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MODERN HISTORY.

Years
after
Christ. 3d PERIOD.

SECULAR.

3d, or FRANKISH HEAD of

ROMAN EMPIRE.

Continuation of 2d, or GREEK
HEAD of ROMAN EMPIRE.

800 Charlemagne, Emperor, is ac- 800 Irene, Empress.

knowledged Augustus by|| 804 Nicephoras, Emperor.
Nicephoras.

816 The Saracens under "Alma

mon, greatly encourage

learning. 814 Charlemagne dies; is suc-| 821 Constantinople besieged by ceeded by his son, Lewis,

the Saracens. Emperor.

829 Theophilus, Emp. 827

Egbert, first King of all Eng-|| 839 Origin of the Russian Mo. land.

narchy. 838 The Picts, conquered by Ken-| 842 Michael III, Emperor.

neth, King of Scotland. 867 Basil I. Macedonian Empire. 810 Lotharius, Emperor.

He coinbats the Saracens in 845 The Normans enter France.

the East, and assists the 855 Lewis II. Emperor.

Emp. Lewis in the West: 865 Saracens enter Italy; are re. Compiles the Basilic Code pulsed by Lewis.

of Laws. 867 The Danes invade England.

Ethelred, King of England. 872 |Alfred, King of England. 886|Leo VI. the Philosopher, Emp. 875 Charles the Bald, Emperor. 881 Charles Le Gros, Emp. The

Western Empire divided
into five Kingdoms.

John Malala. 888 Arnolph, Emperor. 899 Lewis IV. Emperor. 901 Edward the Elder, K. of E.

919 Constantine VII. Porphyro

genitus, Emperor. He eny12 The Normans establish them

courages learning and the selves in France.

arts. 917 The Huns ravage the W. Emp.|| 919 Romanus I. Emperor. 925 Athelstan, King of England. 938 Defeats the Scots, Welsh, and

Danes.

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MODERN HISTORY.

Years after Christ. 4th PERIOD.

RELIGIOUS.

THE FOUNDATION OF THE PAPAL SOVEREIGNTY. 962 Otho, confirms to the See of Rome the donations of Pepin and

Charlemagne. 996 Concordate between Gregory V. and Otho III. uniting the crowns

of Rome and Germany for ever. 1009 The Saracens ravage Jerusalem. 1048

The Pope now crowned for the first time. 1053

Schism of the Greek and Latin Churches. The Pope excommu

nicates the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the Greeks, Ed

ward the Confessor, King of England. 1073

Hildebrand, Gregory VII., exalts the Papacy above the Empire. 1076

Submission of the Emperor, Henry IV., to Gregory. 1084 St. Bruno founds the Order of Carthusians. 1096

First Cruzade. Godfrey of Bonillon. Urban II. 1099 Jerusalem taken from the Saracens: Is erected into a kingdom.

The Order of Knights of St John of Jerusalem instituted. 1100

Incorporation of the University of Paris. 1106

Contest in Eng.concerning the Investiture of Bishops. St. Anselm. 1122

First General Lateran Council; for the Recovery of the Holy Land. 1141

Abelard, St. Bernard, Peter Lombard, Master of the Sentences. 1147

Second Crusade. 1164, Council of Clarendon. Tho. a Becket. 1153

Party of the Guelfs and Gibbelines. University of Cambridge f. 1178

The Pope, Alexander III., sends a Legate into 'Tartary to Prester

John. Benj. of Tudela. Maimonides. 1188

Third Cruzade. Jerusalem taken by Saladin. 1203

Fourth Cruzade. 1204, The Inquisition founded by St. Dominic. 1226

Persecut.of the Albigenses,or early Reformers. Univ.of Padua f. 1248 The Fifth Cruzade. St. Lewis departs for the Holy Land. 1253

The Univ. of the Sorbonne founded. Mat. Paris. Albert M. 1956

Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon. 1268

Loss of the Holy Land by the Christians. Antioch taken. 1272

Foundation of the Academy of Florence. Many similar Societies

formed about this time. "Raymond Lully. 1310

Dante. , 1340, Petrarch, Boccacio, Chaucer, 1346

Foundation of the Univ. of Valladolid. 1348, Univ. of Prague. 1365 Univ. of Vienna and Geneva founded. 87, of 'Sienna and Cologne. 1362 Wiekliff exposes the Church of Rome; and prepares the

Reforma.. tion. His disciples are denominated Lollards, and suffer severe

persecution. He translates the Holy Scriptures into English. 1378

Great Schism of the Western Church; two Popes claiming the 1418 papal dignity, and being severally abetted by different powers. 1407 John Huss preaches the Reformation of the Chnrck in Bohemia. 1414 The Council of Constanoe, condemns the doctrines of Wickliff,

John Huss, and Jeroni of Prague; and causes the two latter to

be bnrnt alive. 1452

Last Coronation of an Emperor in Rome. Frederick III. Emp: 1480 The Inquisition established in Spain, under Ferdinand & Isabella. 1500 The Popes acquire the absolute Dominion of Rome. Machiavel. 1513 Leo X., Erasmus, F. Ximenes, Poggio, Lewis Vives, Reuchlin, &c. 1519 Luther, opposes the scandalous abuse of Indalgences.

THE REVIVAL OF LETTERS, AND REFORMATION.

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FOURTH, or GERMANIC Continuation of 2d or GREEK

HEAD of ROMAN EMPIRE. HEAD of ROMAN EMPIRE. 962 Jotho, Emp. of the Romans.

979, Saidas. 975 Edward, the Mart. King of E. 1025 Constantine IX. Emperor. 987

Fingh Capet, Kg.of Fr.: founder||1028 Romanus II. Argyrus, Emp.

of the third and last race. 1034 Michael IV, Emperor, 1002 Henry II. D. of Bavaria, Emp. 1041 Michael V. Emp. Zoe and 1017 Canute, the Dane, King of E. Theodora. 1056 Henry IV. Emperor.

(1067 Michael VII. Emp. Eudoxia. 1066 William, of Normandy, King|1081 Alexis Comnenus, Emperor,

of Eng. conquers Harold. 1099 The Cruzaders, having taken 1087 William II. King of England. Jerusalem, make Godfrey K.

Philip I. King of France. (1118 John Comnenus, Emperor. 1100 Henry 1. King of England.

Zonares, Lewis VI. le Gros, K. of Fr. ||1143 Manuel Conin., Emperor. 1106 Henry V. Emperor.

1160, John and Js. Tzetzes. 1135 Stephen, King of England. 1180 Alexis II. Emperor. 1179, Lewis VII. King of France.

Const, Manasses. 1152 Frederick Barbarossa, Emp. 1185 Isaac Ang. Emp. 1184, Will. 1154 Henry II. King of England.

of Tyre. Phil. Aug. King of France. ||1204 Greek Empire divided with 1189 Richard I. King of England, the Franks. Baldwin, 1st 1199 John, K. of E. Magna Charta. Fr. Emp. Theodore Lasca.

ris, Gr. Enp. 1216 Henry III.King of England,

1906 Gengis Khan, founds the Mo. Lewis VIII, King of France. 1226 st. Lewis IX. King of France. 1228 Baldwin 11, last Fr. Enp.

gul Empire, 1971 Edward I. King of England. Philip III. IV, Kings of Fr.

1255 Theodore Lascaris 11. 'Emp. 1273 Rodolph, of Hapsburgh, Emp. 1260 Michael Paleologus, Emp,

1259 John Lascaris, Emp. the first of the Anst. family. ||1282 Andronicus I. Emp. 1284, 1989 The Sicilian Vespers.

Abulfaragius. 1283 Wales conq., united to Eng.

1299 Ottoman, Founder of the pre1302 The Mariners Compass inv. sent Turkish Empire. 1307 Edward II. King of England. ||1309 The Knights of St. John of Je. 1327 Edward III. King of England, rusalem occupy Rhodes.

28, Phil. de Valois, K. of F. (1321 Abulfeda, Prince of Syria, the 1398 Gunpowderinvented inGerm. great Arabian Geographer. 1350

Order ofthe Garterinstituted. 1341 John Paleologus, Emperor. 1355 Charles VI. Epp. Gold. Bull. ||1570 The Turks first enter Europe, 1377 Richard 11. King of England. under Amurath 1. 1399 Henry IV. King of England. 1387 Bajazet, his son, invests Con

Charles VI. King of France. stantinople, 1413

Henry V. King of England. 1391 Manuel Paleol. Emp. 1422 Henry VI. King of England.

1402 Tamerlane, the Mogul, defeats Charles VII. Kg. of France. Bajazet. 1440 The Art of Printing invented. 1421 Amurath II, invests Constant. 1461 Edward IV. King of England. 1444 Scanderbeg, defends Albania.

Lewis XI. King of France. 1448 Constantine Paleologus, last 1471 Lorenzo di Medici.

Emperor. 1483 Edward V. King of England.

1463 Constantinople taken by Ma Richard III. King.

homet 11, 1485 Henry VII. King of England, Extinction of the Second, or Vasco di Gama, Columbus.

GR, HEAD of ROMAN EMP.

MODERN HISTORY.

Years after Christ. 5th PERIOD.

RELIGIOUS.

1453 THE REVIVAL OF LETTERS, AND REFORMATION. 1519

Luther, Melancthon, Bucer, Zuinglius, Ecolampadius,Calvin, &c. 1529

The name of Protestant, first used in the Diet of Spires. 1530,

Confession of Augsburgh. 1531, League of Smalkalde. 1535

Order of Jesuits founded, by St. Ignatius Loyala. 1547

The Reformation established in England, under King Edward VI. 1549

The Conncil of Trent: efforts of the Church of Rome to consolidate 183

its remaining power. Polyd. Virgil, Copernicus, Jul. Scaliger.

Temporary revival of Popery in England, under Queen Mary. 1558

Final overthrow of Popery in England, under Queen Elizabeth.

Puritans, or Calvinistic Protestants, first appear in England. 1572

Massacre of Fr. Protestants; St. Barthol. Heresy of F.& L.Socinus. 1582

Pope Gregory XIII. corrects the Calendar. Joseph Scaliger,

Tycho Brahe, Torquatus Tasso. 1590

F. Bacon, Ld. Veralam, Father Paul Sarpi, Thuanus, or de Thou,

Casaubon, &c. 1605 Conspiracy of the Popish party in England, Nov.5, Guido Fawkes. 1618

The Synod of Dort, against Arminius. Joseph Mede, Buxtorf. 1640

Galileo, Grotius, Des Cartes, Gassendi, Bochart, Br. Walton,

Marsham, te 16-18

The Peace of Westphalia, or Monster, between the Protestant &

Roman Catholic States, confirming the privileges of the former. 1649

The Church and State of England subverted. Milton, Selden. 1660

The Church and State of England restored. Religion, Learning, &

Science,flourish eminently in Brit. The Royal Society founded.

Robert Boyle, Isaac Barrow, Bishop Pearson, &c. 1663

The R. Academy of Inscriptions : 1666, The R. Acad. of Sciences:

established at Paris. 1081, W. Penn, founds Pennsylvania. 1688

Bishop Burnet, Locke, Archbishop Tillotson, Prideaux, Bossuet,

Fenelon, Bishop Sherlock, Bishop Bull, Hyde, Ray, Puffen.

dorf, Herbelot, Bayle, &c. Sir Isaac Newton, Leibnitz, Wallis, Halley, Flamstead, Cassini. A spirit of sophistry, metaphysical scepticism, and active infide.

lity, distinguishes the beginning and progress of this century, and prepares the way for the calamities which have so awfully characterised its conclusion. The names of Addison, Butler, Leland, Johnson, Beattie, &c. are consecrated by their opposia

tion to the impieties of Hobbes, Hume, Voltaire, Gibbon, &c. 1752 The Calendar is corrected in England, and the Old, or Juliun

Style, changed for the Gregorian. 1769

Pope Clement XIV., Ganganelli, suppresses theOrderof the Jesuits. 1789 The moral and intellectual disorder of this century at length

produces a General Revolution in Christendom.
The Gallican Church subverted. Monastic orders suppressed.

Civil and religious licentiousness, propagated in Europe.
Ancient Crowns and States extingaished. New Crowns and

Kingdoms erected. 1804 Pope Pius VII. consecrates Napoleon Buonaparte Emperor of

Frunce, ät Paris ; with whom he enters wito a Concordate, for

regulating the rch of France. 1810

The City and Principality of Rome is annexed by Napoleon to the FRENCH EMPIRE.

THE EXTINCTION OF THE PAPAL SOVEREIGNTY. 1811 NAPOLEON, having imprisoned Pope Pius VII., convokes al

General Council of the Prelates of his Eunpire,' but is disap. pointed of his parpose.

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1493

Continuation of the Fourth,|1458'Extinction of the Second, or

or GERMAMIC HEAD of GREEK HEAD of ROMAN ROMAN EMPIRE.

EMPIRE. 1509 Henry VIII. King of England, 1522 Soliman II. takes the Isle of Sir Tho. More, Wolsey,

Rhodes from the Knights 1519 Charles V, Emp: 1513, Fran

of St. John of Jernsalem ; cis I, King of France,

who receive the Island of 1547

Edward VI. King of England, Malta from the Emperor, 1553 Mary I. Queen of England.

Charies V. 1558

Elizabeth, Q. of E. Spencer. 1571 The Tarks take the Island of
Ferdinand I. Emp. Sidney.

Cyprus. 1564

Maximil.lI. E, Shakspeare, 1588 The defeat of the Invincible Armada, of Philip II. King of Spain,

Sir Francis Drake; 1600, East India Company incorporated. 1589 Henry IV. King of France, Firsi of the House of Bourbon, Sully. 1595 Henry IV. embraces the Romish Faith; Mayenne, Conde,Coligny. 1598

The Edict of Nantes in favonr of the Protestants of France. 1603

James I. King of England and Scotland; Buckinghanı, Raleigh. 1610 Lewis XIII. King of France; Richelieu. 1619

Beginning of the 30 Yrs.war,concldued by the Peace of Westphalia. 1625

Charles I. King of England and Scotland, boheaded 1649, Strata

ford, Archbishop Laud, Falkland, Hampden. 1643 Lewis XIV. Ky. of Fr. Mazarin, Turenne, Edict of Nantes revok. 1653 (Cromwell.) Estab.

of the Naval pre-em. of Eng. by the victories of Blake, Monk, Deane, Penn, Lawson, over the Dutch. 1658 Leopold I. Emperor. 1000 Charles II. King of England and Scotland restored. Clarendon,

Ormond, Sir W. Temple. 1685 Janies 11. King of Eng. and Scot.: abdicates the Crown, 1688. 1688 William 11.(P.of Orange) and Mary 11. K. and Q.of E. Ld.Somers. 1697 Peter the Great, Czar of Muscovy; Charles XII. King of Sweden. 1702 Anne, Queen of Great Britain: Union of England and Scotland. 1713

The Peace of Utrecht; Marlborough, Addison. 1714

Georgel. Elector of Hanover, Arch-Treasurer of the Roman Em. 1727 George II. King of Great Britain. (pire,ascends the British throne. 1748 The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Frederic III. King of Prussia. 1760 George III. King of Great Britain, &c. begins his long, glorious, 1763 The Peace of Paris; 1774, Lewis XVI. (and exemplary reign. 1783

The Peace of Versailles, between Great Britain, France, Spain,

Holland, and the United States of America. 1789

The Revolution of France: beginning of the miseries of the kingd. 1792

Lewis XVI. King of France, his Queen, and Sister, beheaded : End 1793

War with the new State of France. [of the ancient Sovereignty. 1800

Union of Great Britain and Ireland : Rt. Hon. William Pitt. 1802

The experimental Peace of Amiens. Height of the Naval and

Asiatic Empire of Great Britain. Admiral Lord Nelson. 1803

Failure of that Peace, and renewal of the War. Malta annexed to

the dominious of Great Britain. 1806, Rt. Hon. C. J. Fox 1806 Francis II. the last Emp. Fall and Extinction of the 4th, or

GERMANIC HEAD of ROMAN EMPIRE, and title of Augustus.

THE FRENCH EMP. NAPOLEON, Emp. and K. of Italy, &c. 1811 A most splendid Comet appeared in the m.of Sept., under the seven

conspicuous stars of the Great Bear; singularly answering, in

time and configuration, to that seen 43 yrs. bef. the B. of Christ. 1812 His Royal Highness, Prince Regent, assumes the full Sovereignty

of this Realm.

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