« ÎnapoiContinuați »
Apostles, according to the MS. of Beza. This work is in two volumes folio, printed at Cambridge, on the most beautiful paper.
It is at once a splendid ornament to the university press, and an unrivalled specimen of typographic excellence. The practice of fac-simile printing has, for the most part, been confined to manuscripts of small extent and to objects of especial curiosity. See also Foundery, Calico Printing, and Engrwing.
Select Books on Printing. Bowyer and Nichols' Origin of Printing, 8vo. Stower's Printer's Grammar, svo. Ames' Typographical Antiquities, 4to. A new and improved edition of this work is now publishing by the Rev. T. F. Dibdin. Thomas' History of Printing in America, 2 vols, $vo.
CHIAP. III, --DRAWING. DRAWING is a representation of objects on paper, by ineans of chalk, lead, charcoal, crayon, or common ink, or of Indian ink, or water colours. This last mode has of late years been very much improved, and it is at present practised with unprecedented excellence in England. The fundamental part of the art of drawing is a kuowledge of geometry and perspective.
1. The pupil should commence with plain geometrical figures, as squares, arches, circles, ovals, cones, and cyliaders, which will be useful in numerous forms of similar proportions; and having acquired sufficient facility and readia ness in these figures, he must give to every object its due light and shade, according to its concavity or convexity, so as to convey the perfect idea of the elevation or depression, pearness or distance, of every part.
2. The initation of the forms of fruits, with their leaves; of howers, herlis, trees of various kinds, &c.
3. The representation of beasts, birds, fishes; after: which the student may proceed to the imitation of the human figure, beginning with its various parts, as the eye, mouth, hand, foot; then the head, arm, leg, trunk; and lastly, the whole figure, carefully observing its proportions. When he is waster of the naked form, he may proceed to the study of drapery, learning how to clothe a figure, so as to give it every advantage of ornament, without taking from
its air and motion, grace or symmetry. The study of architecture, landscape, and inanimate objects, or still life, is also necessary.
4. By the use of the camera obscuru, any object may be drawn in its outlines, as exact as nature, without any knowledge in the art of drawing. The camera is a machine in which the images of external objects are represented distinctly, and in their genuine colours, either in an inverted or erect situation. A chamber is darkened, one of whose windows looks into a place set with a variety of objects, leaving only one small aperture open in the window shutter. In this aperture, either a plane or convex lens is fitted, or one convex on both sides. At a distance, to be determined by experience, a paper or white cloth is spread on the wall, and on this the images of the desired objects will appear inverted. In this case it is not more difficult to draw or rather copy the objects, though they are reversed, than to draw or copy several things which we see upright on the frames of transparent paper, lawn, or tiffany. To obviate the difficulty of the objects being inverted, let the paper, or what is to receive the objects, be placed against the back of a chair, and let a person look on the several objects represented thereen over it, and this will set them right to the
would have the images appear erect, it may be done by a concave lens, or by receiving the image on a plane speculum inclined to the horizon under an angle of 45 degrees, or by means of two lenses included in a draw-tube instead of one. If the aperture does not exceed the bigness of a pea, the objects will be represented thereon, though there be no lens at all. To render the images clear and distinct, it is necessary that the objects be illuminated by the sun.
5. A portable cimera may be thus constructed. A wooden chest must be provided, in the middle of the top of which a little turret, either round or square, open toward the object, must be raised. Behind this aperture incline a plane mirror to an angle of 45 degrees which will reflect the rays upon a lens convex on both sides, included in a tube. At
* In the Philosophical Transactions for 1812, part ii., p. 370, there is a paper by Dr. Wollaston, on a periscopic camera obscura, which seems to possess some important advantages.
the end of the focus of the lens, a table must be placed, covered with a white paper to receive the image; and lastly, an oblong aperture made to look through. By this machine, the images will be exhibited perfectly like their objects, each clothed in its different colours.
6. Camera lucidu. Dr. W. H. Wollaston has given this name to a portable instrument which he lias lately invented, for drawing in perspective, a description of which may be seen in Dr. O. Gregory's translation of Haüy's Philosophy, vol.ii., p. 387, or in the Repertory of Arts, N°57, N.S. "The following comparison has been made by Dr. Wollaston between this instrument and the camera obscura. The objections to the camera obscura, are, (1.) That it is too large to be carried about with convenience. (u) The camera lucida is as small and portable as can be wislied. (2.) In the camera obscura all objects that are not situated near the centre of view, are more or less distorted. (b) In the camera lucidu there is no distortion, so that every line, even the most remote from the centre of virw, is as straight as those through the centre. (3.) In the camera obscura the field of view does not extend beyood :20", or at most 35', with distinctness. (c) In the camera lucidu as much as 70' or 80° might be included in one view. *
Select Books on Drawing. Kirby's Improvement of Brook Taylor's Perspective, 4to. The Jesuit's Perspective by Chambers, 4to. Ferguson's. Perspective, SVO Malton's Perspective, with the Appendix, fol.
CHAP. IV.--PAINTING. THE art of painting conveys ideas to the mind, by means of a representation of the visible parts of nature.
It is a language, by which, though all things cannot, yet many, at least, may be expressed in a stronger and clearer manner, than can be effected by any other. The component parts of painting are invention, composition, design, expression, chiaro-scuro, and colouring.
* The name of camera lucida was also given by Dr. Hook to a contrivance of his for making the image of any thing appear on a wall in a light room, either by day or night. It is described in the Philos sophical Transactions, vol. iii., No. xxxviii., p. 741, et seq.
SECT. I.-COMPONENT PARTS OF PAINTING.
1. Invention consists in the choice of a subjcct, principally within the scope of the art.--the seizure of the most striking and energetic moment of time for representation—and the discovery and selection of such objects, and such probable incidental circumstances, as, combined together, inay best tend to develope the story, or augment the interest of the piece. The cartoons of Raffaelle at Hampton Court, furnish us with a surprising example of genius and sagacity in this part of the art.
2. Composition. In composition, as far as regards the general distribution of objects, the painter should contrive that the spectator may, at the first sight, be struck with the general character of the subject, or at least may comprehend its principal scope. This effect is most readily produced by placing the most essential figures in the most conspicuous places, if it can be done without violence or impropriety. Besides this distinctness in the general expression of the subject, the beauty of the composition will depend on the variety, connection, and contrast, displayed in the distribution of objects; provided, in like manner, that these are conformable to the nature of the subject.
3. Design. Although this part of the art is, in a certain degree, requisite even in making the first rough sketch, it is not until afterwards that the artist exerts his utmost powers to give that exact proportion, that beauty of contour, and that grace and dignity of action and deportment to his figures, which constitute the perfection of design. The most perfect knowledge of form, however, is not the only branch of painting, termed design. The art of fore-shortening, by which a limb or a figure, although only occupying a diminished space on the canvas, is rendered in appearance of its full length and magnitude, is an equally indispensable object of the artist's attainment.
4. Expression is the distinct exhibition of character in the general object of the work, or of sentiment in the characters or persons represented. The most consummate skill is required in this department of the art, combined
with a thorough knowledge of the passions, and the power of representing, justly, their various effects on the action and countenances of men.
5. Chiuro-scuro consists, (1.) in connecting and combini ing the figures or objects of a composition in such masses
of light and of shade, as are the most pleasing to the eye, and the best calculated for the just developement and display of the subject. (2.) In assigning to each object the colour most corresponding to its respective place in the
general mass or group, and at the same time best harmoInizing with the other colours of the picture. (3.)
(3.) In the judicious introduction of such natural accidents as they are termed ; such as stormy clouds occasioning partial gleams of light, sunshine, rainbows, fire-light, mist, &c. which
may best contribute to strengthen the general effect and character of the work.
6. Colouring. (1.) Strict attention must be given to that infinite variety of hues with which nature distinguishes her forms, agreeably to the degree and mixture of the rays of light which their surfaces reflect. (2.) We must study the distribution, apposition, and accompaniment of various hues or tints, so as to produce the most pleasing effect to the sight. The colourist should consider, that as there are two sorts of objects, the natural or real, and the artificial or painted, so there are also two sorts of colours, the natural, or that which makes all the objects in nature visible to us, and the artificial, or that which, by a judicious mixture of simple colours, imitates those which are natural.
SECT. II.--SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING.
1. Painting is said to have originated with the Egyptians; the Greeks, who learned it from them, carried the art to great perfection, if we can credit the accounts of the excellencies of their painters Appelles and Zeuxis, whose productions have been destroyed by time. The Romans were not without considerable masters in this art, in the later times of the republic, and under the first eenperors : but the successive inundations of those barbarians, who overwhelmed Italy, proved fatal to painting, and almost reduced it to the first elements. It was in Italy, however,