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her own child, has the following regular and beautiful elimax :

Gentlemen, if one man had any-how slain another; if an adversary had killed his opposer; or a womais occasioned the death of her enemy; even these criminals would have been capitally punished by the Cornelian law: but if this guiltless infant, who could make no enemy, had been murdered by its own nurse, what punishments would not - then, the mother, have demanded? With what cries and exclainations would not she have stunned your ears? What shall we say, then, when a'woman, guilty of homicide; a mother, of the murder of her innocent child, hath comprised all those misdeeds in one single crime;—á crime, in its own nature, detestable; in a woman, prodigious; io à niother, incredible; and perpetrated against vne, whose age called for compassion; whose near relation claimed affection, and whose innocence deserved the highest favour.'

6. Inversion, is a branch of ornament, which, by transposing the natural and grainmatical order of words, forms arrangements more agreeable to the ear, than could otherwise be obtained. The placing of the noanivative after the verb, is one of the most easy inversions of which our language is susceptible. The following exemplification is from the fourth book of Milton's Paradise Lost.

Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet

With charm of earliest birds ; pleasant the sun,
"When first on this delightful land he spreads

His orient beams, on herls, tree, fruit, and flower
Glistring with dew; fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers, and sweet the coming on

Of grateful evening mild. The commencement of the Iliad—the Paradise Lost and Thomsou's Autunun, are all examples of inversion.


By a little attention to the following rules, any young person may discover and correct those tones and habits of speaking, which are gross deviations from nature; and which, as far as they prevail, must destroy all propriety and grace of utterance. These few plain directions, will also enable him to acquire a habit of reading or speaking, upon every occasion, in a manner suited to the nature o the subject, and the kind of discourse, or writing, to be delivered; whether it be narrative, didactic, argumenta tive, oratorical, colloquial, descriptive, or pathe fic."

1. Let your articulation be distinct and separate. A good articulation consists in giving a clear and folutterance to the several simple and complex sounds.

The tiature of these sounds, therefore, ought to be well understood; and much pains should be taken to discover and correct those faults in articulation, which, though often ascribed to some defect in the organs of speech, are generally, the consequence of inattention, or bad example.

2. Let your pronunciation be bold and forcible. Au insipid flatness and languor, is almost a universal fault in reading. In order to acquire a forcible manner of pronoumcing your words, accustom yourself while reading, to draw in as much air as your lungs can contain with ease, and to expel it with vehemence, in uttering those sounds which require an emphatical pronunciation. Read aloud in the open air, and with all the exertion you can command.-Preserve your body in an erect attitude while you are speaking.---Let all the consonant sounds be expressed with a full impulse, or percussion of the breath, and a forcible action of the orgrns employed in forming them; and ļet all the vowel sounds have a full and bold utterance.

3. Acquire a compass and variety in the height of your voica. Men, at different ages of life, and in different sitnations, speak in very different keys. The vagrant when he begs; the soldier, when he gives the word of command; the watchman, when he aunounces the hour of the night; the sovereign, when he issues his edict; and the senator, when be harangues, do not differ more in the tones which they use, than in the key in which they speak. Reading and speaking, therefore, in which all the variations of expression, in real life, are copied, must have continual variations in the height of the voice.

4. Pronounce your words with propriety and elegance. If there be any true standard of pronunciation, it inust be sought for among those, who unite the accuracy of learning, with the elegance of polite conversation. An attention to such models, and intercourse with the best society,

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afford an effectual remedy for the peculiarities and vulgarisms of provincial dialects.

5. Pronounce every word consisting of more than one syllable with its proper accent. In the accentuation of words, care should be taken to avoid ali affected deviations from common usage. There is the greater occasion for this precaution, as a rule has been arbitrarily introduced upon this subject, which has no foundation, either in the structure of the English language, or in the principles of harmony; that, in words consisting of more than two svllables, the accent should be thrown as far backward as possible. This rule has occasioned much pedantic, and irregular pronunciation, and has, perhaps, introduced all the uncertainty which attends the accentuation of several English words.

6. la every sentence, distinguish the more significant words, by a natural, forcible, and varied emphasis. This stress or emphasis, serves to unite words, and forin them into sentences. By giving the several parts of a sentence its proper utterance, it dicovers their mutual dependance, and conveys their full import to the mind of the hearer. It is in the power of emphasis, to make long and complex sentences appear intelligible and perspicuous.

7. Acquire a just variety of pause und inflexion. Pauses are not only necessary in order to enable the spenlier to take breath without inconvenience, and thus preserve the command of his voice, but in order to give the heurer a distinct perception of the construction and meaning of each sentence. In executing this part of the office of a speaker, it will by no means be sutricient to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses which ought to be made in speaking. In reading, it may often be proper to make a pause, where the printer has made pone.

8. Accompany the emotions and passions, which your words erpress, by correspondent tones, looks, and gestures. It is an essential part of elocution, to imitate this language of nature, No one can deserve the appellation of a good speaker, much less a complete orator, who does not, to a distinçt articulation, a ready command of voice, and just pronunciation, accent, and emphasis, add, the various expressions of emotions and passion. But in this part of his office, precept can afford him little assistance. To describe in words the particular expression, which belongs to each emotion and passion, is perhaps, wholly impracticable. It will be better to be guided by our feelings, with no other restraint than this special observance; that we o'erstep not the modesty of nature. ni To givé etfect to these slight hints, and render them permanently useful, it will be proper for the person ilia attends to i them, to read aloud, daily by himself; and as often as possible, under the correction of an instructor or friend. He should also frequently recite compositions from memory. This method bas several advantages. It obliges the speaker to dweli upon the ideas which he is to express enables him to discern their particular meaning and force, and gives him a previous knowledge of the several inflexions, emphases, and tones which the words require. By taking off his eye from the book, it in part relieves him from the intuence of the school-boy habit of reading in a key and tone different from that of conversation; and it affords greater scope for expression, in tone, looks, and gestures.


CHAP. V.--POETRY. POETRY is the language of passion, or of enlivened imagination, formed into regular nuinbers. Poetry can boast very high antiquity. The earliest accounts of antient nations have been transmitted by their poets. Moses and Miriam, the two most antient authors on record, coniposed

song in praise of the Almighty, and in commeınoration of his miraculous deliverance of the Hebrews from their oppressors, the Egyptians. In the very beginning of society, there were occasions upon which men met together, at feasts and sacrifices, when music, dance, and song formed the chief entertainment. The meetings of the northern tribes of America were distinguished by music and song. By songs, their religious ceremonies--their martial achievements, were celebrated. In these songs, which character. ise the infancy of all nations, may be traced the origin of poesy. Poets and songs are the first objects that make their appearance in auy nation. Apollo, Orpheus, aud Amphion are said to have been the first tamers of man


kind, among the Greeks. The Goths had their Scalds or poets. The Germans while inhabiting their native woods, their mamiers still savage,-composed and recited verses, and hymns, The first inhabitants of Scandinavia, and the other porthern regions ; those of Gaul, Albion, Iberia, Ansonia, and other European nations, had their poets, The autient people of Asia, and those who inhabited the knowu borders of Africa, possessed this treasure.

But of all poetry, that contained in the SCRIPTURES, is most truly sublime, and beautiful. The more eminent of the sacred poets are Job, David, Isaiah, and Jerentiah. Among the minor prophets, Hosea, Joel, Micah, Habakkuk, and especially Nahum, are eminent for the poetical spirit infused into their writings.

The Greek word monix, whence poet is derived, signifies creator. The name of poetry will direct us to one of its most distmguishing characteristics.

The poet ranges through the boundless field of possibilities, and selects his objects according to the impulse of his fancy, as it is controlled by his judgment. Poetry opens to the eye a new fceation.

The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glauce from heaven to earth, from carth to heaven
And as the imagination bodies forth
The form of things unknown, the poet's per
Turns them to shape, and gives to airy Jothing
A local habitation and a name.


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Poetry may be divided into epic; lyric; elegiac; pastoral; didactic; descriptive; satirical; heroi-comic; and burlesque.

1. Epic. The Epic poem is, of all poetical works the most dignified, and the most difficult of execution. It may be defined, a poetical narration of an illustrious en: terprise, completed by supernatural agency. Epic poetry concentrates all that is sublime in action, description, or septiinent. The fable, in every epic poein, should be found ed in fact, and fiction should only complete that outline, which has been traced by the finger of truth. The machinery should be subject to the main design, the action should be simple and uniform. Examples. The Iliad and

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