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HEREDITY OF GEORGE NICHOLS. ratory and the Eugenics Education

George Nichols, born July 4, 1778, Society were nominated to the Interin Salem, served for a while as clerk, national Commission of Eugenics for and at seventeen sailed on a merchant representation thereon.

It was vessel " to see the world." He con- nounced that Dr. MacDonald was the tinued to go to sea as supercargo, and new Secretary of the Liverpool Heredlater as captain and part owner until ity Society. he was twenty-six years old. He then went into commerce and prospered;

EUGENICS IN INDIA. but lost all his ships in the War of

The Indian Eugenics Society was 1812 by privateers, and was ruined. organized at Lahore on Monday, June Later he went into the auction and 20, 1921. The Secretary reports over brokerage business. He died in 1865.

150 members with branches at Lahore Love of the sea

was a prevailing and Simla. It has issued fifteen leaf. passion. He early learned to spend lets in the Indian and English lanmuch time in the sea near Salem and guages, and has supplied over twenty he states that he always had a strong lectures and papers. Among the memdesire to pursue a seafaring life. bers of the society are representatives There was a marked love of adventure. of the Panjab Legislative Council and His father was a retired sea captain Indian Legislative Assembly. The but with the marriage of George to General Secretary is Gopalji AhluSarah Peirce this trait was lost to the walia, Imperial Hotel, Lahore, India.

George Nichols had some liter. The first leaflet bears the date of ary capacity and wrote his autobiog- July 9, 1921, and begins with Galton's raphy. His brother, Ichabod, wrote definition of eugenics. The aims of some famous religious books. George's the Society are listed as follows: (1) son George became a literary critic. To urge the importance of a critical He had good judgment in business, study of problems relating to race imand this trait has been handed down provement from Indian point of view through three generations of descend- and having regard for Indian traants.

ditions and present conditions. (2) Martha Nichols. A Salem Shipmas- To spread a knowledge of sex and ter and Merchant: The Autobiography heredity so far as that may affect the of George Nichols. Boston, Four Seas Co., 1921. 127 pp.

improvement of the race. (3) To

modify and direct matters relating to EUGENICS EDUCATION SOCIETY,

human parenthood according to euAt a meeting of the Council of the genical ideals. (4) To further EuEugenies Education Society held at genic teaching at home, in the school 11, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Nov. 1, 1921, and elsewhere. there were present Major Darwin, in the chair, Lady Chambers, Sir Robert EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF Armstrong Jones, Miss E. Corry, Mr.

HEREDITY. Fisher, Dean Inge, Miss Kirby, Mr. Dr. A. R. Middleton (Amer. Soc. of Lidbetter, Prof. E. W. MacBride, Mrs. Zoologists at Toronto) finds that Potten, Mrs. Neville-Rolfe and Mr. paramecia kept in 0.2 per cent. norFleischl. The treasurer read a favor- mal saline (and food) divide faster able financial report. Major Darwin than those kept in distilled water (and gave a report on his visit to the Con- food) as a control. If after a time ress in New York. The Galton Labo- the saline cultures are put in a 0.1

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per cent. salt solution they continue THE CRÔ-MAGNÖN MAN their rapid division for 10 days subse

IN SWEDEN. quent to 10 days in the 0.2 per cent. In the September October, 1921, saline; for 60 days subsequent to 30 number of Natural History, N. C. Nel. days in the 0.2 per cent. saline. The son, of the staff of the American modification of the fission rate due to Museum of Natural History, in the the strong saline solution persists in course of a paper on “Recent Activithe weak solution-the induced modi- ties of European Archæologists says fication of the division rate is in-" that the tall, narrow-skulled people herited.

of present-day Sweden are direct de

scendants of the highly gifted, narrowHEREDITARY BLOOD QUALITIES. skulled Cro-Magnon men of Palæolith

In the Journal of Immunology for ic France and central Europe is the September, Dr. R. Ottenberg tells of opinion expressed by Oscar Montelius the work done by von Dungern and of the National Museum, Stockholm. Hirschfeld and others on the agglu- His views on this and related topics tinogens A and B of red cells. The

are set forth in the April number of l'esults of these investigations are ap- the Antiquarian Journal of Lonplied to the question of disputed pater- don. ... The article, unfortunately, nity. If the child's blood is the cor- is too brief to be convincing; but a l'ect group for the alleged parents, statement of such importance coming then the child could be their offspring, from one of Europe's foremost veteran but need not necessarily be. But, on archæologists compels attention. the other hand, if the child's group is “... It is estimated that he (the wrong for the two asserted parents, Crô-Magnon man) arrived in southern then one can say with absolute cer- Sweden about 15,000 years ago. tainty that the child must have a

“... No direct proof is offered by parent other than one of those as- Montelius that it was, in fact, the Crôserted.

The same evidence can be Magnon man who brought these culused, either to prove the illegitimacy tural traits to the Baltic shores. It of the offspring or (circumstances be- is pointed out merely that the stature ing reversed) to prove the innocence and skull form of the Cro-Magnon of a corespondent asserted to be the man—said to be the only inhabitant father of a given child. In infants

of central Europe during the Upper and very young children the test can Palæolithic—were much like those of be relied on only if it shows definite the present Nordic stock, typical esgroup characteristics, which it does pecially of the central inland disin the majority of cases. The test tricts of the Scandinavian peninsula. ran be easily done with a few drops 'The connection between these two of blood obtained from

a painless peoples receives further confirmation prick with a small needle. Consider- through the fact that archæologic ing this, and the importance of the and linguistic studies in Sweden both questions often at issue, it seems as indicate, it is said, that no other though some legal means could be de- people ever inhabited the southern and vised by which the persons concerned central portions of the region mencould be compelled to allow the ex- tioned. Thus the oldest skulls discovamination at the hands of a represen- ered are held to be dolichocephalic, and tative of the court. (Jour. Am. Med. the geographic place names are conAssoc., Dec. 17.)

sidered to be of Swedish derivation."



Prof. Dr. Lad. Haskovec of Prague, Priblished monthly by

Czechoslovakia, one of the leading THE EUGENICS RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, factors of the eugenics movement 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa.

abroad, is a member of the Eugenics and Cold Spring Harbor,

Commission seated at Liège, Belgium. Long Island, N. Y.

This Commission has been organized Subscription fifty cents per year, postage free in by the “Institut International d'Anthe United States and island possessions ; also in Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and Canal Zone.

In all thropologie ” of Paris. Dr. Haskovec's cther countries adil ten cents for postage.

collaborators are: Prof. Winiwarter Entered as second-class matter May 10, 1916, at the "ost Office at Lancaster, Pa., under the Act of of Liège, Dr. Frets of Rotterdam, and March 3, 1879.

Dr. Krizenecki.
January 1922.

Dr. John Joseph Kindred, who has

been interested in Eugenical studies ACCESSIONS TO ARCHIVES.

for some years, and who has conNovember, 1921.

tributed a few articles on this subject, BIOGRAPHIES, 3.

is, as a member of the House of RepreGENEALOGIES, 1.

sentatives, U. S., from the Second New Town HISTORY, 1.

York (Queens Borough) District, givRECORD OF FAMILY TRAITS, 11.

ing close attention to National LegisINDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS CARDS, 6.

lation relating to medical and welfare FIELD REPORTS :

His speech

“ Medical Miss Aldridge: Description, 21. Treatment and Hospitalization of ErMiss Andrus : Description, 11. Service Men Suffering from Insanity Miss Earle: Description, 174; charts, and Nervous Diseases; Benefits to 39; individuals, 765.

Them to be Conferred by the Sweet Miss Nelson: Description, 90. Bill-H. R. 6611” attracted favorable Whittier School: Description, 198; attention among the members of the charts, 17; individuals, 381.

U. S. Congress and also among physi

cians. December, 1921. BIOGRAPHIES, 2.


Bleecker Van Wagenen, business man

and philanthropist, died at his country PERSONAL NOTES.

home, Bellows Falls, Vermont, Dr. Mabel Hattersley Pearson, '10, the 11th of November, 1921, at the age is physician to the students at Bryn of

seventy-four years.

M. Van Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

Wagenen represented the finest type At the Eastman School of Music, of American business men.

He was Rochester, N. Y., a research Depart. equally devoted to his business and to ment in the psychology of music is

humanitarian interests.

For many being organized by Dr. Hazel M. Stan-years he was a member of the firm of ton.

Dodd, Mead & Company, publishers, Mr. G. H. Knibbs, formerly of the and in later years was its president. Statistical Office of the Commonwealth He was a member of the Board of of Australia, has resigned his position Trustees of the Training School at to accept a directorship of the Insti- Vineland, New Jersey, and took an tute of Science and Industry. His active interest in the scientific studies present address is 314 Albert Street, of the Eugenies Record Office. He conE. Melbourne, Victoria.

tributed largely to the support and



publication of studies of the Com- THE BROKEN HILL SKULL. mittee on Sterilization. In 1912 he In ancient human skull has recent y reported the progress of this com- been found in the Broken Hill Mine, mittee's investigation to the First In- about 650 miles north of Bulawayo, ternational Congress of Eugenics in South Africa. Sir Arthur Keith writes London. In 1914, Bulletins 10A and in the Illustrated London Vencs, No10B of the Eugenics Record Office, vember 19, 1921, “ The Rhodesian fossil which consisted of the report of the skull does not represent a type of man Committee's work up to that date, which is new to anthropologists; every were published. Mr. Van Wagenen gave feature of this skull proclaims the pot only of his means, but also devoted ancient African of whom it formed his own time and efforts to eugenical part to have been first cousin to studies. He is the type of man who Neanderthal man, that peculiar spemakes scientific research possible. cies of humanity which lived in

Europe throughout a certain phase WOMEN IN INDUSTRY.

of the Ice Age. .. The revelation The position of women in industry. now made in northern Rhodesia exhas a bearing upon differential fecun- tends the habitat of this ancient and dity and survival of offspring.

extinct type of humanity far into Bulletin Number 3 issued by The Africa. We now seem to be tracing Women's Bureau of the U. S. Depart- Neanderthal man toward his cradlement of Labor, entitled “Standards land, for in many of its features the for the Employment of Women in In- Rhodesian skull is more primitive than dustry,” short, clean-cut standards of European specimens of the same type. employment conditions are proposed.

“It cannot be said that this discovery of fossil man has taken the

anthropological world by surprise. HEREDITARY DISEQUILIBRATION. From time to time during the last

Before the Toronto meetings of the fifty years numerous travelers and American Society of Naturalists Dr. local archæologists have reported the C. R. Griffith, University of Illinois, find of Palæolithic stone implements reported that rats, either male

in South Africa, in workmanship not female, forced to live for three months unlike the implements found in the in a cage that rotated rapidly, when

gravel and terrace deposits of Europe. released whirled in the site direc

The presence of such flint implements tion for several weeks. Some of them is a sure indication that man is an eventually showed “ disequilibra- arcient inhabitant of South Africa." tion," a tumor developed in the inner

Dr. A. Smith Woodward concludes ear, and the rat died. A male rat that the new Rhodesian man is a later thus treated and then mated, out- development than Neanderthal man: side of the revolving cage, with un- of more recent geological date.

He treated females, produced offspring a states that the leg bones found with large proportion of which when a few the skull are in all respects those months old showed “ disequilibration," of an ordinary modern man." Hence otic tumors and premature death. In this fossil man doubtless stood persome way the tendency to form otic fectly erect. The most striking featumors (apparently induced by the tures of the skull are (1) immense whirling) had become an “inherited” transverse ridges over the eye sockets: character.

(2) an extraordinarily broad palate



with typically human teeth, some of

WAR AND EUGENICS. which show decay; (3) the long and

(Abstract from Eugenique, Nov., 1921.) massive face; (4) a brain case whose capacity is not far below that of the Dr. Papillault, in an interesting lecmodern Englishman.

ture held at a meeting of the Société

Française d'Eugénique, proves through CHAULMOOGRA OIL AND LEPROSY. statistical figures obtained during and

Because leprosy is one of the few after the Great War that the laws of diseases which is chronic and disas- eugenics have been confirmed by the trous enough to be institutionalized by events of the terrible crisis. the several states and territories, any Did not the different races, the progress of medical science in treating Turks, the Armenians, the Russians, this ailment has a bearing upon na- the Germans and the English act durtional eugenics. Recently the new ing the war just as they would have treatment by the ethyl esters of chaul- acted thousands of years ago, thereby moogra oil has given rise to optimistic showing that stable heredity domjand extravagant claims in regard to nates environment and education? the possibility of this remedy in cur- The war, like all exogenous causes, ing leprosy. The United States Public shocks, fatigue, traumatism, infection, Health Service feels called upon to etc., acts seriously only on mentalities advise caution. In a recent announce- which are already prepared or unbalment it says, “the ethyl esters of anced, defective or weak. War somechaulmoogra oil, the use of which has times reveals latent psychopathic largely supplanted the oil itself, con- troubles, which would have manifested stitute a most valuable agent in the themselves sooner or later. treatment of leprosy. In treating According to available statistics the young persons and those in the early number of insane in French hospitals stages of the disease, the improvement has decreased during the war. Delinhas been rapid and striking; in older quencies among the adolescent have persons and older cases it is less so. increased, but this was due to the Of the cases paroled from the leprosy familial conditions. Where the father stations in the Hawaiian Islands so had to leave the home, the young boy far about eight per cent. have relapsed was left in charge of the family, playand returned for treatment. This was ing the rôle of the man and soon to be expected; and on the whole the falling easy prey to temptations. results have been so favorable as to The number of suicides in France make treatment of the disease hope- during the war was not abnormal, thus ful. But only time can tell."

proving that suicide originates from a In the Public Health Reports for mental and mostly hereditary defect November 11, 1921, the statement is rather than from a state of despair. made that the ethyl esters of chaul- Eugenicists, Dr. Papillault claims, moogra oil are superior to the oil do not pretend to put a halt to social itself in that (1) the former may be reforms, but try to show that the administered practically to all pati- amount of money spent for the educaents, and (2) their use, when injected tion of the defectives is a loss to subcutaneously, is not accompanied society. He advocates that such inby the pain, discomfort, and other un- adequates, many of whom are a grave toward effects attendant on the use of menace to society, should be prevented * chaulmoogra oil.

from reproduction.

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