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times clap hands, and leap so as to strike the joist above their heads.
SOCINIANS derive their name from Faustus Socinus, who died in Poland in 1604. There were two who bore the name of Socinus, uncle and nephew, and who both disseminated the same doctrine. The Socinians assert, that Christ had uo existence until born of the Virgin Mary, and that, being a man like ourselves, though endowed with a large portion of the Divine wisdom, the only objects of his mission were to teach the efficacy of repentance without an atonement, as a mediunt of the Divine favour --to exbibit an example for our imitation; to seal his doctrine with his blood, and, in his resurrection from the dead, to indicate the certainty of our resurrection at the last day. Between antient and modern Socinians, however, a cousiderable difference obtains. The miraculous conception and the worship of Christ, both allowed by Socinus, are rejected by most of the modern Socinians. On account of the Socinians maintaining the simple humanity of Christ, they have sometimes been called Humanitarians : but they are now more generally distinguished by the name of Unitarians.
SWEDENBORGIANS, are the followers. of Emanual Swedenborg, a Swedish nobleman, who died in London, 1772. He professed himself to be the founder (under the Lord) of the New Jerusalem Church, alluding to the New Jerusalem, spoken of in the Book of the Revelation of St. John. His tenets althougb peculiarly distinct from every other system of divinity in Christendom, are nevertheless professed to be drawn from the Holy Scriptures, and supported by numberless quotations from them. He denies a Trinity of persons in the Godhead, but contends for a Divine Trinity in the single person of Jesus Christ alone, consisting of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ; just like the human Trinity in every individual man, of soul, body, and proceeding operation : and he asserts, that as the latter Trinity constitutes one nian, so the former constitutes one Jehovah God, who is at once the Creator, Redeemer, and Regenerator. He further maintains, that the sacred scripture contains three distinct senses, called celestial, spiritual, and natural, which are united by correspondences; and that in each sense, it is Divine truth, accommodated
respectively to the angels of the three heavens, and also to men on earth. The followers of Swedenborg are numerous in England, Germany, Sweden, &c. and also in America. They use a liturgy, and instrumental as well as vocal music in their public worship.
TRINITARIANS, are those who believe the doctrine of a Trinity, by which is generally understood, that there are three distinct persons in one undivided Godhead, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The word Trinity is not to be found in the Bible, but is a scholastic term, derived from the Latin word Trinitas, denothing a three-fold unity.
UNITARIANS, are those who confine the glory and attributes of Divinity to the Father, not allowing it to the Son or Holy Spirit. See SOCINIANS.
UNIVERSALISTS, properly so called, are those who believe, that as Christ died for all, so before he shall have delivered up his mediatorial kingdom to the Father, all shall be brought to a participation of the benefits of bis death in their restoration to holiness and happiness. Their design seems to be to reconcile the tenets of Calvinism and Arminianism, by uniting the leading doctrines of both, as found in the Scriptures, from which union they think the sentiment of universal restoration naturally flows. They teach that the righteous shall have part in the first resurrection, shall be blest and happy with Christ in his millenial kingdom, that over them the second death shall have no power; that the wicked will receive a punishment apportioned to their crimes, that punishment itself is a mediatorial work, and founded upon mercy, copsequently that it is a means of humbling, subduing, and finally reconciling the sinner to God.
LATIN CHURCH, or Roman Catholics. The papists were so called by protestants, from their adhering to the pope. Roman Catholics is the title which they apply to themselves. The word pope is derived from the Greek natnas, which signifies a father. Hence he is styled the Father of the church. This pontiff is likewise called the Vicar of Jesus Christ, the Visible Head of the Church, and the Successor of St. Peter. He wears the keys, as an emblem of his power to open the gates of heaven to repentant sinners, and to excommunicate obstinate offenders, And he wears the triple crown, to inform the Christian world that he is constituted with spiritual jurisdiction over priests, emperors, and kings. This denomination suppose that the bishops of Rome are the descendants of St. Peter, and in that quality have from the beginning exercised jurisdiction over the churches. The principal points which distinguish the papists from the protestants, are, l. That St. Peter was designed by Christ to be the head of the church; and the bishops of Rome, being his successors, have the same apostolic authority. 2. That the Roman Catholic church is the mother and mistress of all churches, and cannot possibly err in matters of faith : for the church has the Spirit of God to lead it into all truth. 3. That the scriptures are not sufficient without tradition, and that apostolic traditions are of equal authority with the scriptures. 4. That there are seven sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ; viz. baptism, confirma. tion, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony; and that they confer grace. 5. That in the mass there is offered unto God a true and propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and dead; and that in the sacrament of the eucharist, under the forms of bread and wine, is really and substantially present the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there is a conversion made of the whole substance of the bread into his body, and of the wine into his blood, which is called transubstantiation. 6. That there is a purgatory; and that souls kept prisoners there receive help by the suffrages of the faithful. 7. That the saints reigning with Christ are to be honoured and invoked, and that they offer prayers uuto God for us; and their relics are to be had in veneration.' 8. That the images of Christ, of the blessed Virgin, the mother of God, and of other saints, ought to be retained in churches; and honour and veneration ought to be given unto them. 9. That the power of indulgences, was left by Christ to the cburch, and that use of them is very beneficial to Christian people. The following cerenronies, and many others too tedious to enumerate, are practised by the
church of Rome in their religious worship :-(1.) They make use of the sign of the cross in all their sacraments, to inform us that they have their whole force and efficacy from the cross.-(2.) Sprinkling holy water by the priest, on solemn days, is used likewise by every one going in or coming out of the church.-(3.) The cremony of blessing bells is, by the Catholics, called christening them; because the name of some saint is ascribed to them, by virtue of whose invocation they are presented, in order that they may obtaiu bis favour and protection.-(4.) They have a custom of bowing at the name of Jesus. -5,) They keep a number of lamps and wax candles continually burning before the shrines and images of the saints.--..) They make use of incense, and have lighted candles upon
the altar at the celebration of mass.---(7.) The practice of wasbing the poor's feet is solemnised on boly Thursday by all the princes of ihe Ronish religion in Europe. The church of Rome observes a variety of boly days, as the festivals of Christ and his apostles, the festivals of the saints, &c. The church of Rome grants a jubilee; i. e, a general indulgence, every twenty-fifth year, and oftener upon emergent occasions.
PROTESTANT CHURCH. Protestants, a name first given in Germany to those who adhere to the doctrine of Luther; because, in 1529, they protested against a decree of the emperor Charles the tifth and the Diet of Spires, declaring that they appealed to a general council. The same name has also been given to the Calvinists, and is now become a common denomination for a variety of sects which differ from the church of Rome. See ARMINIANS, CALVINISTS, LUTHERANS, &c.
GREEK CHURCH. In the eighth century there arose a difference between the eastern and western churches, which was carried on with great vehemence during the uinth century; and in the eleventh century a total separation took place. The Nicene and Athanasian creeds are the symbols of faith in this church. The principal points which distinguish the Greek church from the Latin, are as follow:--(1.) They maintain that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father oniy, and not from the Father and Son.-(2.) They disown The authority of the pope, and deny that the church of Rome is the true catholic
church.-(3.) They do not affect the character of infallibility.(4.) They utterly disallow works of supererogation, indulgences, and dispensations.-(5.) They admit
of prayers and services for the dead, as an antient and pious custom ; and even pray for the remission of their sins : but they will not allow the doctrine of purgatory, or determine any thing dogmatically, concerning the state of departed souls.-(6.) They sometimes defer the baptism of their children till they are three, four, five, or ten years of age.-(7.) The chrism, or baptismal unction, immediately follows the immersion of baptism. The priest anoints the person baptised in the principal parts of the body, with an ointment consecrated with many curious circunstances for that purpose by a bishop: this chrism is called the unction with ointment. Extreme unction is called the consecration with holy oil. This chrism is a mystery peculiar to the Greek communion, and holds the place of confirmatiou in that of the Roman: it is styled the seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost.-(8.) They insist that the sacrament of the Lord's supper onght to be administered in both kinds; and they give the sacrament to children immediately after baptism.-(9.) They exclude confirmation and extreme unction out of the seven sacraments.(10.) They deny auricular confession to be a divine precept, and say it is only a positive institutiou of the church. Confession and absolution constitute this mystery in the Greek church, in which penance does not make a necessary part.--(11.) They do not pay any religious homage to the eucharist.-(12.) They, administer the communion to the laity both in sickness and health.-(13.) They do. not admit of images in bass-relief, or embossed work; but use painting and sculpture in silver,-(14.) They permit their secular clergy to marry once, but never twice; unless they renounce their function, and become laymen, -(15.) They condemn all fourth marriages. The inyo cation of saints, and transubstantiation, are alike received by the Greek and Latin churches. They observe a number of holidays, and keep four fasts in the year more solemn than the rest; of which the fast in Lent, before Easter, is the chief. In regard to discipline and worship, the Greek church has the same division of the clergy into regular and secular, the same spiritual jurisdiction of.