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In this month the Romans held a feast in behalf of the
manes of the deceased; and Macrobius tells us, that in
this month, also, sacrifices were performed, and the last
offices were paid to the defunct.


March (the third month according to our computation;)
was considered as the first by some of the antients, and by
others as the third, fourth, or fifth, and even the tenth
month of the year. Romulus named it after his supposed
father Mars, and appointed it as the first month of the
April (in Latin Aprilis) is derived from aperio, I open;
because the earth in this mouth, begins to open her bosom
for the production of vegetables.

May, the fifth month, was called Maius by Romulus, from
respect to the senators and nobles of the city, who were
named Majores: though others say, it was so called from
Maia the mother of Mercury, to whom they offered sacri
fice in that month.

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June, by the Romans called Junius, in honour of the Roman youth, who served Romulus in war; some derive the word Junius à Junone, from Juno.



July, is the seventh month, the word is derived from the
Latin Julius, the sirname of C. Cæsar the dictator, who
was born in this month. Marc Antony first gave this
month the name of July, which was before called Quinti-
lis, as being the fifth month of the year in the old Romant
calendar. For the same reason August was called Sextilis,
and September, October, November, and December, still
retain their original names.


August, in a general sense, implies something majestic, Me and the appellation was first conferred on Octavius by the Roman senate. Octavius, then named Augustus Cæsar, was in this month created consul; he had thrice triumphed 20 in Rome, subdued Egypt to the Roman empire, and terminated the civil wars: on this account the month was dedicated to his honour, and is still called after his name. solar September, from Septimus the seventh month, reckoning from March, which was the first month of the antients. d The Roman senate would have given this month the name d of Tiberius; but the emperor opposed it. Under other emperors it had other names; but at present they are all the


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October, the eighth month in the year in Romulus' calendar, though the tenth in that of Numa, Julius Cæsar, &c. October has still retained its name, notwithstanding all the names the senate and Roman emperors would have given it as Faustinus Invictus, and Domitianus.

November was the ninth month in the year of Romulus, (whence its name): but it is the eleventh month of the Julian year.

December, from decem, ten; it being assigned by Romulus as the tenth month in the year. It is now the last, wherein the sun enters the tropic of capricorn, and makes the winter solstice.

Months are Solar or Lunar.-A solar month is the space of time, within which, the sun moves through one entire sign of the ecliptic. A lunar periodical month is the space of time wherein the moon makes her round through the zodiac, or wherein she returns to the same point.

Cluverius observes, that the Germans worshipped the sun with such devotion, that they seemed to acknowledge that planet as the supreme God, and dedicated to it the first day of the week, or Sunday. Monday is the moon's day, so called from mona and day. Tuisco (the same with Mars) gave name to Tuesday; they also worshipped Woden or Godan, after whom the fourth day of the week was called Wednesday. It is said Godan, becoming afterwards contracted into God, the Germans and English gave that name to the Deity. They also worshipped the god Faranes, the same with the Danish Thor, the Thunderer Jupiter, from whom our Thursday has its name. The goddess Freia, or Venus, gave her name to Friday: Saturday has its name from the planet Saturn.

STYLE (New) is the Gregorian, now chiefly followed. The Old Style is the Julian manner of computing time, and agrees with the Julian year, which contains 365 days, 6 hours. The Gregorian, or New Style, agrees with the true solar year, which contains only 365 days, 5 hours, and nearly 49 minutes. In the year of Christ 200, there was no difference of styles, but there is now a difference of eleven days between the old style and the new, the latter being much before hand with the former.

At the diet of Ratisbon in 1700, it was decreed by the body of protestants of the empire, that eleven days should

be retrenched from the old style, in order to accommodate it to the new, and the same regulation has since passed into Sweden, Denmark, and England; where it was established by 24 Geo. I. c. 23. which enacts, that the supputation, according to which the year of our Lord begins on the twenty-fifth day of March, shall not be used from and after the last day of December, 1751. And that from thenceforth the first day of January every year shall be reckoned the first day of the year, and that the natural day next immediately following the second day of September, 1752, shall be called and reckoned the 14th day of September, omitting the eleven intermediate days of the common calendar, and that the several natural days suc ceeding the fourteenth day, shall be called and reckoned in numerical order. The adoption of the Gregorian compu tation accordingly took place in 1752, and is now recognized throughout the kingdom.


A. M. i. e. Anno Mundi, in the Year of the World.
A. C. Ante Christum, before Christ, or
Before Christ.

B. C.
A. U. C.


Anno Urbis Condita, the year of the foundation of Rome. This abbreviation is chiefly found in the Roman historians

Anno Domini, in the year of our Lord.

Select Books on Chronology.

Du Fresnoy's Chronological Tables, 2 vols. 8vo. Blair's Chronology, folio. The 25th volume of Dr. Mavor's Universal History, contains a very full and complete table of events. The Tablet of Memory, 12mo. The Stream of Time, by Mr. Bell, from the German of Frederic Strass, is the best chronological chart, and is not high in price. Audley's Companion to the Almanac, 12mo. an interesting and useful manual. Brady's Clavis Calendaria, 2 vols.8vo.

A. D.


THE following tabular view of antient and modern history, from the earliest period to the present time, exhibits sacred and profane, religious and secular history, on parallel pages. This chronological view is appended to Mr. PENN's very excellent Bioscope or Dial of Life explained;* and is superior to any thing of the kind we have seen, for neatness, and perspicuity of arrangement.

The Tables which now follow, contain:

FIRST; a General Chronological View of History, antient and modern, to the present time, divided into its TWELVE PRIMARY PERIODS: for an explanation of which, the reader is referred to "A CHRISTIAN'S SURVEY, &c.; in which work, the grounds of those twelve diions are distinctly exposed.

SECONDLY; a moré particular chronological view of the contents of each of those twelve divisions of History; in which, some of the leading events of each are inserted, so as to form a connected chain of incidents down to our own time.

The chronology of Sir Isaac Newton is generally followed, in the early events of heathen history; which, considered as a system, is, without comparison, the most sagacious, best considered, and best supported, of any that have yet been given to the world.

As the heathen computations fail, upon Varro's acknowledgment, before the first Olympiad, the traditional events of those first ages, which he calls Obscure, and Fabulous, can only be reconciled to history, by the aid of the Sacred Chronology.

In contemplating the remote events of antient history, it is requisite always to keep in our mind this truth, that minute exactness in point of historical dates is unattainable; and to remember, according to the wise caution expressed by Sir William Jones, "that whoever, in those early ages, expects a certain epocha, unqualified with about or nearly, will be greatly disappointed."

*This book, which deserves to be the companion and gride of our life, is entitled to a high rank among the Select Books on Ethics; and will, we think, conduce more to the acquisition of the impor tant science of Self-knowledge, than any other work which has, hitherto, appeared.

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