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that they cannot be reported upon in detail. Special publications were prepared by the Division in aid of preparatory work and the Director served as a member of a committee of three entrusted by the Secretary of State with the preparation of special material for the use of the American Delegation to the Peace Conference at Paris. Work was conducted with the authority of the Executive Committee of the Endowment and by means of extra funds placed by it at the disposal of the Director of the Division. The collaboration of a large number of experts in private life was secured to prepare some of the manuscripts, while others were prepared by the Divisional personnel. All of the manuscripts were edited and seen through the press by the Divisional personnel. They were printed as confidential public documents at the Government Printing Office at the expense of the Department of State.

Work of a similar nature for the Department of State was carried out in connection with the Conference on the Limitation of Armaments and Pacific Problems held in Washington (November 11, 1921-February 6, 1922). A series of pamphlets was prepared and issued bearing on the principal problems which were discussed by the Conference. The sum of $30,000 was allotted by the Endowment for this purpose. The contents of these pamphlets are described in detail in the Year Book of the Endowment for 1922, (see pages 136–146), and their titles appear in the list of publications of the Division to be found at the end of this document. In accepting the offer made by the Trustees of cooperation by the Endowment in the work of the Washington Conference, the Secretary of State wrote, August 31, 1921:

"I feel that any such series of publications, prepared along the sound and scholarly lines which have always marked the work of the Endowment, would serve a definite purpose and thus contribute to the greater cause of more friendly international progress towards peace by affording a reliable source of information and instruction to the public and, no doubt, to the members of the Conference, as well. I trust there may prove to be no obstacles to the successful prosecution of such a service, and the Department will gladly render every possible assistance to you in this work."

The proposal to establish the Permanent Court of International Justice was made in May, 1907, by Mr. Root, at that time Secre

tary of State of the United States and later the first President of the Carnegie Endowment, (1911), in his Instructions to the American Delegates to the Second Hague Peace Conference, whereof the chairman was the late Joseph H. Choate, the first Vice-President of the Endowment. It was laid before the conference by Mr. Choate, it was explained and piloted through that body by the then Solicitor of the Department of State, now the Secretary of the Endowment, and the project known as the Convention for the Establishment of a Court of International Justice was largely his draft. This draft convention is, to all intents and purposes, with sundry amendments and additions, the original of the project to which the Assembly of the League of Nations gave its approval on the 13th day of December, 1920.

The establishment of the Court of Arbitral Justice in connection with the Prize Court, which at one time seemed likely to be installed at the Hague was proposed by the late Robert Bacon in 1909, then Secretary of State of the United States and, later, an honored Trustee of the Endowment. At the direction of Philander C. Knox, Mr. Bacon's immediate successor as Secretary of State, the Solicitor for the Department of State, now the Director of the Division of International Law of the Endowment, negotiated an agreement at Paris in March, 1910, by virtue whereof Germany, France, Great Britain and the United States agreed to take the necessary measures to secure the establishment of the Court of Arbitral Justice. The Director secured a unanimous recommendation by the Institute of International Law at its session in Christiania, in 1912, for the creation of the Court of Arbitral Justice proposed by the American Delegation to the Second Hague Peace Conference. In January, 1914, the Director presented a memorandum proposing the constitution of the Court with its seat at the Hague to Mr. Loudon, then Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, who stated that he would transmit the memorandum with the approval of the Netherlands Government and in behalf of the government, request that the Powers mentioned in the memorandum, AustriaHungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States should cooperate with The Netherlands in establishing such an International Court of Justice at the Hague, but in the summer of that year the nations were plunged into what has not improperly been called the World War and had other things than courts to consider.

The Director published the above mentioned memorandum in 1916 under the caption "An International Court of Justice" and at the same time a monograph entitled "The Status of the International Court of Justice" with an appendix of treaties and official documents. Two years later they were translated into French and issued in a single volume.

In 1918, Mr. Lansing, then Secretary of State and Commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States at the Peace Conference, now a Trustee of the Carnegie Endowment, repeatedly urged President Wilson to provide in the Covenant of the League of Nations for an International Court of Justice, but to leave its constitution to experts appointed after the adjournment of the Conference.

The President of the Endowment was a member of the Committee of Jurists invited by the Council of the League of Nations to formulate and submit to the members of the League for adoption, plans for the establishment of a Permanent Court of International Justice. This committee included jurists of the highest repute from twelve different countries.

The Secretary of the Endowment had the honor to accompany the eminent jurist from the United States in an advisory capacity, upon his request and with the concurrence of the Trustees of the Endowment. The Committee met at the Hague and began its labors on June 16, 1920, and adjourned on July 24, 1920, having accepted the method of appointing the judges proposed by Mr. Root and acceptable alike to the so-called great and small powers, thus assuring the ultimate constitution of the Court. The Project was submitted to the Council of the League of Nations on August 27, 1920, and again in October 1920, and was finally adopted by the Assembly of the League on December 13, 1920. Those who are interested in the further details of the development of the Permanent Court of International Justice are asked to consult the Year Books of the Endowment, especially those for 1921 and 1922.

The Director feels that the results of the efforts in behalf of the Permanent Court of International Justice and of the services rendered the Department of State in connection with the Peace Conference at Paris and the Conference upon the Limitation of Armaments at Washington would alone justify the establishment of the Carnegie Endowment and its activities in these first thirteen years of its existence.



The work of this Division was organized at a conference held in Berne, Switzerland, in August 1911, called by the Endowment and under the direction of the Director, Dr. John Bates Clark. The conference was attended by a number of the most distinguished economists and publicists of various European countries, Japan and the United States. The question considered was how best "to promote a thorough and scientific investigation of the causes and results of war" and as a result of the deliberations a plan of investigation was laid out and an extensive list of topics for study was prepared. The aim of these studies was to reveal direct and indirect consequences of warfare and thus to furnish a scientific basis for a judgment as to its validity in international affairs. In dealing with a subject so fraught with ancient prejudice, it was believed that a fundamental service to the cause of peace could be rendered by the objective study of the mere facts of war and of the disturbance caused by it in the ordinary life of nations.

Those who participated in the conference at Berne, with two additional members, united to form a Committee of Research which at once became an integral part of the Division of Economics and History. The function of members of this Committee of Research was to select collaborators competent to conduct investigations and present reports in the form of books or monographs, to consult with these writers as to plans of study, to read the completed manuscripts and to inform the officers of the Endowment whether they merited publication in its series. These publications were not to commit either the members of the Committee of Research or the Endowment as a body or any of its officers to the opinions expressed in them. The standing and attainments of the writers selected afforded a guarantee of thoroughness of research and accuracy in the statement of facts and the character of many of the subjects chosen was such that facts, statistical, historical and descriptive, would constitute nearly the whole content of the works. Neither the Endowment nor its Committee of Research vouches for more than that the works issued by them contain such facts, that their statements concerning

them may generally be trusted and that the works are, in a scientific way, of a quality that entitles them to a reading. In his report of October 26, 1911, Dr. John Bates Clark, at that time Director of the Division of Economics and History, outlined the purpose of this work as follows: "It may be appropriate to say that we are dealing, not with a small issue for a part of the world, but with a vast issue for the whole world: and whatever affects the outcome at all is of enormous importance. It is a greater thing to move the entire earth a microscopic fraction of an inch than to carry a shipload of soil across the widest sea. It will be strange if, as the outcome of what is now initiated, there should not result some perceptible deflection of the movement of human affairs. Whatever change there is will be in the direction of Peace."

Following the work outlined at the Berne conference, the Division had at the end of July, 1914, fifty-four works in preparation, fourteen in hand and two in the hands of the publishers. In certain cases it was intended that a number of these monographs -in one instance as many as eighteen-should be published in a single volume, so that about forty considerable volumes would contain all of them. A second conference of the Committee of Research had been called to meet at Lucerne on August 5, 1914, but only four of the members were able to reach the place of meeting. The scientific study of the effects of former wars upon modern life had suddenly given place to the study of history in the making.

The program prepared by the Committee of Research at Berne in 1911, which dealt with the facts then at hand, had just begun to show the quality of its contributions. Further work upon it in almost all of the European countries had necessarily to be suspended. Owing to lack of means of transportation and other war conditions some of the completed manuscripts failed to reach the Division's office. A certain type of highly useful study lay outside of the sphere to which the Endowment must limit itself if it expected to be considered neutral since a perfectly simple and truthful statement of certain facts became, by implication, a criticism of the conduct of particular nations. Works of that kind which were received were withheld temporarily from publication. It became necessary to add supplementary chapters to a very considerable number of the works already undertaken, some of which had been completed, and these works were also with

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