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China. In his "Science of Power,” Benjamin Kidd says, “Within the space of less than twogenerations, Japan has passed through the whole interval which separates feudalism from modern conditions. In this space of time a change in general habits, in social and mental outlook, and in national consciousness was accomplished as by the wand of a conjuror.” This radical change was brought about by the adoption of Western Science and to-day Japan is sitting at the Peace Conference as a world power.

In the Missionary Review of the World, W. Reginald Wheeler of Hankow, China, has this to say regarding the profound changes which are taking place in China: “The part which missionary education has already played in the education of China is acknowledged by both Chinese and foreigners.” Dr. Amos P. Wilder, formerly American ConsulGeneral at Shanghai, has said, “Chinese modern education can be traced to missionary influence exclusively.” Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, one of the best known writers on the Far East, has said: “The feature of the greatest permanent consequence in the history of our relations with China is to be found in the record of the contribution which Americans have made to education." Dr. Wellington Koo has spoken of this assistance, and the consequent gratitude of the Chinese, as follows:

"It is a general conviction on the part of the Chinese people that through their untiring efforts in establishing schools and colleges in China, through work as translators and teachers and professors, American missionaries, in coöperation with those from other countries, have awakened the interests of the Chinese masses in the value and importance of the new learning"

The evidence is overwhelming to the effect that education has illimitable power in shaping society. But this very power reveals the gravest dangers. Germany prostituted science, culture, morality and religion for selfish and unholy ends. Respect for the rights of the individual was lacking; personal initiative was purposely broken down and obedience was turned into abject subservience to the military authority of the State. Hatred for other peoples was taught as a patriotic duty. In Japan it is now becoming clear that the infusion of the scientific spirit and method of western civilization did not fundamentally change the State's attitude toward the individual; neither did it produce any great moral dynamic, both essentials of democracy. In spite of her constitution, Japan has few, if any, real democratic elements in her social and political life. Her student body is largely materialistic and the moral and religious life of her people hopelessly inadequate to sustain a modern civilization. The only hope of Japan is Christian education and this the Japanese leaders will some day reluctantly admit. Notwithstanding the glory of American idealism as revealed in the splendid achievements of American manhood in France, there is abundant evidence in America that our educational system must be entirely reconstructed if it is to meet the exigencies of the social rebuilding that has been made necessary because of the war. The low ebb of civic righteousness, the increase in crime, the contemptible piddling of politicians in Congress, the baneful spirit of profiteering in time of great national emergency, the danger of commercial exploitation in worldwide markets, the deep rumbling of social unrest, the amazing opposition of working men to the prohibition amendment and the astounding attitude of certain senators backed by groups of organized wealth against a League of Nations are a few of the evidences which make this adjustment necessary.

In all that we have been saying three things stand out very clearly. The greatest power in shaping national life is education. An educational system based largely upon science may become a positive menace to the world; the introduction of more history, literature, and art into the curriculum may help but it will not remedy the vital defect. The third fact is that, if education is to lay hold of the motives and forces that shape conduct and create the ideal of Christian citizenship, room must be made for a real program of moral and religious education. Professor Norman E. Richardson has very trenchantly stated the case as follows: "The objects of these Prussian and Japanese educators have not been ideal from the Christian point of view. But the methods which they have devised to accomplish their ends awaken our profound respect. If the educators of America should agree to use similar means, in less than two generations they could permeate our nation with the pure religion of the Son of God as effectively as Germany became permeated with militarism or Japan with the scientific spirit. We know what ideals, what loyalties, what knowledge, what convictions when universally present, will usher in the kingdom of God. We hesitate and fumble and fail in fashioning an educational program and policy that is national in its scope, coherent in its various parts, controlled by leaders of clearest educational vision, and supported by a motive big enough to bring shame to all self-seeking among the coöperating units." There are two aspects of this statement of Dr. Richardson which call for some modification. Surely he does not mean that in order to become part of a wider community and national system of religious education, denominational bodies should lay less stress upon their own educational efficiency; but rather

and that such efficiency should be directed for the widest ethical aims. The second modification is this: Any educational system that seeks to create new national ideals must at the same time broaden the sense of national responsibility and good will to include other races and international and world relationships. The only hope of a great and permanent League of Nations lies in the moral and religious education of the coming generation throughout the world. The ideal of a Christian citizenship is incompatible with an intense but narrow and selfish nationalism. An intense, highly efficient but generous and sympathetic nationalism is the Christian ideal. America will save herself and her institutions far more by assuming large responsibilities for the Christian education of France, Russia, the Balkans and the Far East, than by a policy of isolation. The most colossal and far-reaching investment the United States can possibly make is to work out for herself a system of Christian education that has as its goal the creation of Christian citizenship and then send government-paid teachers to all of these countries and help them organize and equip a similar system just as she has done in the Philippine Islands. This is the conception of education held by Christian Missions which has done much to lay the foundations for a world democracy.


The task of reconstructing the work of education around the central idea of making a worldwide Christian citizenship involves the placing of emphasis in public school education upon the following six things:

1. Education will have a distinct moral and spiritual aim based upon the fundamental fact of an ethical God, the ten commandments and the central principle of Christian ethics. The intrinsic greatness and value of the human soul will be given a paramount place in the educative process. Aul education is in a sense religious because it deals with persons seeking adjustment to a spiritual uni

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