórez, and Timor, with several other islands of spferior