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PROHIBITING HOSTILE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL

MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES

Canonittenen

United States. Congress cente
Foreign Relation

4 - APR 14
HEARING Copy 1976

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
OCEANS AND INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

UNITED STATES SENATE

NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

THE DRAFT CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF MILI.
TARY OR ANY OTHER HOSTILE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL

MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES

JANUARY 21, 1976

Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Relations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1976

66-312

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

JOHN SPARKMAN, Alabama, Chairman MIKE MANSFIELD, Montana

CLIFFORD P. CASE, New Jersey FRANK CHURCH, Idaho

JACOB K. JAVITS, New York STUART SYMINGTON, Missouri

HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island

JAMES B. PEARSON, Kansas
GALE W. McGEE, Wyoming

CHARLES H. PERCY, Illinois
GEORGE S. MCGOVERN, South Dakota ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan
HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota
DICK CLARK, Iowa
JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware

PAT M. HOLT, Chief of Staff
ARTHUR M. KUHL, Chief Clerk

SUBCOMMITTEE ON OCEANS AND INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island, Chairman
JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware

ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan
ARTHUR M. KUHL, Staff Associate
DAVID KEANEY, Staff Associate

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Y Statements by :

Anderson, Dwayne S., Deputy Director for Negotiations and Arms

Control, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, International
Security Affairs, Department of Defense; accompanied by Capt.
Kenneth W. Ruggles, Research and Advance Technology Division,
Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, De- Page
partment of Defense -

19 Davies, Thomas D., Assistant Director, U.S. Arms Control and Dis

armament Agency Nonproliferation and Advanced Technology Bu-
reau; accompanied by Dr. Pierce S. Corden, Physical Science Of-
ficer, Nonproliferation and Advanced Technology Bureau; Mr.
James E. Goodby, Deputy Director, Bureau of Politico-Military
Affairs, Department of State; and Mr. James L. Malone, General
Counsel, U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency ---

8 Gude, Hon. Gilbert, A Representative in Congress from the 8th Congressional District of Maryland ---

2 Weiss, Edith Brown, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering and Politics, Princeton University --

23 Insertions for the record :

Series of correspondence between Congressmen Gude and Fraser and
the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency-

5 ACDA responses to additional questions of Senator Pell..

16 Exchange of correspondence between Senator Pell and the Depart

ment of Defense concerning proposed environmental modification
treaty and Project COLD CLAY -

22 Prepared statement of Dr. Edith Brown Weiss--

28 Appendix: Text of S. Res. 281, 92d Cong., 2d sess.

33 25th Pugwash Conference "Development, Resources and World Se

curity”—Madras, India, January 13–19, 1976—Paper prepared for
Working Group Agenda, Topic 5(e), by Milton Leitenberg--

34 “Weather Warfare Forecast: Partly Cloudy-UN Treaty Would Per

mit "Peaceful' Environmental Research By Military," article by
Lowell Ponte, the Los Angeles Times, January 29, 1976---

45 (III)

PROHIBITING HOSTILE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL

MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 21, 1976

UNITED STATES SENATE,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON OCEANS AND

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 3:05 p.m., in room 2441, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator Claiborne Pell (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senator Pell.

Senator PELL. The Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment will come to order.

OPENING STATEMENT

It was with very real satisfaction that on August 21, 1975, I participated in the tabling by the United States at the Geneva negotiations of parallel drafts of a convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques by the chief delegates of the United States and the Soviet Union. The tabling of the draft convention came just a bit over 2 years after the Senate in July 1973 passed by an overwhelming majority Senate Resolution 71, which I introduced, calling for negotiation of a treaty banning environmental warfare. And I am most appreciative of the courtesy of the administration in inviting me to participate in the tabling.

Those of us in the Congress who took the lead in convincing the administration that it is far easier to nip an arms race in the bud than to attempt to slow it after it has gained momentum, applaud the efforts being made by the United States and the Soviet Union. It is my fervent hope that a treaty can be concluded early this year.

The subcommittee is very pleased to have the various witnesses who will speak on this subject with us today. The purpose of the hearing is to receive a status report and comments on the progress made on the convention in the negotiations last fall in Geneva. The subcommittee would also like to hear what problems have arisen, what plans the administration has for the spring session, and what the prospects, in their view, are for early conclusion of an agreement.

In particular, the subcommittee would like to know whether the treaty might be strengthened by deleting the language limiting the prohibition against environmental warfare to those instances in which the effects are "widespread, long-lasting, or severe”, by expand

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