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A COMPARISON OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE
PRINCIPAL GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS
Northwest EUROPEAN STOCK includes besides the countries of
Northwest Europe, Canada, Newfoundland, Iceland,
Australia and New Zealand. SOUTH & EAST EUROPEAN STOCK includes besides the countries
of South and East Europe, Hither Asia and Africa. ALL OTHERS include West Indies, Mexico, Central and South
America, together with the Colored Races.
TEXTS OF NOTES EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF JAPAN AND OF THE
UNITED STATES 1
Text OF PROTEST OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT
Washington, May 31, 1924 Honorable Charles E. Hughes, Secretary of State.
Sir: In pursuance of instructions from my Government, I have the honor to present to you herewith a memorandum enunciating the position of Japan on the subject of the discriminatory provisions against Japanese which are embodied in Section 13 (c) of the Immigration act of 1924, approved May 26, 1924.
"The Japanese Government are deeply concerned by the enactment in the United States of an act entitled the 'Immigration Act of 1924.' While the measure was under discussion in the Congress they took the earliest opportunity to invite the attention of the American Government to a discriminatory clause embodied in the act, namely, section 13 (c), which provided for the exclusion of aliens ineligible to citizenship in contradistinction to other classes of aliens, and which is manifestly intended to apply to Japanese. Neither the representations of the Japanese Government nor the recommendations of the President or of the Secretary of State were heeded by the Congress, and the clause in question has now been written into the statutes of the United States.
"It is, perhaps, needless to state that international discriminations in any form and on any subject, even if based on purely economic reasons, are opposed to the principles of justice and fairness upon which the friendly intercourse between nations must, in its final analysis, depend. To these very principles the 1 Reprinted from the official texts furnished by the State Department.
doctrine of equal opportunity, now widely recognized, with the unfailing support of the United States, owes its being. Still more unwelcome are discriminations based on race. The strong condemnation of such practice evidently inspired the American Government in 1912 in denouncing the Commercial Treaty between the United States and Russia, pursuant to the resolution of the House of Representatives of December 13, 1911, as a protest against the unfair and unequal treatment of aliens of a particular race in Russia. Yet discrimination of a similar character is expressed by the new statute of the United States. The Immigration Act of 1924, considered in the light of the Supreme Court's interpretation of the naturalization laws, clearly establishes the rule that the admissibility of aliens to the United States rests not upon individual merits or qualifications but upon the division of race to which applicants belong. In particular it appears that such racial distinction in the act is directed essentially against Japanese, since persons of other Asiatic races are excluded under separate enactments of prior dates, as is pointed out in the published letter of the Secretary of State of Feb. 8, 1924, to the Chairman of the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the House of Representatives.
“It has been repeatedly asserted in defense of these discriminatory measures in the United States that persons of the Japanese race are not assimilable to American life and ideals. It will, however, be observed, in the first place, that few immigrants of a foreign stock may well be expected to assimilate themselves to their new surroundings within a single generation. The history of Japanese immigration to the United States in any appreciable number dated but from the last few years of the Nineteenth Century. The period of time is too short to permit of any conclusive judgment being passed upon the racial adaptabilities of those immigrants in the matter of assimilation, as compared with alien settlers of the races classed as eligible to American citizenship.
"It should further be remarked that the process of assimilation can thrive only in a genial atmosphere of just and equitable treatment. Its natural growth is bound to be hampered under such a pressure of invidious discriminations as that to which Japanese residents in some States of the American Union have been subjected, at law and in practice for nearly twenty years. It seems hardly fair to complain of the failure of foreign elements to merge in a community while the community chooses to keep