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8vo. though properly speaking, Tours, abound in historical matter, and are well calculated to acquaint us with the present and former state of all parts of Wales. To Bingley, is appended an ingenious dissertation upon the language, manners, and customs of the Welsh. Hoare's Giraldus Cambrensis, 2 vols. 4to.

2. Scotland. Robertson's History of Scotland, 3 vols. 8vo. Pinkerton's, 2 vols. 4to. Laing's, 4 vols. 8vo. Mavor's Scotland, 18mo.

3. Ireland. Leland's History of Ireland, 3 vols. 4to. Ware's History and Antiquities of Ireland, 3 vols. fol. Gordon's History of Ireland, 2 vols. 8vo. and History of the Rebellion in 1798, 8vo. Wakefield's Ireland, vols. 4to. Mavor's Ireland, 18mo. Barlow's History of Ireland, now publishing, 8vo.

For the reasons stated in p. 128, we do not proceed further in the wide field of history, but shall close the department of civil history, by furnishing the student with such guides, as will enable him to traverse with profit and with pleasure, the large space which it occupies.



1. Select Books on the History of the European States.

1. Denmark, Sweden, and Russia. Mallet's Northern Antiquities, 2 vols. 8vo. Vertot's Revolutions of Sweden, 8vo. Voltaire's Charles XII. 8vo, or 12mo. Harte's Life of Gustavus Adolphus, 2 vols. 8vo. Tooke's History of Russia, 2 vols. 8vo. Life of Catharine, 3 vols. 8vo. Mavor's Northern States, to the present time, 18mo.

2. Prussia, Germany, Switzerland, and United Provinces. Wraxall's Memoirs of the Court of Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw, and Vienna, 2 vols. 8vo. Memoirs of the House of Brandenburgh, 12mo. Robertson's History of Charles V. 4 vols. 8vo. Cox's Hisa tory of the House of Austria, 3 vols. 4to. Butler's Revolutions of the Germanic Empire, royal 8vo. Aikin's Translation of Tacitus' Account of the antient Germans, 8vo. Mavor's Northern States, 18mo, and Hungary, Holland, and Switzerland, 18mo. Planta's Helvetic Confederacy, 3 vols. 8vo. Naylor's History of Helvetia, 4 vols. 8vo. Sir Wm. Temple's Observations on the United Provinces, in the 1st. vol. of his Works, 8vo.

3. France, Bossuet's History of France, 4 vols. 8vo. Henault's Chronological Abridgment, 2 vols. 8vo. Wraxall's History of France, 2 vols. 4to. Voltaire's Age of Louis XIV, and XY. 3 vols. 12mo. Me

inoirs of the Duke of Sully, 5 vols. 8vo. Since the Revolution the best books are Stephens' History of the late War. Adolphus' Biographical Memoirs of the French Revolution, and History of France, 4 vols. 8vo. Biographie Moderne ; or Memoirs of remarkable Characters since the Revolution, 3 vols. 8vo. Mavor's France and Navarre, to the present tinie, 18mo.

4. Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Vertot's Revolutions of Spain and Portugal, 8vo. and 19mo. Watson's History of Philip II. 3 vols. 8vo. Bigland's Spain, 2 vols. 8vo. Mavor's Spain and Portugal, to the present time, 18mo. Southey's Chronicle of the Cid, 4to. Guicciardini's History of Italy, 10 vols. 8vo. History of the Council of Trent, by Father Paul, fol. Vertot's History of the Knights of Malta, 5 vols. 12mo. Mavor's Italian States, 18mo.

5. Turkish and Arabian History, Cantemir's History of the Ottonian Empire, fol. Knolles' Turkish History with Rycaut's Continuation, 3 vols. fol. Ockley's His.. tory of the Saraceus, 2 vols. 8vo. Dallaway's Constantinople, 4to. Thorntou's present state of the Turkish Empire, 2 vols. 8vo. Addison's Revolutions of Fez and Morocco, 8vo. Mariguy's History of the Arabians, 4 vols. Svo.

II. Select Books on the History of Asiatic Countries. Dow's History of Hindostan, 3 vols. 4to. Orme's Fragments of the Mogul Empire, 4to. Maurice's Antient and Modern History of Hindostan, 5 vols. 4to. and Indian Antiquities, 7 vols. '8vo. Robertson's Disquisition on India, 8vo. Richardson on the Language, Literature, and Manners of Eastern Nations, 8vo. Pennant's Indian Recreations, 3 vols. 8vo. Sir Wm. Jones' Works, 12 vols. 8vo. and the Asiatic Researches, 8vo.

III. Select Books on the History of Africa. Mavor's History of the African Nations, 2 vols. 18mo.

See also P. 89, ante.

iv. Select Books on the History of America. Robertson's America, 4 vols. 8vo. Herrera's History of South America, 6 vols. 8vo. Gordon's History of the American War, 4 vols. 8vo. Southey's History of Brazil, 2 vols. 4to. Mavor's North and South America, 18mo.

Select Books on Universal History, Antient and Modern.

Universal History, Antient and Modern, 26 vols. folio, or 60 vols. 8vo. An excellent substitnte for this immense library of history, will be found in Mavor's Universal History, in 25 vols. 18mo, con

tinued to the present time. The volumes may be had separately, if required. Anquetil's Summary of Universal History, 9 vols. 8vo. Russell's History of Modern Europe, with the decline and fall of the Roman Empire (continued to the treaty of Amiens, by Dr. Coote) in 6 vols. 8vo. To those who have but little leisure for a perusal of the larger-works, the three following may confidently be recommended, viz. Tytler's Elements of General History, 2 vols. 8vo. Thomson's Spirit of Modern History, 8vo. and Bigland's Letters on History, ivo, and 12mo. and his History of Europe, from the peace of 1783, to the present time, 2 vols. 8vo.


$ 1. Sketch of the Reformation. To give an outline of Ecclesiastical History, the riumerous changes which have taken place in church government, from the death of the apostles to the present time, must, of necessity, be detailed; but this, though highly entertaining, is incompatible with the plan of the work. We shall therefore briefly record the rise, progress, and effects of that grand and important event The Reformation.

1. In the sixteenth century, Leo X. in order to support the expenses of a luxurious court, had availed himself of an antient custom practised by the church, of raising money by the sale of indulgences ; which allowed to the porchasers, the practice of several sins, and promised thein a deliverance from the pains of purgatory. The promulgation of these indulgences in Germany, together with a share arising from the profits in the sale of them was assigned to Albert, elector of Mentz and archbishop of Magdeburg. Associated with him in this work of infamy, and his chief agent, was one Tetzel a Dominican friar of licentious morals, but of a bold and vindictive spirit.

2. The enormous blasphemies and abuses of this man soused the indignation of Martin Luther, a monk of the Augustinian eremites, and a professor of divinity in the academy at Wittemberg, who began to declaim with boldness against these scandals of the Christian name. In ninety-five propositions maintained publicly at Wittemberg, on the 30th of September 1517, he censured the extravagant exertions of the questors, and plainly pointed out the Roman pontiff as a partaker of their guilt. The pope and carvals at Rome were as asleep in the arms of luxury, and insensible of their danger. Luther however

was at last, cited to appear before the pope at Rome, but by the interposition of the emperor, he procured a hearing at Augsburgh, in Germany, where he boldly defended his doctrines.

3. At this memorable conference, the cardinal Gaeta attempted by remonstrance and persuasion to bring back Luther to the church of Rome; but in vain: every encounter gave him additional strength and boldness; the conference closed with an appeal to Leo X.

Luther offered to be silent respecting the indulgences, provided his adversaries were also compelled to be silent, or were restrained in their abuse of him. These profered concessions being of no avail, and the work of reformation going on, a bull was issued by the pope, on - the 7th November 1518. This was a formal decree against the doctrines of Luther, expressly declaring the right of the pope to grant indulgences. The sincerity and boldness of Luther were thus put to the test; and he immediately commenced hostilities against the infallibility of the pope, by an appeal to the general council. The attention of Europe at this time, being diverted by political discussions, Luther was suffered without much interference, to proceed in his great and glo. rious work.

4. From Germany, by the writings of Luther, and from Switzerland, by the zeal and perseverance of Zuinglius, the work of reform proceeded to spread itself over Denmark, Sweden, Geneva, Holland, England, and Scotland. In France, Spain, and Italy, the reformation made comparatively, but little progress. The same also may be observed of Poland and Russia. The principal reformers were, Luther, Erasmus, and Melancthon; Calvin, Zuinglius, and

Ecolompadius; Bullinger, Beza, and Peter Martyr. In England, Henry VIII. Edward VI. Ridley, Latimer, Hooper, Crannier, and queen Elizabeth. In Scotland the reformation was forwarded by the zeal and industry of Knox. These are the names of some of those men to whom the religious world is, at this time indebted for that freedom Lof thought, and many of those Christian privileges with which, in England it is so eminently favoured.

$2. Principal Christian Sects. The word sect, is a collective term, comprehending all those who follow the tenets of some divise, philosopher, &c. It is now, however, invariably used to designate those who form separate communions and do not associate with one another in religious worship and ceremonies.

ANTINOMIANS, (from arti against, and voucos the law,) are those who maintain that the law is of no use or obligation under the gospel dispevsation, or who hold doctrines that clearly supersede the necessity of good works. Antinomianism may be traced to the period of the Reformation: its founder was John Agricola, a disciple of Martin Luther,

ANTITRINITARIANS; those who deny the Trinity, and teach that there are not three persons in the Godhead.

ARIANS, the followers of Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, about the year 315; who inaintained that the Son of God was totally and essentially distinct froin the Father; that he was the first and noblest of these beings whom God had created, and the instrument by whom he formed the universe : that he was inferior to the Father, both in nature and dignity; and that the Holy Ghost was not God, but created by the power of the Son. The Arians owned that the Son was the Word, but denied the Word to have been eternal. They held thal Christ had nothing of man in him but the flesh, to which the Logos or Word was joined, which was the same as the soul in us. The Ariaus were divided into various sects. The appellation of Arian has been indiscriminately applied in more modern times, to all those who consider Jesus Christ as superior and subordinate to the Father.

ARMINIANS; a religious sect that arose in Holland, by separating from the Calvinists. They followed the doctrines of Arminius, who began to express his doubts of the truth of Calvin's doctrine, with regard to predestivation, &c. Their distinguishing tenets may be comprised in the following five articles. 1. That God, from all eternity, deterinined to bestow salvation ou those who would persevere unto the end in their faith in Christ Jesus; and jo infliet everlasting punishment on those who would continue in their unbelief and disobedience. 2. That Jesus

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