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the mortar, with which it dries, and is sometimes as durable as the stucco itself.
Glass. Painting on glass is performed by staining it in a somewhat similar way to enamel painting, or by using opaque colours. The art was revived in our own country during the eighteenth century, and brought by British artists to as great, if net greater perfection, than it had ever before obtained. In effecting this revival, the celebrated Jervas was much distinguished. The finest specimens of bis talents in painting on glass, are some copies from West, in the windows of St. George's Chapel at Windsor: and from Reynolds, at New College Chapel, Oxford.
Miniature Puinting is of very ancient date, and is practised either on vellum or ivory; the colours are prepared with water, or gum. It is of all others the most delicate and tedious in its process, being performed wholly with the point of the pencil. It is only fitted for works of a small size, and must be viewed near.
Mosaic Painting. Mosaic work imitates painting by small pieces of glass, marble, precious stones, &c. of various colours, cemented on a ground of stucco, or mortar, and is generally employed in copying original pictures of the highest value. There are two sorts of Mosaic work. 1. Of marble. This is used in large works, as in pavements of churches and palaces, and in the incrustation and veneering of the walls of edifices of the same kind. 2. Of precious stones, is only used in small works, as ornaments for altar-pieces, tables for cabinets, &c. Pieces of Mosaic work, performed with exactness, appear as smooth as a table of marble, and as finished and masterly as a painting in fresco, with this advantage, that they have a fine lustre, and will last for ages. When St. Paul's Cathedral was building, Sir Christopher Wren proposed that the interior of the dome should be ornamented in this splendid and durable manner; and had actually engaged artists from Italy for that purpose. Paintings of the apostles were, however, preferred ; and the wasted fragments now remaining are a melancholy memento of the obstinacy and the ignorance of those times, which refused to an architect of the first celebrity, the only durable method of appropriately ornamenting the first building in the world.
Oil-Painting is preferable to all other methods, as it
adınits of a perfect gradation of tints in the most durable of all materials, except those of Mosaic painting, which, if well prepared, the monuments of the art may descend to the most remote ages.
Water-Colours. Painting in water-colours is more properly called limning; it is performed with colours mixed with water, gum, size, paste, &c. on paper, silk, and other materials.
Imitation of Pictures in Needle-work. This art has, within a few years, surpassed the most renowned productions of former ages.
The needle in the bands of Miss Linwood has become a formidable rival of the pencil ;the pieces she has wrought far transcend all preceding attempts, both in number and excellence. No less praise is due to. Miss Thomson, for her matchless exhibition of paintings in wool. See also the article Paints and Colours.
Select Books on Painting. Fuseli on Painting and Sculpture. Sir Joshua Reynolds' Discourses to the Royal Academy, inserted in bis works, 3 vols. 8vo. Fresnoy's Art of Painting, translated by Mr. Mason, with Sir Joshua Reynolds' notes, in the same collection. Opie's Lectures on Painting, 410. Leonardi da Vinci on Painting, translated by Rigaud, 8vo.
Gilpin on the Picturesque, 8vo., and Foresi Scenery, 2 vols., sro. Price on the Picturesque, 3 vols., 8vo. Bell's Anatomy of Expression in Painting, 4to. Dayes' Works, 4to. Shee's Rhymes on Art and Elements of Art, 8vo. Pilkington's Dictionary of Painters, 4to. Dictionary of Sculptors, Painters, and Engravers, 18mo. Hassell's Life of Morland, 410.
SECT. I.-ANCIENT SCULPTURE.
we have 'every reason to believe, was practised before the Deluge; it is, therefore, an art of the highest antiquity. Sculpture, no doubt, had its origin from idolatry. The first intimation that we have of the art is in the book of Genesis, where we are informed, that when Jacob, by the divine coinmand, was returning to Canaan, his wife Rachel carried along with her the teran
phim, or idols of her father. These, we are assured, were small, since Rachel found it so easy to conceal them from her father. We are ignorant, however, how these images were made, or of what materials they were composed. The first person mentioned as an artist of eminence is Bazaleel, who performed the cherubim, which covered the mercy-seat.
1. From Egypt the Israelites carried with them a religious veneration for certain animals. This veneration appeared soon after they marched into the wilderness, when, in the absence of Moses, they called upon Aaron, to make them gods which should go before them. The Israelites having made the molten calf of gold, next proceeded to hold a festival, which was accompanied with dancing. In the time of Jeroboam, we read of the golden calves set up as objects of worship at Bethel and Dan.
II. Egyptian Sculpture. 1. Sculpture was early cultivated among the Egyptians, but many causes obstructed its progress. The persons of the Egyptians were not possessed either of elegance or symmetry, or of any of the graces of form, and of consequence had no perfect standard, by which they could model their taste; and they were prevented by their laws from introducing any innovations, which might militate against the principles and the practice of their ancestors. Their statues were always formed in the same stiff attitude, with the arms hanging perpendicularly down the sides.
2. The Egyptian statues were formed by the chisel, and polished with great care. As they are generally executed in grunite, or basaltes, stones of the hardest texture, we cannot sufficiently admire the excessive labour, and the indefatigable perseverance of the artist. The eye was often of different materials from the rest of the statue ; and not unfrequently composed of a precious stone, or metal. The largest and most beautiful diamond hitherto known, which was in the possession of the late Empress of Russia, formed one of the eyes of a famous statue deposited in the temple of Brama. The Egyptian statues still remaining, are composed of wood, or baked earth ; and the latter are cased în green enamel.
III. Phenician Sculpiure. The character and situation of the Phenicians were extremely favourable to the culti
vation of statuary. They possessed beautiful models in their own persons, and their industrious character qualified them to attain perfection in almost every art. Their temples shone with statues and columns of gold, and a profusion of emeralds was every where scattered. The great works of the Phenicians, however, have been unfortunately destroyed.
IV. Persiun Sculpture. As it was not customary to raise statues to great men, in Persia, statuary could not flourish. The dress of the Persians, which consisted of long flowing robes, concealing the whole person, prevented them from attending to the beauties of sculpture. Their religion presented another obstacle to their improvement in the art, and took away those motives which alone could give it dignity and value. They were taught to worship the Divinity in the emblem of fire, and that it was impious to represent him under a human form.
V. Etrurian Sculpture. In the Etrurian statues, the lines are straight, the attitude stiff, and no idea of beauty appears in the forination of the head. It very much resembles the Egyptian style. It is not to be supposed that a people of such rude manners as the ancient Etrurians, could communicate to their works. that vividness and beauty which the elegance of Grecian manners inspired. Yet there are many of the Tuscan statues which bear so close a resemblance to those of Greece, that it is very probable they were conveyed from that country, or Magna Græcia, into Etruria, about the time of the Roman conquest, when Italy was adorned with the spoils of Greece.
VI. Grecian Sculpture. 1. The first representations of the gods of Greece were round stones, placed upon cubes or pillars, and these stones were afterwards roughly formed, so as to give them the appearance of a head. These representations were called Hermes, from word which signified a stone. The great superiority of the Greeks in the art of sculpture inay be ascribed to various
The serene air and the happy climate of Greece, contributed more than any other country to unfold and expand the human body, into all the symmetry of muscular strength, and all the delicacies of female beauty. But their consummate excellence in sculpture may be accounted for chiefly from their having the human figure often
before their eyes, quite naked, and in all its various attitudes, both in the palæstra or places of exercise, and in their public games. The grandeur of the antique statues is united with a perfect simplicity, because the attitude is not the result of an artificial disposition of the figure, as in the modern academies, but is nature unrestrained. In the statue of the Dying Gladiutor, when we observe the relaxation of the muscles, and the visible failure of strength and life, we cannot doubt that nature was the sculptor's immediate model of imitation. And this nature was in reality superior to what is now seen in the ordinary race of men. The constant practice of gymnastic exercises gave a fine conformation of body, which will be sought for in vain among the vitiated pupiis of modern effeminacy -the artificial children of modern fashion. In addition to these favourable circumstances, the productions of art were estimated and rewarded by the greatest sages in the general'assembly of Greece, and the sculptor who had executed his work with ability and taste, was confident of obtaining immortality.
2. The Grecian sculptors who represented with such success the most perfect beauty of the human forin, were not regardless of the drapery of their statues. They clothed their figures in the most proper habiliments, which they wrought into that shape which was best calculated to give effect to the design. The first material employed in statuary was "clay ; and the ancients, as well as the moderns made works in plaster. The works made of ivory and silver were generally small; sometimes, however, they were of a prodigious size. The colossal Minerva of Phidias, which was composed of these materials, was twentysix cubits high. The quantity of ivory necessary to a colossal statue is beyond conception. M. De Pauw calculates that the statue of Jupiter Olympus, which was fiftyfour feet high, would consume the teeth of 300 elephants.
3. The Greeks generally hewed their marble statues, out of one block, though they sometimes worked the head and arms separately. When the statue had received its perfect figure, they polished it with pumice-stone, and again carefully retouched every part with the chisel. The ancients made statues of basalt and alabaster. When they