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rection, in his ministerial operations ; in short, his is there is no transgression. Nor was this, by any steady observance of this simple principle, of means, a novel doctrine among the Jews. It was obeying God rather than man, that brought him held by the Pharisees, by far the most numerous into the situation in which be now stood, and sect in Judea, and therefore might be supposed to loaded him with those fetters which would have be, in some measure, identified with the national better become the hands of the shedder of inno-creed, for it was impugned only by the Sadducees, cent blood, the destroyer of human life, than those the libertines, and infidels of the age. And when of the apostle of mercy, the preacher of the un- Paul was arraigned on the same ground, before the searchable riches of Christ, the publisher of the High Priest and the Council of the Sanhedrim, manifold grace of God.

the Pharisees stood up in his defence, and expressed Having premised this, let us now look into the themselves, on the occasion, in a manner that charge itself, as embodied and extended by his ad- evinced at once just thinking, and much good sense. versaries. It was of a mixed complexion, com- “ We find no evil against this man; but if a bining in it offences partly of a civil and political, spirit or an angel hath spoken to him let us not and partly of an ecclesiastical or religious charac- fight against God.” ter. He was accused of sedition-of speaking But it was not the simple doctrine of the resuragainst Cæsar-of polluting the temple, by intro- rection in itself, abstractly considered, but the ducing into it persons who had not received the doctrine of the resurrection, viewed in connection discriminating symbol of Jewish fellowship-and with the resurrection of Christ and believers, that of teaching all men everywhere against the people, constituted the burden of the charge against Paul; and against the temple, the holy place, and against and it was, in fact, however concealed the design, a the law.

thrust, aimed not only against the person of the These allegations Paul not only denied, but de apostle, but, through him, against the whole of fied any one, and every one, to establish against that scheme of salvation, and system of religion, him, by any thing like clear and unexceptionable which was published by Jesus, and of which Paul proof.

“ Certain Jews from Asia,” said he, at his was so successful a propagator and so able a defirst answer, when he stood before Felix, “ cer- fender. The Jews, it is well known, could never tain Jews from Asia found me purified in the be reconciled to the idea of a humble and suffering temple, neither with multitude, nor with tumult, Saviour. They expected indeed a Messiah, but it who ought to have been here before thee, and was a Messiah of a very different description, object, if they had ought against me. Or else, let one surrounded with the ensigns of majesty, and these same here say, if they have found any evil the glory of a princely establishment, -one who doing in me, whilst I stood before the council, should restore the throne of David to its ancient except it be for this one voice that I cried, stand- splendour,—who should repair and reinvigorate ing among them, Touching the resurrection of the the whole fabric of their civil and ecclesiastical dead, I am called in question by you this day.” And policy,—and who, by the wisdom of his measures, while he answered for himself at the bar of Festus: and the power of his arm, should render them “ Neither against the law of the Jews,” said he, victorious and triumphant over all their enemies. “neither against the temple, nor yet against Cæ- The doctrine of a spiritual salvation, flowing from sar, have I offended any thing at all.”

free grace through a Mediator, in itself so humSo that if we lay out of the charge all those bling to human pride and vanity, could never obvague and unfounded assertions which disgraced tain a place in minds inflated with such lofty notions it, one only article of accusation will appear fairly of worldly greatness and national grandeur. to stand against the apostle,--that one touching The agitators in this affair with Paul, therefore, the resurrection of the dead. To this he pled determined to oppose him to the utmost of their guilty at once, as to the fact itself, but certainly power, and resolved to crush, hy every mean within not as to the criminality supposed to be attached their grasp, the system attempted to be ingrafted to it. For it was unquestionably brought forward upon this grand and leading idea, characteristic of and urged against him as a fact importing some the dispensation we now enjoy; and they stupidly kind of delinquency on his part, not easily defined. imagined that if they could hut dispose of the How the preaching of the resurrection of the dead apostle,—that if they could but extinguish, by the came to form the ground of an accusation against hand of the executioner, the transcendent talent him, or upon what principle it was construed into by which he soared so high above his compeers, an offence against the State, or against Cæsar, or and quench, in the silence of death, the tongue against the law of the Jews, is not, at first sight, which spake with such power, and often with such very apparent. With the State, and with the persuasion, the germs of Christianity would be government of Cæsar, it had certainly nothing to stifled in embryo, and the threatened danger to do. With the law of the Jews, taking that law their fast decaying system of ritual laws would be to signify the whole fabric of their civil and eccle- arrested, and its feeble and lingering reign for some siastical constitution, as those stood blended to-time yet prolonged. gether, some connection, perhaps, may be more Such, then, was the charge exhibited against readily traced. Yet it may be observed, that there Paul. Such were the views adopted by those who was no precise or particular law against preaching proposed and brought it forward; and such was op the resurrection of the dead, and where no law their ultimate object in pressing on the matter with

A SKETCH OF THE EARLY

such unyielling perseverance and determined ob- | feeling and faithful servant of Jesus, even whilst stinacy. It was no other than to put down, if he is enduring the contradiction and contumely of possible, the doctrine of God, by the death of his the ungodly, that the resistance of the sin-blasted servant; and, at all events, to interrupt and retard and sin-infuriated soul will recoil against itself, the progress of that heavenly light which had and that the violent dealing of those who persedawned on Palestine ; which brought destruction cute the members of Christ will fall with tenfold upon every Jewish institution; and which accom- force

upon

their own heads. But all that he can plished at last the downfal of the law, and brought do, in such circumstances, is to wish and pray on the total abrogation of the Mosaic economy. that their eyes may be opened before they go

The subject we have now considered, shows, hence, and that repentance and pardon may be that the faithful servants of the Lord, in the given them before the discriminating hand of jusconscientious discharge of their duty, will some- tice hath sealed up, in irreversible judgment, the times meet with opposition from men of corrupt, state of their souls. and sometimes with oppression and persecution from men of reprobate minds, but they must go forward with their Master's work, must HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN SCOTLAND, show to Jacob his transgression, and to Israel

BY THE Rev. JAMES Bryce, his sin, and publish the dear and precious

Minister of Gilcomston Parish, Aberdeen. name of Jesus for salvation to all, come what

PERIOD IV. will. “ Woe he unto me,” said Paul on another

FROM A, D, 601 to 700. occasion, woe be unto me, if I preach not the Gospel.” They have this encouragement, how- In the sixth century of the Christian era, true religion ever, whilst they are grappling with the perverse penetrated into the remotest corners of the land. The

had made rapid progress in this kingdom, and liad ness of some, whilst they are struggling against labours of Columba and Kentigern had been signally the persecution of others, and facing the des- blessed, and their success may he quoted as a proof, perate doings of a gainsaying world, that they that the head of the Church never fails to raise up bear the commission, and are in the service, of teachers suited to the exigencies of his people. It is the King of kings, who hath directed them to go much to be regretted, that every attempt to trace the and stand in the temple, and speak unto the people consequences of Kentigern's ministry in the neighbourall the words of this life; and that they go forth, to be a gap in the ecclesiastical history of that district under the protecting shield of that God, who bath for a period of not less than five hundred years. During fenced and guarded their rugged path, with this that time it may be supposed that the fame of divine warning to all who may oppose or set npon them truth was never totally extinguished, but how it was to injure them in any way, “ Touch not mine cherished and maintained seems to be now unknown. anointed, and do my prophets no harm.” This No satisfactory account can be given of the causes which

Some are of protection the apostle experienced in an eminent opinion, that the churches of Strathcluyd were burned degree throughout the whole of this persecuting by the Danes, that many of the clergy and people were work. All the prejudices of Judaism were in murdered, and that the records perished amid the gearray against him; all the mockery of ecclesiasti- neral ruin. It might easily be shownl

, that this occal and worldly malice hung upon his steps, and currence, supposing it to have taken place, cannot followed him with its en venomed shafts; and afford a sufficient reason for the silence of historians imperial Rome, too, the mistress of the world, from the death of Kentigern till the foundation of the

bishopric by David I. lent her hand to the work, menaced him with the

Before Columba bad been long settled in lona, St. sword of her vengeance, and shook over the head Ciaran who has been formerly mentioned as the last of God's servant the spear of her power. But and best of his instructors, left Ireland from some He who was higher than the higliest regarded it, cause which has not been explained, and took up his

Here he laboured most siica hand invisible was all the while secretly and residence in Cantyre. silently counter-working the dark plottings and cessfully in converting the inhabitants to Christianity. diabolical machinations of mighty mortal man

His dwelling-place was a cave near Campbelton, which

still bears his name, and that parish was originally against the ambassador of Christ. Paul had stood called Kilchiaran. The church which was said to have in law arraigned before the Sanhedrim, and before been dedicated to this saint, stood in the centre of the Felix, and before Festus, and now before king burying-ground at Camphelton, and its ruins are still Agrippa, but not a hair of his head had fallen to visible. His name is found connected with a place in the ground. The Lord whom he served was with Ayrshire, but whether his labours extended to that

district is uncertain. Michael and Coamhgbin, (Covin) him, and delivered him. And so will He eventually deliver from his parishes which respectively bear their naines.

preached the Gospel, and laboured chiefly in those

The enemies every servant of His who knows and does writer from whom this fact taken is scarcely to be his duty, who is true to Him, and to the souls of trusted. He has not even mentioned where the men, faithful to declare the whole counsel of God, parishes are situated; the nearest to them in our modern and earnest in his prayers, and conscientious in

names of parishes are Kirkmichael and Colvend. In his labours for Israel that they may be saved, tra

the statistical account of the former, lately published,

the writer seems to countenance this statement, for he vailing as in birth, like Paul, till Christ is formed

“ The derivation of the name Kirkmichael is eviin their hearts.-Christ in them the hope of glory. dently from St. Michael, to whom the church was Yet it is matter of painful reflection to every dedicated.” We have good reason to believe, that many other Missionaries were sent from Iona to the from the territories of their father, which were now different districts of Scotland, and that they planted called the kingdom of Northumberland. His second churches and divided parishes, but as their labours son Oswald, took refuge in Iona, and was educated were obscure, though useful, their names have perished under the superintendence of the successor of Columnba. amiil the multitude of things that were.

says,

He was instructed in the doctrines of the Gospel, and During that period, when Columba, Kentigern, and was an eye-witness of the blessings which Christianity their fellow-labourers were employed in spreading the confers upon the people. By one of those sudden knowledge of Christ throughout Scotland, the darkness changes which the history of nations occasionally exof ignorance brooded over the southern part of the hibits, Oswald was in the year 634 raised to the throne island. The Roman empire was now on the decline; of Northumberland. His uncle Edwin is spoken of by the emperors had begun to feel the curse of too exten- historians as the best and greatest of the Anglo-Saxon sive dominion, and the effeminate son of Theodosius was monarchs, but he was involved in wars with his neighbut ill qualified in an age of universal degeneracy to bours, and perished in a battle fought against Cadbrave the storm of the Gothic invasion. The army in wallon, who had not forgotten the quarrel between Britain was recalled, and Honorius, in letters addressed himself and Edwin, when the latter lived at his father's to the cities, acknowledges their separation from the court. The death of the king was the cause of many empire and leaves them to their own resources. Their calamities to his subjects, and the year in which it northern neighbours, whom Gibbon is pleased to style happened, was long reckoned unfortunate and accursed savages, were not slow in invading their territory and by the inhabitants of Northumberland. Oswald took in plundering their property. The wall of Severus possession of the kingdom after the death of his elder presented but a weak' barrier to the hardy sons of Cale- brother, and by his wise administration speedily restorecl donia, and they seem to have anticipated a feeble it to its former prosperity. defence from men who had long been accustomed to The events now narrated are neither new nor unlook for protection to their Roman masters. In their known, but they have been introduced here for the difficulties the Britons sought the assistance of the purpose of showing the causes by which a great change Saxons and the pirates, Hengist and Horsa, who speedily was produced in the religious condition of the northern obeyed the call, soon rescued them from the dangers division of the Heptarchy. Oswald saw with much with which they were threatened, and forced the Picts concern the ignorance and idolatry of his subjects, and and Scots to seek the protection of their glens and was anxious to make them acquainted with that religion mountains; but they seized the fairest portions of the in which he had been carefully educated at lona. He country, which they had come to defend, and chased therefore requested his former benefactors to send to the Britons into Wales and Cornwall. South Britain him one of their number who might be qualified to inonce more became the scene of the grossest idolatry, struct the people of Northumberland in the doctrines and the worship of Woden, Hertha, and Zernebock, of the Gospel. They readily complied with his request, was substituted for the Gospel of Christ. The Saxons and sent Corman, who undertook the office of a misentertained the most deadly hatred against all wlio sionary without the requisite qualifications. In what professed Christianity, and they persecuted and mur- respect he was disqualified is not very clearly ascerdered them, whenever they fell into their power. tained. Some writers blame the sternness and austerity

Matters continued in this state for a considerable of his manners, which were found unsuited to the babits period, but Providence opened up a way for the conver- of a rude and somewhat licentious people. Others say, sion of the Saxons. It does not belong to our present that his mild and amiable dispositions rendered him plan to give any general view of the method by which unable to withstand the impatience and even fierceness this was accomplished, but merely to narrate the cir- of temper, which were manifested by men unaccustomcumstances which led to the introduction of Christianity cd to the salutary restraints of the Gospel. Whatever among the Northumbrian Saxons by the Missionaries might be the cause, Corman soon left Northumberland sent from Iona. The kingdom of Bernicia extended and returned to Iona. To the members of that college from the Tyne to the Firth of Forth, and seems to he gave an account of his mission, and of the ill success have included in it Cumberland and part of Westmore- which attended bis undertaking. Aidan was present, land. It was founded by Ida, who built a castle at and made some observations on the duties of a MisBamborough on the sea-coast, and rendered that place sionary to an idolatrous people, and the members imthe capital of his dominions. This building still remains, mediately fixed on him to preach the Gospel in a splendid memorial of the ponderous architecture of Northumberland. The Episcopal writers are most ancient times. Aella, another Saxon chieftain, conquered anxious to show that he was ordained by bishops, and the territory lying between the Humber and the Tyne, was, therefore, a diocesan bishop himselt. Aidan was and founded a small kingdom, which was called Deira. ordained by such bishops as were the presbyters or Ethelfred, the grandson of Ida, married Acca the elders at Ephesus, who were exhorted to feed the fock daughter of Aella, and united the two states, Bernicia over which the Holy Ghost had made them bi:hops, and Deira, into one kingdom. It extended from the and the missionary to Northumberland was a bishop or Ilumber to the Firth of Forth, including the six presbyter, for these are convertible terms. northern counties of England, and the Merse, and the Aidan proceeded, without delay, to perform the three Lothians in Scotland. In taking possession of duties which his brethren had assigned to him, and Bernicia, Ethelfred paid no regard to the rights of commenced an attack upon the strongholds of idolatry. Edwin the infant son of Aella. It may be supposed, In the progress of his labours there can be little doubt that he who deprived the youth of his paternal inheri- that, as occasion required, assistants were sent to him tance, would not have scrupled to put him to death, from Iona, for otherwise his individual labours must but Edwin escaped all his snares and machinations. He have been comparatively useless in such a wide domain. was carried to the court of Cadran, prince of North But men imbued with a similar spirit followed up his Wales, where he received an education suited to his exertions, and idolatry began gradually to fall into disrank. An unfortunate quarrel with Cadwallon the repute. Instead of proceeding through Northumberland eldest son of Cadran, forced him to leave that country. with all the pomp and dignity of a bishop, Aidan bad After many reverses of fortune and inany wanderings, to perform the humble work of an evangelist, and like ne obtained assistance from Redwald, king of the East the apostles of our Lord, he had to encounter the opAngles, and was finally put in possession of his father's position and prejudices of those to whom he bore the kingdom along with that of Bernicia. Ethelfred was glad tidings of salvation. Bede describes him as a man Lilled in battle, and his seven sons were obliged to flee of eminent piety and ardent zeal, and, at the same time,

sor.

meek and moderate in his deportment. On his arrival | be remarked that the winter residence of the court way at Bamborough he was unable to speak, and, perhaps, did at a place called, or at least written, Adgebrin, now not perfectly understand, the Saxon dialect. But this pronounced Yeavering. There Paulinus staid for several deficiency was supplied in a manner which proves the weeks, chiefly employed in catechising and baptizing. zeal of the king. Oswald had been accustomed to the The rivulet, on whose banks many people are said to Celtic language during his stay at lona, and when Aidan have been baptized, was called Paulin's burn, or, as it preached to the people he acted as his interpreter. is now pronounced, Palinsburn, and the name is still With such an auxiliary he was at least insured a respect- attached to a considerable estate in that district. It ful hearing. The obscurity which envelopes this por- appears that the exertions of Paulinus were not fol. tion of history, prevents us from forming any judgment lowed with much fruit. Vigorous application to the regarding his success, but many circumstances lead to instruction of the people was wanting, and, in all likes the conjecture that Christianity had made considerable lihood, the good intentions of Edwin were not executed progress in Northumberland during the life-time of in consequence of the wars which immediately followed. Aidan. We read of several churches which he planted | The instructions of Paulinus would be speedily for. in various places, from the Humber to the Forth, and gotten, and the people left to themselves would soon Melrose is particularly mentioned as owing to him its return to the superstition, to which they were originally foundation.

attached. We may, therefore, presume that when The attention of the reader has been already directed Oswald took possession of the kingdom, his subjects to the testimony of Bede regarding this eminent servant might be generally considered as Pagans. of Christ. This testimony is repeated, in connection At the death of Aidan application was again made to with his labours in Northumberland. It amounts to this, the college of lona, and they appointed Finan bis succes. that he was eager to deliver to the people the whole The meagre annals of those times scarcely afford counsel of God as it is contained in the Scriptures; and an outline of the progress of the Gospel and the labours the practice of holiness, which he strongly recommended of a Christian minister, and though most beneficial, are to others, he carefully exemplified in his own person. So seldom so striking or so prominent as to serve the purfar did truth require this statement, and it is but justice poses of history. The character of Finan is little known, to admit that the historian of the Saxon Church gives it but the silence of history may at least imply a negatively with perfect good will, and without the slightest attempt good character; there was nothing in his conduct which at concealment. But there are certain exceptions in furnished just ground of complaint. Finan lived only the character of Ajdan, which, in the view of Bede, a few years in Northumberland, and in the absence of brought all his instructions under very serious question. other topics of panegyric, there may be bestowed on Aidan was zealous, but then his zeal was not according him the praise of having been worthy to be selected by to knowlerlge, and he was after all in some respects a the college at Iona to labour in a field which Aidan had heretic. This grave charge is brought forward by Bede so patiently and so carefully cultivated. in the third chapter of the third book of his history. Colman succeeded Finan, under the same authority The heresy consisted in celebrating Easter, and doing as bis predecessors. It would appear that the college some other things according to the established practice at lona exercised a superintendence over the Missionat Iona, and not according to the decrees of the bishop aries in Northumberland similar to that which a modern of Rome... As Presbyterians can discover no authority Presbytery exercises over the parishes which are comin the Bible for the celebration of this festival, it is mitted to its care. Even during the lifetime of Finan, probable the members of our Scottish Kirk will not less disputes had arisen about the celebration of Easter and esteer: the character of Aidan for this heresy with which the clerical tonsure; and Bede hints at the warmth he is so gravely charged. Oswald was removed to the with which they were conducted, and at the obstinacy regions of the blessed, to use the pbraseology of Bede, with which the Missionaries adhered to the simple prac. in 644, but under his successor the labours of Aidan tice of Columba and his successors. But after Colman and his associates experienced no interruption. A col- entered upon his ministry, these disputes greatly inlege, similar to that of lona, was established at Lindis- creased. The wife of Oswi, the king, was a native of ferne on Holy Island, for the education of those designed Kent, where ready obedience had been yielded to the for the office of the ministry, and its efficacy was after- bishop of Rome. The king and queen celebrated Easter wards extensively felt. The date assigned to this at different times, and Colman had to sament the dis. establishment is 635, at all events it existed before the sensions to which this gave rise in the royal household. death of Oswald; Aidan died in 651, and an estimate In the year 664, it was considered expedient to hold a of his character may be formed from the testimony of council at Streaneschalch, near Whitby, at which King Bede, to which we have already referred. He was Oswi was present, and which was called for the purpeculiarly fitted, both by his preaching and practice, to pose of fixing the proper time for celebrating Easter, of recommend the Gospel to a rude and idolatrous people. determining the clerical tonsure, and of considering the The exact value of his labours cannot now be reck- supremacy of the bishop of Rome. Colman defended oned, but he holds a high rank among the men of that the practice which had been introduced into Northumand a former age, who, in the face of hardship and priva- | berland, and stoutly resisted the pretended supremacy tion, extended the knowledge of salvation, and conferred of the Pope. But the opposite party made up in numupon the people benefits which outlast the short span bers what was wanting in argument. They pleaded, of human existence.

that the bishop of Rome was the successor of Peter, The writers who have been chiefly followed in the and hence the practices introduced at Rome might be preceding narrative, proceed on the supposition that the considered as possessing the sanction of apostolic auinhabitants of Northumberland, when Oswald applied thority. This plea seemed to have great weight with for a Missionary to the college of lona, were in a state the council, and especially with the King of Northumof Paganism." This statement is generally but not berland. He asked Colman if it was true that Christ strictly correct. Six years before the death of Edwin he said, “ Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build and several of his nobles made public profession of Chris-my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail tianity. Paulinus, one of the Missionaries who had been against it; and I will give unto thee the keys of the sent to Britain, by Gregory Bishop of Rome, was ap- kingdom of heaven.” Colman admitted that it was so pointed to labour in the neighbourhood of York, to which, written in the Gospel. The king tben said, “in as however, his exertions were not exclusively confined much as Peter is the door-keeper, I would not oppose The king, we have reason to believe, sent for him, and him on any account, but rather yield bim obedience, was himself baptized along with the nobles. It may lest, when I come to the gates of heaven, I should find them shut against me, by him who is allowed to keep them indestructible. Standing on an immensely extendthe keys.” The only merit of this mode of reasoning ed base ; tapering to a nariow top; within, compact consists in its coming from the lips of a king, and yet and solid; without, formed of heavy blocks of stone, it decided the question, which perhaps many present whose size has excited the astonishment of all beholders; had prejudged. Colman had now the alternative of nothing seems to have been left unthought of or undone, either submitting to the authority of the bishop of which could tend to produce that one ohject, durability Rome, or resigning the charge which had been entrust. co-extensive with that of the earth on which they were ed to him by his colleagues at Iona. He seems to have founded. What the more direct and particular inten. considered, that he would best fulfil their intentions tion of their erection was, seems still to be matter of by adopting the latter part of the alternative, and the doubt. Some persons have supposed that they were connection between Iona and Northumberland was temples erected in honour of a deity, and an attempt broken up, which had continued for about thirty years. has been made to prove that this deity was the sun, the The successor of Colman bowed to the authority of the first and greatest god in almost every heathen calendar. bishop of Rome, and his supremacy was acknowledged Considering them in this light, an ingenious writer rein most of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy. In record-marks, that "it was natural to build them in that shape ing the circumstances which led to the dissolution of which the rays of the sun display when discovered to the connection between Iona and Northumberland, it is the eye, and which men observed to be the same in terdelightful to read the honest testimony of Bede to the restial fame; because this circumstance was combined personal and ministerial character of the Scottish Mis- in their imaginations with the attribute they adored. sionaries. “They lived," says he, " in the plainest and If they were temples dedicated to the sun," he adds, “it most frugal manner, supporting themselves by their seems a natural consequence that they should likewise own labours. Their wealth was their cattle, and what be places of sepulture for kings and illustrious men, as money was presented to them they gave freely to the the space which they covered would be considered as poor. Their conduct was so devout and discreet, as consecrated ground.”+ to bring religion into the highest repute; and its mi- That one of the uses of these enormous buildings was nisters were every where received with joy. In short, that of receptacles for the dead, is generally believed, they were so devoted to the care of men's souls, that and that they were so employed has been placed beyond they were free from every tincture of avarice and re- conjecture, by the fact of sarcophagi and human bones gard of earthly possessions.”

having been found in them. Perhaps it is refining too

much to look further for their object. It is well known THE PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT.

that the ancient Egyptians spared neither labour nor

expense in preparing the tombs, and preserving the (Froin Dr Duncan's Philosophy of the Seasons-Autumn.) bodies of their dead. This was probably the only imThe most peculiar and remarkable of all architectural mortality to which they looked forward, and their preefforts, whether we consider their nature, or the toil judices rendered it dear ; for they imagined that so long expended in their erection, are assuredly the Egyptian as the body remained undecayed, the living principle Pyramids. For thousands of years these huge masses continued to inhabit it. Near their chief cities, accordof solid masonry have withstood the ravages of time, ingly, are always found extensive ranges of tombs. In and the rage of hostile armies. They continue, and to Upper Egypt these were formed by excavations in the the end of time will continue, imperishable monuments sides of the adjacent rocky mountains, which were of human power and vanity.

executed with such laborious art, that they to this day There is something very marked and characteristic form a striking contrast with the rudeness of the sur. in Egyptian architecture. Its peculiar feature, is an rounding desert. The pyramids are erected in the awful and stern sublimity; but its mysterious vastness northern extremity of this wonderful valley in the neighand severe simplicity, are without grace and without bourhood of Memphis, the second capital of that ancient beauty. From these properties, however, the most kingdom, and may have been intended to supply the powerful, if not the most refined and agreeable, emo- want of mountains in that immediate neighbourhood, tions are experienced. “ Long withdrawing lines,” for the construction of mausoleums, if we are to believe says a talented writer in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, that they are the work of this second period in the “ unbroken surfaces, large masses, simple contours, Egyptian history. They certainly are not unlike an even should the individual forms be destitute of propor- imitation of mountains; and what might be supposed tion and grace, will always produce grand and solemn to favour this opinion, is, that a hill in the neighbour. effects, capable of being carried to the majestic and hood of the pyramids has been actually shaped by art sublime. Thus, in viewing the temples scattered over into the pyramidal form, thus, by a kind of reaction, the Thebaid, those very edifices characterized by Strabo, causing nature to copy back from art, what art had orias barbarous monuments of painful labour ;' and in ginally copied from nature. contemplating the pyramids, whose outline is without The pyramids stand upon a plain about fifty miles variety and contrast, the imagination is exalted to a long, stretcbing parallel to the Nile. This plain which, bigh pitch of awe and astonishment. But these lofty beneath the soil, is composed of hard calcareous rock, is efforts arise from a principle merely accidental; they about eighty feet above the level of the river, and forms are not the fruits of intrinsic science or refined art. an elevated platform, which gives a more imposing

The writer we have quoted, justly attributes this effect to those immense masses, as the traveller ascends peculiar style of architecture to the predominant in- from the lower valley. The three largest pyramids are fiuence of the Egyptian priesthood, whose policy it was in the neighbourhood of Ghizi, and bear the name of to perpetuate their power by investing themselves, and this village. The dimensions of the largest are differthe productions of their domination, with a character ently given by travellers, but it is probably between five of inmensity and of permanence. The eternal durability and six hundred feet high, and about seven hundred feet to which, in all their designs and institutions they square at the base. It is ascended by steps, diminishaspired, necessarily pointed out a style, retaining, as the ing in height from four to two and a half feet, in apmost substantial, only the simplest forms and the largest proaching the top. Upon the top there is a platform

thirty-two feet square, consisting of nine large stones, In the pyramids this character is pecularly marked. each about the weight of a ton, though inferior to some Whatever was their immediate object, it is obvious that of the other stones, which vary in length froin five to the whole resources of art were employed to render thirty feet. The stones are generally of the sanze * Edinburgh Encyclopedia, article—" Sculpture."

+ Genticinan's Magazine, for June 1794,

masses.

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