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The clergy, in general, enjoy many peculiar privileges. Their goods are free from tolls and fairs in markets; they cannot be compelled to serve any office, civil or military; they are only amerced according to their temporal estate ; nor are they assessed for a robbery committed in the hundred; nor for watching, warding, highways, &c. Moderation is the characteristic of the church of England. No religious sect is prevented from worshipping God in that manner which their consciences approve. There are various sects professing Christianity in England, whose peculiar tenets (as they are divided into Calvinists, Arminians, Baptists, &c. &c.) will be found in a subsequent part of this volume."
$ 4. English Islands.
The islands belonging to England, are: 1. THE ISLE OF WIGHT, which is reckoned as part of Hampshire; it is one of the most fertile and beautiful spots in the kingdom: its capital is Newport; and Cowes is a place of great trade. This island contained in 1811, 24,120 inhabitants.
2. THE ISLE OF ANGLESEA, (which makes one of the counties of Wales :) its chief towns are, Beaumaris and Holyhead.
3. THE ISLE OF MAN, in the Irish Sea, is generally considered as part of Lancashire: its chief towns are, Castletown, Douglas, Ramsey, and Peele.
4. THE SCILLY Isles, near the Land's End, in Cornwall, are a cluster of dangerous rocks, famous for their tin mines : the chief of them is St. Germaiu's.
5. CocguET, FAIRNE, and Holy ISLAND, in Northumberland.
6. The Isles of THANET and SHEPPEY, in Kent.
7. THE ISLES of GUERNSEY, JERSEY, ALDERNEY, and SARK, lying near the coast of France, are also subject to England; and are all that remain to England of the dutchy of Normandy: they are frequently called the Norman Isles.
Guernsey is seven miles and a half in length, and its greatest breadth scarcely exceeds four.,
Jersey is considerably larger than Guernsey, and is about ten miles long, and five of average
SECT. II.-WALES. Wales is strongly marked out by nature as a detached district, being an almost continued range of wild and lofty mountains, intersected by extensive and fertile vallies. In point of population and fertility, South Wales is superior to North; but the latter is more eminently rema, kable for its grand and romantic scenery, abounding with inagnificent water-falls and alpine mountains. One of the roads from Chester to Holyhead runs over a lofty mountain, called Penmaenmawr, and affords an awful scene to a stranger; över his head hangs a craggy and enormous rock, threatening every moment to crush him with its fall, and below him a frightful precipice, with the waves of the sea tremendously dashing against the base of the mountain.
Extent, Boundaries, &c.] The principality of Wales is bounded on the west and north by the Irish Sea; on the east, by Cheshire, Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Monmouthshire ; and on the south, by the river Severn, and the Bristol Channel. It is about 150. miles in length, from north to south, and from 50 to 80 in breadth ; and is divided into North and South Wales, containing twelve counties.
Six in North Wales.
Population. 1. Flint Flint, St. Asaph, Holywell,
46,518 2. Denbigh
Denbigh, Wrexham, Ruthin, 64,240 3. Isle of Anglesea Beaumaris, Holyhead,
37,045 4. Caernarvonshire Caernarvon, Bangor, Conway, 49,336 5. Merionethshire. Bala, Dolgelly, .
30,924 6. Montgomeryshire . Montgomery, Llanvyllin, Welchpool, 51,931
Six in South Wales.
1. Radnorshire Radnor, Presteign, Knighton, . 20,900 2. Cardiganshire Cardigan, Aberystwyth,
50,260 3. Pembrokeshire . . Pembroke,St.David's, Milford Haven,60,615 4. Caermarthenshire . Caermarthen, Kidwelly,
77,217 5. Brecknockshire Brecknock, Hay,'.
37,735 6. Glamorganshire Cardiff, Llandaif, Swansea, • 85,067
Lakes.] The principal are, Llyn Tegid, Pimble Mere, or Bala Lake, about four miles in length, and Brecknock
Rivers.] The principal are, the Severn, Dee, Wye, Uske, Conway, Clwyd, and Twy. This principality is a mountainous country: the most remarkable are, Snowdon in Caernarvonshire, Plinlimmon, between Montgomeryshire and Cardiganshire, and Cader Idris in Merionethshire.
Natural Productions.] Their horses are small, but can endure much fatigue ; and their black cattle are of a diminutive appearance, but excellent beef, and their cows are remarkable for yielding large quantities of milk. Their mutton is delicious, Great numbers of goats feed on the mountains. Wales contains many promising mines of silver, copper, lead, and iron; extensive quarries of free-stone and slate, and abundance of valuable coal pits,
Religion.] The Welsh clergy, in general, are but poorly provided for; and in many of the country congregations, they preach both in Welsh and English. In the year 1749, 142 schoolmasters were employed to remove from place to place, for the instruction of the inhabitants; and their
: provided with a free school. The established religion in Wales is that of the church of England, but the common people in many places are so tenacious of their antient customs, that they retain several of the Romish superstitions, and some antient families among them are still Roman Catholics. The principality also contains Dissenters of various denominations.
Language.] This is a dialect of the Celtic, though very different from the Ersé or Irish. The Welsh language is spoken almost exclusively in North Wales, by the common people, and in many parts of South Wales.
Wales was united to, and incorporated with England, in the 27th of Henry VIII, when, by act of Parliament, its government was modelled according to the English forms; all laws, customs, and tenures, contrary to those of Eng. land, being annulled, and the inhabitants admitted to a participation of all the English liberties and privileges, es pecially that of sending members to Parliament, viz. a knight for every shire, and a burgess for every county town, except Merioneth.
Select Books on the Topography of Wales. 1. The Principality: Hoare's Giraldus Cambrensis, 2 vols. 4to. Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary of Wales, 4to. The Cambrian Traveller's Guide, 12mo. is an excellent work; it is digested alphabetically, and contains the essence of the principal tours in Wales.
2. North. Pennant's Tour in Wales, 3 vols, 8vo. Bingley's North Wales, 2 vols. 8vo. Gilpin's North Wales, 8vo.
3. South. Donovan's Tour, 2 vols. 8vo. Maikin's, 2 vols. 8vo.
Scotland, antiently called Caledonia, lies on the north of England, from which country it is separated by the Tweed, Solway Frith, and the billy chain, kuown by the dame of the Cheviot Hills. The Celtæ, or Gauls, are supposed to have been the original inhabitants of this kingdom. The Scots, a Scythian tribe, invaded it about the beginning of the fourth century, and having conquered the Picts, the territories of both were called Scotland.
Extent, Boundaries, &c.] Scotland is about 260 miles in length, by about 160 at its greatest breadth; it extends from the 55th degree of latitude, to 581. The superficial contents have been computed at 27,793 square miles; a little exceeding that of Ireland, and considerably more than half that of England. The population is estimated at 1,600,000, which is about 57 inhabitants to each square mile. This defect of population arises solely from the mountainous nature of the country, amounting perhaps to one half, little capable of cultivation.
Divisions.] Scotland is unequally divided into 33 counNorth Scotland, or the Highlands, and South Scotland, or the Lowlands; the former comprises 15, and the latter 18 counties.
COUNTIES OF SCOTLAND.
1. North Scotland, or the Highlands. Counties. Chief Towns,
Population. 1. Orkney Kirkwall, and Skalloway,
46,153 2. Caithness Rothsay, Wick, and Thurso, 23,419 3. Sutherland Straithy, and Dornock,
29,629 4. Ross
Ross, and Fortrose, 5. Cromarty Cromarty,
Population. 6. Inverness Inverness, and Inverlochy,
78,336 7. Argyle
Inverary, and Dunstaffnage, 85,585 8. Bute Rothsay, Wick, and Thurso,
12,033 9. Nairn Nairn,
8,251 10. Murray, or Elgin , Elgin,
28,108 11. Banff : Banff, and Cullen,
36,668 12. Aberdeen Old and New Aberdeen,
135,075 13. Mearns, or Kincardine.. Bervie,
27,439 14. Angus, or Forfar.. Montrose, and Forfar,
107,264 15. Perth
· Perth, Scone, Damblane, Blair, and
135,093 2. South Scotland, or the Lowlands. 1. Fife.,... St. Andrews, and Capar,...., 101,272 2. Kinross Kinross,..
7,245 3. Clackmannan Clackmannan,
12,010 4. Stirling ..... Stirling and Falkirk,
58,174 5. Dumbarton ......Dumbarton
24,189 6. West Lothian,or Linlithgow,.. Linlithgow,Borroustounness,19,451 7. Mid Lothian, or Edinburgh.. Edinburgh, Leith, Musselburg,
148,607 8. East Lothian, or Haddington. Dunbar, and Haddington, 31,164 9. Berwick Dunse, and Lauder,
30,779 10. Renfrew Renfrew,....
92,596 11. Ayr
Ayr, Kilmarnock, and Irvine, . 103,954 12. Wigtown. Wigtown,
26,891 13. Lanark
Glasgow, Hamilton, and Lanark, .. 191,752 14. Peebles Peebles,
9,935 15. Selkirk.. Selkirk,
5,889 16. Roxburgh Jedburgh, Kelso, and Melrose, 37,230 17. Dumfries.. Dumfries, Aunan,...
62,960 18. Kirkcudbright ... Kirkcudbright, New Galloway 33,684
These thirty-three counties choose thirty representatives to sit in the Parliament of Great Britain; Bute and Caithness choosing alternately; as do Nairn and Cromarty, and Clackmannan and Kinross. Fifteen other representatives are also chosen by the undermentioned (67) burghs, which are therefore called royal boroughs, viz. Edinburgh
1 Kirkwall, Dingwall, Wick, Dornock, Taine
1 Fortrose, Inverness, Nairn, Forres
1 Elgin, Cullen, Banff, Inverary, Kintore
1 Aberdeen, Bervy, Montrose, Aberbrothic, Brechin 1 Forfar, Perth, Dundee, Cupar, St. Andrew's